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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 October 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic :GS-1: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

GS-2: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. What are the basic features of social protest movement? Explain social movements as an expression of protest. (250 words )

Reference: The DiplomatHindustan Times 

Why the question:

The article critically examines how the Centre is misusing institutions to target political opponents and civil society leaders.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is based on the concept of social movement as an expression of protest.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First define what social movements are and in what way they are often expression of protests.

Body:

Social protest is a form of political expression that seeks to bring about social or political change by influencing the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public or the policies of an organization or institution.

Explain the underlying factors responsible for them such as social movements arise because social conditions create dissatisfaction with the existing system. People join specific social movements for variety of reasons including idealism, compassion, altruism, political considerations, practical benefits and religious fervor.

The recent example can be seen in the protest movements that griped the countries like Egypt, Syria etc which led to change in political system.

Take hints from the article and give examples from India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

Introduction:

Social protest is a form of political expression that seeks to bring about social or political change by influencing the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours of the public or the policies of an organization or institution.

Social movement arises when there emerges an issue or a set of issues that affect a significant proportion of people in some way or the other. Gradually, these issues start gaining importance and result in mass participation of people and in collective action.

Body:

Features of Social Protest:

  • The sense of belonging and group consciousness is involved in social movement. Such consciousness can be brought about through active participation of the group members.
  • Social movements lead to creation of entirely new social, economic, and political order.
  • Social movements develop new set of ideas, which become obligatory for the members of the group to adopt and follow.
  • Social movements involve collective action rather than individual action.
  • Social movements may be organized or unorganized.
  • Social movements may be peaceful in nature or they may also turn violent.
  • The aim of a social movement is to bring about or resist social change in the society.
  • The life of the social movement is not certain. This is because it may continue for a long period or it may die out soon.

Social Movements in form of Protest:

  • Protest Based on Scope
  • Movements advocating changing some norms or laws.
    • Examples of such a movement would include a trade union with a goal of increasing workers’ rights, a green movement advocating a set of ecological laws, or a movement supporting introduction of a capital punishment or the right to abortion.
  • movements dedicated to changing value systems in a fundamental way.
    • For Ex: would include the Civil Rights Movement which demanded full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans, regardless of race
  • Protests to bring about End goals:
    • innovation movement – movements which want to introduce or change particular norms, values, The singularitarianism movement advocating deliberate action to effect and ensure the safety of the technological singularity is an example of an innovation movement.
    • conservative movement – movements which want to preserve existing norms, values,
  • Based On Targets of Social Protest
    • group-focus movements – focused on affecting groups or society in general, for example, advocating the change of the political system. Some of these groups transform into or join a political party, but many remain outside the reformist party political system.
    • Individual-focused movements – focused on affecting individuals. Most religious movements would fall under this category.
  • Based On Methods of work:
    • peaceful movements – various movements which use nonviolent means of protest as part of a campaign of nonviolent resistance, also often called civil resistance. The American Civil Rights Movement, Polish Solidarity movement or the nonviolent, civil disobedience-orientated wing of the Indian independence movement would fall into this category.
    • violent movements – various movementswhich resort to violence; they are usually armed and in extreme cases can take a form of a paramilitary or terrorist organization. Examples: Al-Qaida, ISIS.
  • Variants of Protest:
    • old movements – movements for change have existed for many centuries. Most of the oldest recognized movements, dating to late 18th and 19th centuries, fought for specific social groups, such as the working class, peasants, whites, aristocrats, Protestants, men. They were usually centered around some materialistic goals like improving the standard of living or, for example, the political autonomy of the working class.
    • new movements – movements which became dominant from the second half of the 20th century. Notable examples include the American civil rights movement,
    • second-wave feminism, gay rights movement, environmentalism and conservation efforts, opposition to mass surveillance, They are usually centered around issues that go beyond but are not separate from class.
  • Based On scale of Protest:
    • global movements – social movements with global (transnational) objectives and goals. Movements such as the first (where Marx and Bakunin met), second, third and fourth internationals, the World Social Forum, the Peoples’ Global Action and the anarchist movement seek to change society at a global level.
    • local movements – most of the social movements have a local scope. They are focused on local or regional objectives, such as protecting a specific natural area, lobbying for the lowering of tolls in a certain motorway, or preserving a building about to be demolished for gentrification and turning it into a social center.

Conclusion:

Social movements perhaps best shows the relationship between individuals and society. They arise because individuals and social groups seek to change their conditions. Thereby they change both themselves and society.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Discuss the possible constructive role that India can play through an independent foreign policy in evolving a multipolar and just world order. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains how India pursuing an independent foreign policy is not only essential for the country or the South Asian region; it can have a bearing on deprived populations of the world.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the possible constructive role that India can play through an independent foreign policy in evolving a multipolar and just world order.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that what the world needs today is an international order based on the principles of mutual respect, concern and cooperation and public participation.

Body:

Discuss first the need and importance of India pursuing an independent foreign policy.

Explain the key determinants of India’s foreign policy. Discuss the basic objective of the foreign policy of independent India with which it took shape in the initial days.

Discuss the major concerns of India’s foreign policy in the present period and suggest in what way an independent foreign policy can be a game changer. Take cues from the article and explain.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and need for a new and renewed independent foreign policy for the country.

Introduction:

Multilateralism is the process of organizing relations between groups of three or more states. Beyond that basic quantitative aspect, multilateralism is generally considered to comprise certain qualitative elements or principles that shape the character of the arrangement or institution.

The world is going through turmoil. The new world that will emerge will be different from what we have known. This provides India with some unique opportunities, as an emerging global power, India plays a key role in the current multipolar world.

Body:

  • Changing global context
  • China is losing influence and the dynamics in its relations with the United States.
  • Emergence of Asia as the centre of global prosperity.
  • The global governance, economy, scientific research and society are all in need of being re-invented.
  • The Covid Pandemic has brought forth cross domain natured challenges, cross culture challenges as well as cross national challenges.
  • India should use this opportunity to recover our global thought leadership.
  • Misuse of existing International and national laws by several countries to gain an unfair advantage over other countries.
    • For example: Paralysis of the World Trade Organization (WTO), due to the tussle between the developed and developing world.
  • Creation of New Power Asymmetries: Developed nations control supply chain network.
    • China through BRIis enhancing its role in global economic governance.

India’s New Foreign Policy Impacting New World Order:

  • As chair of the Executive Board of the World Health Assembly– India can set the global response in terms of multilateralismnot just medical issues.
  • How can India set a global response in terms of multilateralism? Consider the following- a rare alignment of stars for agenda-setting.
  • In September, the United Nations General Assembly will discuss the theme, “The Future We Want”.
  • In 2021, India joins the UN Security Council (non-permanent seat) and chairs the BRICS Summit in 2021.
  • Also hosts the G-20 in 2022.
  • New principles for international system:At the online summit of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • new globalisation model based on humanity, fairness and equalityhas wide support in a more equal world as, for the first time since 1950, everyone is experiencing the same (virus) threat.
  • It should include in its foldNAM-Plus that resonates with large parts of the world and brings both BRICS and the G7 into the tent.
  • This new multilateralism should rely on outcomes, not rules, ‘security’ downplayed for ‘comparable levels of wellbeing’and a new P-5 that is not based on the G7.

Challenges:

  • Pakistan being one of the important countries in China’s BRI project is a steep strategic challenge for India.
  • India’s troubled relations with Pakistan have meant that the Neighbourhood First policy has yielded few results.
  • China’s strategic and economic presence in South Asia has enabled it to exercise political pressure on its allies. For E.g.: Disputes in South China Sea.
  • Relevance and effectiveness of organizations such as the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • SAARC has also been hampered by poor India-Pakistan relations thereby not being able to function effectively.
  • Growing protectionism in goods and services.
  • Concern over terrorism and radicalisation.

Measures needed:

  • Three principles the new system should be based on-
  • Peaceful coexistence
  • First, the Asian Century should be defined in terms of peaceful co-existence, freezing post-colonial sovereignty.
  • Non-interference in the internal affairs of other nations.
  • Development of technological superiority in artificial intelligence (AI), cyber and space, and agriculture and knowledge based economy for sustainable development.
  • New principles of trade
  • Development of new principles of Trade focussed on Equitable Sustainable Inclusive development.
  • Global public goods should include public health, crop research, renewable energy and batteries, even AI as its value comes from shared data.

Civilisational values

  • Ancient civilisational values provide the conceptual underpinning,restructuring both the economic order and societal behaviour for equitable sustainable development. For E.g.: The concept of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.

Way forward:

  • Development should happen in:
    • India’s participation in multilateral forums,
    • the Neighbourhood First policy and
    • the maritime domain.
  • If India is to shape the world order, it has to come out with its own clearly defined vision and think beyond containment of China and Pakistan.
  • India must deepen its strategic and economic co-operation with all entities and to avoid delays in carrying its commitments.
  • Being in the initial stage the Quad requires more clarity regarding its goals.
  • India can play an important role by transforming Commonwealth organisation.
  • Freedom of navigation and over flight must be respected by all countries and governed by rules-based order.
  • Determination to combat terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
  • India’s foreign policy must serve twin goals of pursuing economic development at home and ensuring peace and stability in its neighbourhood.

Conclusion:

In the new post truth era, which is defined by technology and trade not territory, India should craft a global triumvirate.

Topic GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-4: challenges of corruption.

3. Explain in what way vigilance awareness can be helpful in bringing attitudinal change with respect to corruption in the country. (250 words )

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

The Central Vigilance Commission observes the Vigilance Awareness Week from 27th October to 2nd November, 2020. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way vigilance awareness can be helpful in bringing attitudinal change with respect to corruption in the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining in what way corruption is a major hindrance to the progress of the nation.

Body:

All sections of society need to be vigilant in order to uphold integrity in all aspects of our national life.

This includes improvement of internal processes, time bound disposal of work and systemic improvements leveraging technology.

Discuss the steps of the government taken in this direction. Signify the importance of vigilance in evading away corruption.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of bringing attitudinal change with respect to corruption.

Introduction:

The Integrity Index for public organisations is an initiative of the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC)which will be based on bench marking of governance processes by internal and external stakeholders. The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) wants to bring about a serious ‘attitudinal change’ among government officials to inculcate ethical values.

The CVC has proposed that it should be made mandatory for officers to undergo at least a one-week exposure at the induction stage and then a 2-3-day exposure during the mid-career stage for this attitudinal change towards greater probity and integrity.

Body:

Objective of integrity index:

The main objective is to define what constitutes integrity of public organisations, identify the different factors of integrity and their inter-linkages and to create an objective and reliable tool that can measure the performance of organisations on this benchmark.

Rationale behind the Integrity Index

  • Officials from departments and ministries which are seen as more ‘prone to corruption’ such as banking, major PSUs, railways will be targeted on priority besides public-facing departments
  • problem of ‘generational corruption’ linked with economic offences, money laundering, drugs, terror funding and terrorism. He called for ‘systemic checks’, effective audits and more ‘capacity building and training’.

Vigilance Awareness Promotes Attitudinal Change:

  • Promoting Integrity: Identifying the different factors of Integrity and their inter-linkages
  • Creating Reliability: Creating an objective and reliable tool that can measure the performance of organizations along these above factors
  • Development of Validity: Validating the findings over a period of time to improve upon the robustness of the tool that measures Integrity
  • Creating an internal and external ecosystem that promotes working with Integrity where public organizations lead the way.
  • Integrity of individuals affects the integrity of organisations and vice versa: For Eg: Corrupt police officers make citizens lose trust upon entire police organisation.
  • Organisations should have processes to promote the culture of integrity, checks and balances to minimise the effect of lack of integrity in individuals. For Eg: Role of IAS Officers who transformed loss making PSU into profit making ones through culture of integrity.
  • Organisational culture should discourage deviant behaviour. For Eg: Recent initiative by Government to name and shame police officers who take bribe.
  • improvement of internal processes – promoting internal democracy.
  • time bound disposal of work – For Eg: RTI application resolutions.
  • systemic improvements leveraging technology: For Eg: PRAGATI portal.
  • Promoting Transparency: transparent including payment to outsourced workers, house allotments, updation and digitization of assets including land records, condemnation of old furniture and weeding out old records following prescribed procedures/ extant rules
  • Probitious life of public servants gaining trust of citizens. For Eg: TN Seshan promoting free and fair elections through public and government support.

Conclusion:

Vigilance Awareness has potential to usher good governance and promote accountable administration and enable ease of doing business and promote probity in public life through citizen participation.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. COVID-19 offers India an opportunity to build climate resilience and address gender equality issues. Comment. (250 words )

Reference: The Hindu The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article argues that this scenario offers India an opportunity to build climate resilience and address gender equality issues.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way COVID-19 is an opportunity to build climate resilience and address gender equality issues.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain briefly the impact of covid-19 on climate change and specific impact on women.

Body:

In India, the pandemic has had a differential impact on women. The pandemic resulted in decreased access to contraceptive services and safe abortions. As per a recent modeling study, because of the reduction in coverage of essential services, the prevalence of wasting in children could increase by 10% to 50%, there could also be 60% more maternal deaths. The progress made in maternal mortality, infant mortality, institutional births and replacement level fertility could be reversed. There have been reports of an increase in domestic violence incidents in India. The accessibility of domestic violence-affected women to support systems has also decreased.

Climate change has had a negative impact on humans more so on the vulnerable sections of the society, due to stressed agriculture, food insecurity and shrinking water resources.

The article argues that putting women at the heart of the economic recovery and ensuring an environmentally sustainable approach will make the process faster, just, inclusive and also sustainable.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In the context of climate change, the rising concentration of carbon dioxide and rising global temperature are inextricably linked with each other. As the novel coronavirus, Covid-19, rapidly spreads across the world, health services in many nations are increasingly overwhelmed, while the global economy is falling into an unprecedented recession

Body:

Current context:

  • The International Labour Organization estimates that 400 million people in India are at risk of sinking deeper into poverty due to covid problems and climate change and gender inequalities.
  • pandemic has reinforced the links between health, environment and the economy.
  • There is evidence that air pollution has contributed to higherCovid-19 mortality rates.
  • While deforestationhas increased our exposure to pathogens carried by wildlife, melting ice due to climate change can release undiscovered viruses frozen in the permafrost.
  • The hard paced climate change research has been halted and it might become difficult to restart the conversation around it, even after the pandemic is brought under control.
  • Across societies the impacts of climate change affect women and men differently.
  • Women are often responsible for gathering and producing food, collecting water and sourcing fuel for heating and cooking.
  • With climate change, these tasks are becoming more difficult.
  • Extreme weather events such as droughts and floods have a greater impact on the poor and most vulnerable – 70% of the world’s poor are women.

Role of India in Dealing with Climate Change and Gender Inequalities:

  • India is a global leader in the fight against climate change. In fact, India’s global leadership on climate action predates the adoption of the 2030 development agenda.
  • India’s initiative for Coalition for Disaster Resilient Infrastructure is a model and can help other countries in the development of appropriate infrastructure to face the least developed and developing countries with natural calamities.
  • Buildings contribute 30-40% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Smart Cities Mission focus on sustainability and climate resilience. In 2019, SCM launched the Climate Smart Cities Assessment Framework, a first-of-its-kind public assessment framework on climate-relevant parameters. Thus India teach other countries through formulation of greener policies and projects.
  • India seeks to strike the perfect balance between growth and development. It simultaneously addresses social progress and environmental conservation.
  • Sustainability has always been a core component of Indian culture. Its philosophy and values have underscored a sustainable way of life
  • Countries can learn through various Indian programs like National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC), International Solar Alliance (ISA), FAME Scheme for E-mobility, UJALA scheme etc.
  • India has emerged as a global leader in renewable energy, with investments in renewable energy topping fossil fuel investments. After adopting its National Electricity Plan (NEP) in 2018, India remains on track to overachieve its “2˚C compatible” rated Paris Agreement NDC climate action targets.
  • India’s INDC goals target to achieve 40% non-fossil-based power capacity by 2030 more than a decade earlier than targeted. Given these positive signals, there is significant potential for the incoming government to increase the ambition of India’s NDC to a 1.5˚C compatible rating.
  • India has recently banned complete use of single use plastic in various sectors and industries. This would pave a way not only to tackle air pollution but also would prevent climate change.

Bridging Gender Inequality:

  • Recognising the important contributions of women as decision makers, stakeholders, educators, carersand experts across sectors and at all levels can lead to successful, long-term solutions to climate change.
  • Women have proven to be leading the way towards more equitable and sustainable solutions to climate change.Across sectors, women’s innovations and expertise have transformed lives and livelihoods, and increased climate resilience and overall well-being.
  • Need for gender considerations in climate decision making over the last eight years. Continued progress towards gender equality at COP21 can help achieve successful climate action.
  • Vocational and technical training, life skills and financial literacy programmes for women to help them develop marketable skills and better decision-making abilities in promoting sustainable development
  • Increasing representation of women in the public spheres is important.
  • Female leaders serve as role models and raise educational and career aspirations for adolescent girls and their parents.
  • Attitudinal shift is essential for women to be considered as equal within their homes and in broader society.
  • Educating Indian children from an early age about the importance of gender equality.

Conclusion:

India and the world have a long and challenging way to go in dealing with environmental problems, gender gaps and tackling covid pandemic, and learning to live together in sustainable communities. We need to realize that development is more than economic, and sustainable development is a collective responsibility

 

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Who are climate migrants? Discuss the causative factors that lead to huge number of climate migrants and also propose suitable policies and programmes for their resettlement. (250 words)

Reference: refugeesmigrants.un.org

Why the question:

The article presents to us detailed insights on climate migrants.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of climate migrants, explain the causative factors that lead to huge number of climate migrants and also propose suitable policies and programmes for their resettlement.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define who climate migrants are.

Body:

Climate refugees or climate migrants are a subset of environmental migrants who were forced to flee “due to sudden or gradual alterations in the natural environment related to at least one of three impacts of climate change: sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and drought and water scarcity.

Discuss the reasons that have led to such a crisis.

Propose suitable policies and programmes for their resettlement. Talk about the global compact for migration.

Conclusion:

Conclude with dire need to address the crisis of climate migrants.

Introduction:

Climate refugees or climate migrants are a subset of environmental migrants who were forced to flee “due to sudden or gradual alterations in the natural environment related to at least one of three impacts of climate change: sea-level rise, extreme weather events, and drought and water scarcity.”

Body:

Factors that cause climate migrants:

  • Climate stressors, such as changing rainfall, heavy flooding, and sea level rise, put pressure on people to leave their homes and livelihoods behind. It makes their homes uninhabitable.
  • Countries with a combination of low adaptive capacities, vulnerable geographies and fragile ecosystems.
  • conflict situations, political instability, low levels of economic development and human rights abuses.
  • Lack of effective statistics in measuring climate migrants – due to lack to cognition of intra and inter migrants.

Impacts on Climate Migrants:

  • 52 low-lying vulnerable island nations sustain 62 million people and emit less than 1% of global greenhouse gases (GHGs), yet are among the first victims of climate disruption.
  • High sea levels have already resulted in displacement of people in several small island nations.
  • More people are likely to migrate due to slow-onset processes of environmental degradation such as inundation, desertification, soil erosion and changing coastlines than sudden-onset events like storms and cyclones.

How are the developed countries responding?

  • The international community does not yet realise its responsibility to enable such migration.
  • Australia refused to make any offers when approached similarly.
  • The capital cost of sea level rise in the Caribbean Community countries alone is estimated at $187 billion by 2080.
  • The Pacific Possible programme of the World Bank predicts the cost of adaptation to be $18,500 per person for Marshall Islands and $11,000 for Solomon Islands over a period of 30 years from 2012.
  • Legal analysts are considering the possibility of an international compensation commission which could address the burden of adaptation expenses on the island nations through an international fund.

Possible Solutions:

  • With the policies in force today, GHG emissions are projected to grow by 50% by 2050.
  • Any amount of decrease in GHG emissions cannot save the islands from sinking, but a significant decrease in emissions could delay the island nations from becoming uninhabitable, thereby postponing the burden of accommodating mass migration.
  • While these are broad remedies that the sinking island nations immediately require, they are hardly exhaustive.
  • There is a need for a wide range of varied remedies, mostly adaptive, such as coastal protection, population consolidation, rainwater harvesting and storage, alternative methods of growing fruits and vegetables, human resource development and research and observation.

Way Forward:

  •  reinvigorate political pressure and negotiate globally to arrive at a forum that could deal with the issue.
  • The forum must enable negotiations regarding the legal status of migrants and develop adaptive strategies in the destination country to guarantee and to protect dignity and cultural identity of the displaced in the destination country.
  • The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) obligates countries to provide finance to resist global warming.
  • By extending such existing obligations the forum could ensure compensation to the island nations in the form of contributions from party countries by managing a fund created in this regard.
  • Forum would require a tribunal to assess the case presented by each island nation and to decide whether help from the international community is required.
  • The tribunal could then invoke appropriate measures such as multilateral negotiations or directions that enable migration, compensation and other remedies that could save the people of the sinking small island nations.

Conclusion:

Today, the narrative of climate refugees is not a simple movement of people from low income countries towards high income countries but a complex process that involves many economic and socio-political factors.  As climate change impacts become more and more common globally, the triggers for human populations to move away from the most affected regions will keep on increasing. Studies like the current one will go a long way in understanding and pin pointing the future hot spots for such migration.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity

6. The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ though appear alike, mean different in our society. In this context, compare and contrast these terms in the light of governance structure in India. (250 words)

Reference: governance in India Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question aims to discuss and differentiate the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss and differentiate the terms ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’.

Directive:

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain that the term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ appears to be used interchangeably and are intrinsically interlinked. Yet, each of them signifies different meaning in their own sense.

Body:

Define all the three terms first, clearly and precisely.

Governance is the exercise of economic, political and administrative authority to manage a country’s affairs.

Then move onto explain what good governance implies. Explain how it is different from governance.the word ‘good governance’ implies responsive, accountable, sustainable and efficient administration at all levels. Further, transparency, accountability, rule of law, principle of subsidiarity and citizen first form basics of good governance. For ex.- delivery of services like PDS shall be quick, devoid of middlemen, reach even the most marginalized at minimum cost.

Explain what you understand by ethical governance and give examples to differentiate the three terms.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the need for the Governance to be good as well as ethical.

Introduction:

The term ‘governance’, ‘good governance’ and ‘ethical governance’ appears to be used interchangeably and are intrinsically interlinked. Yet, each of them signify different meaning in their own sense.

Body:

Governance comprises all of the processes of governing – whether undertaken by the government of a state, by a market or by a network – over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.

It relates to “the processes of interaction and decision-making among the actors involved in a collective problem that lead to the creation, reinforcement, or reproduction of social norms and institutions”.  It could be described as the political processes that exist in and between formal institutions.

The World Bank defines governance as the manner in which power is exercised in the management of a country’s economic and social resources for development

According to the United Nations Development Programme, Governance has been defined as the rules of the political system to solve conflicts between actors and adopt decision (legality). It has also been used to describe the “proper functioning of institutions and their acceptance by the public” (legitimacy). And it has been used to invoke the efficacy of government and the achievement of consensus by democratic means (participation)

In this context, 2nd ARC suggested various measures to improve governance, therefore the word ‘good governance’ implies:

  • Responsive, accountable, sustainable and efficient administration at all levels.
  • Further, transparency, accountability, rule of law, principle of subsidiarity and citizen first form basics of good governance.
  • For ex.- delivery of services like PDS shall be quick, devoid of middlemen, reach even the most marginalised at minimum cost.

Components of Good Governance (according to the World Bank):

  • Capacity and efficiency in public sector management
  • Accountability
  • Legal framework for development
  • Information and transparency

Ethical governance meant that the manner in which power is exercised for an organisation by using its resources, including social and economic, is acceptable by all. It could range from personal rights to effective service delivery for all.

Ethical governance is the right and justified conduct of activities of an organization (or government) to serve the larger public interest. Impartiality, accountability, transparency, honesty, integrity, probity, perseverance, truthfulness, citizen centricity, patriotism among other are some of the values which are must for attainment of ethical governance.

Major Features of Ethical Governance:

Participation

  • Good Governance truly promotes inclusive democracy allowing Right to Freedom.
  • Promote Citizen centric governance

Transparency

  • Easy accessible available affordable information
  • Promote accountable government

Rule of Law

  • Rule of law warrants that fair legal frameworks are implemented impartially.
  • It also means protection of human rights.

Responsiveness

  • This implies that processes and institutions should serve all stakeholders within a reasonable time frame.

Consensus oriented

  • Consensus oriented decision-making ensures that even if everyone does not achieve what they want to the fullest, a common minimum can be achieved by everyone which will not be detrimental to anyone.

Accountability

  • Accountability should be there not just for the government, but also for citizens, the private sector, industry, NGOs, and all stakeholders.

Conclusion:

Hence, governance shall be good as well as ethical to promote citizen centric participatory inclusive equitable development among all.

 

Topic :Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. Explain social influence as fundamental feature of communication. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Social influence.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is intended to evaluate the significance of the value of Social influence as fundamental feature of communication.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In a few introductory lines appreciate the need for such values in a public servant.

Body:

Define first – what do you understand by social influence; A change in person’s behaviour, thoughts, feelings and attitudes that results from interaction with another individual in society.

Discuss the types of social influence and explain their importance in communication.

Explain that social influence is ubiquitous in human societies. It takes a wide variety of forms, including obedience, conformity, persuasion, social loafing, social facilitation, deindividuation, observer effect, bystander effect, and peer pressure etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of Social influence in general and specific to public administration.

Introduction:

Social influence is described as the change in person’s behaviour, thoughts, feelings and attitudes that results from interaction with another individual in society. It can be intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the way the changed person perceives themselves in relationship to the influencer. It is different from conformity, power and authority.

Body:

As per Herbert Kelman, there are three broad types of social influence that improve communication:

  • Compliance
    • It happens when people agree with others but do not disclose their opinions.
    • Eg: people’s response to government actions – like following traffic rules only when traffic police are standing.
  • Identification
    • It happens when people get influenced by someone who is liked and respected. E.g. celebrities, etc.
  • Internalisation
    • It happens when a belief or behaviour is completely internalised and agreed to both publically and personally.
    • Eg: when citizens follow the words of Local Leaders.

Other factors impact Social Influence that improve Communication:

Factors affecting social influence are:

  • Charisma

Charisma of a person is the ability to influence people as per one’s own will. People who have beauty, riches, good jobs etc. usually wield greater influence on others than ordinary people. All these things instil undying confidence in a person which boosts self-esteem. This is a vital factor in determining the influence one exerts over others. 

  • Reputation

This involves credibility factor in determining social influence. Credibility comes from many reasons like experience, attractiveness etc.

  • Peer Pressure

In this people tend to do things which they might not be personally interested in, just to maintain positive relationship with other people and even friends.

  • Emotions

Strong emotions have stronger influences over people.

  • Social Trends

They are great carriers of social influence especially when they are creative and non-conforming.

  • Persuasion is symbolic, utilizing words, images, sounds, etc

It involves a deliberate attempt to influence others.

  • Self-persuasion is key. People are not coerced; they are instead free to choose. Coercive techniques are not scientifically proved to be effective.

Conclusion:

Social Influence is an effective technique to influence a person’s principles, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviours. Persuasion is a process that intended at changing a person’s outlook or behaviour toward some event, idea, object, or other person. Systematic persuasion is the process through which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to logic and reason. There are numerous persuasion techniques used in business settings such as low balling, foot in the door, door in the face and others to persuade clients.


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