Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 27 October 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : GS-1: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1. Mental health is one of the most neglected social issues in India. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: ncbi.nlm.nih.govresearchmatters.in

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Mental Health and its status in India.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain in what way mental health is one of the most neglected social issues in the country and suggest solutions to address and handle the concerns posed by it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key statistics portraying the mental health status in our country.

Body:

Explain that mental health is one of the most neglected areas of public health. Close to 1 billion people are living with a mental disorder, 3 million people die every year from the harmful use of alcohol and one person dies every 40 seconds by suicide.

The limited access to quality, affordable mental health care in the world before the pandemic, and particularly in humanitarian emergencies and conflict settings, has been further diminished due to Covid-19 as the pandemic has disrupted health services around the world.

Discuss in what way “mental health” is one of the social issues in the country.

Suggest efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions.

Introduction:

According to the World Health Organization, over 90 million Indians, or 7.5% of the population, suffer from mental health issues. Global Burden of Disease Study 1990–2017. Death of many noted artists in the recent past due to suicides has triggered a much-needed conversation on mental health in India. The pandemic also doesn’t seem to be helping, playing on the minds of lakhs of people and causing stress.

Body:

Status of Mental health in India:

  • According to an estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO), mental illness makes about 15% of the total disease conditions around the world.
  • India has one of the largest populations affected from mental illness.
  • As a result, WHO has labelled India as the world’s ‘most depressing country’.
  • Moreover, between 1990 to 2017, one in seven people from India have suffered from mental illness ranging from depression, anxiety to severe conditions such as schizophrenia.
  • More than 450 million people suffer from mental disorders. According to WHO, by the year 2020, depression will constitute the second largest disease burden worldwide.

Importance of mental health:

  • Emotional and mental health is vital part of our life and impacts our thoughts, behaviours and emotions.
  • Being healthy emotionally can promote productivity and effectiveness in activities like work, school or caregiving.
  • Impacts health of your relationships, and allows us to adapt to changes in our life and cope with adversity.
  • Our mental health also contributes to our decision making process,
  • how we cope with stress and how we relate to others in our lives.
  • The Rising social and economic costs associated with growing burden of mental ill health is prompting discussion.

Stigma of mental illness:

  • Lack of Awareness on Mental Health, have caused spread of invisible disorders in India, when in Europe and US it has reduced to greater extent due to awareness programs.
  • misunderstanding any psychiatric problem or mental health problem as severe mental disorder or lunacy.
  • People with bipolar disorder and schizophreniaare significantly disturbed, danger to self or others, and socially embarrassing. These were referred to as lunatic.
  • Respecting the human rightsof the persons who are living with mental illness is important.

Reasons for degenerating mental health of late:

  • The first and foremost reason for India to lose its mental health is the lack of awareness and sensitivityabout the issue.
  • There is a big stigma around people suffering from any kind of mental health issues.
  • They are often tagged as ‘lunatics’ by the society. This leads to a vicious cycle of shame, suffering and isolation of the patients.
  • According to WHO, in 2011, there were 0·301 psychiatrists and 0·047 psychologists for every 100,000 patients suffering from a mental health disorder in India.
  • Treatment gap:According to estimates nearly 92% of the people who need mental health care and treatment do not have access to any form of mental health care.
  • The economic burden of mental illness contributes significantly to the treatment gap in India. There are both direct (cost of long-term treatment) and indirect costs (the inability of the patient and caregiver to work, social isolation, psychological stress) contribute significantly to the economic burden.
  • Violations of human rightshave been reported in mental asylums and also at homes and places of traditional healing. In India, mental hospitals still practice certain obscure practices that violate human rights. Further poor infrastructure such as closed structures, a lack of maintenance, unclean toilets and sleeping areas etc clearly violate the basic human right to a life with dignity.

Way forward:

  • Stigma and Awareness need to be addressed in parallel in order to tackle the burden of mental illness in India. If individuals continue to view mental illness with apprehension and resistance, it will remain difficult for people with mental health concerns to seek the support they require due to the fear of being labelled or judged.
  • State mental health institutions, general hospitals, private practice, and NGOs can together help achieve the dream of mental health care for all.
  • WHO says if we don’t act urgently, by 2030 depression will be the leading illness globally.

Conclusion:

Mental Illness is real, hard, disabling and needs addressal and treatment. People should seek professional help as soon as the need arises. Early detection and intervention of a psychological condition will allow you to live the life you deserve.

 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

2. Discuss in what way trade monopoly of East India Company was weakened by different Charter Acts passed by the British Parliament. (250 words)

Reference: Modern Indian history by Bipin Chandra

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the implications and intentions with which Charter Acts were passed so as to weaken the Trade monopoly of the East India Company by the British Parliament.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Set the context of the question first by discussing the coming of the East India Company and establishment of its monopoly in India.

Body:

Explain how different charter acts diluted the trade monopoly of EIC; Charter Act of 1793: It gave the East India Company a monopoly to trade with East only for a period of 20 years. The Charter Act of 1813; ended the trade monopoly of East India Company in India. Charter Act of 1833; It ended the monopoly in trade with China and the monopoly to trade in tea in India and so on.

Discuss the overall impact.

Conclusion:

Conclude on how the British policies ultimately diluted the monopoly of the Company.

Introduction:

East India Company’s powers were gradually weakened from 1773 by the introduction of Regulating act of 1773, which finally culminated in Government of India Act 1858.

Body:

Regulating Act of 1773

  • The first step was taken by the British Parliament to control and regulate the affairs of the East India Company in India.
  • It subordinated the Governors of Bombay and Madras to the Governor-General of Bengal.
  • Governor General had to decisions based on advice given by executive council.
  • Court of Directors (the governing body of the company) were made accountable of their revenues.

Pitt’s India Act of 1784

  • Distinguished between commercial and political functions of the company.
  • Court of Directors for Commercial functions and Board of Control for political affairs.
  • Reduced the strength of the Governor General’s council to three members.
  • Placed the Indian affairs under the direct control of the British Government.

Charter Act of 1813

  • The Company’s monopoly over Indian trade terminated except for trade with China and trade in Tea
  • Trade with India open to all British subjects.

Charter Act of 1833

  • This was the final step towards centralization in British India.
  • Beginning of a Central legislature for India as the act also took away legislative powers of Bombay and Madras provinces.
  • The Act ended the activities of the East India Company as a commercial body and it became a purely administrative body.

Charter Act of 1853

  • The legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s Council were separated.
  • It introduced a system of open competition as the basis for the recruitment of civil servants of the Company (Indian Civil Service opened for all), which earlier was enjoyed only British subjects.

Government of India Act of 1858

  • The rule of Company was replaced by the rule of the Crown in India.
  • The powers of the British Crown were to be exercised by the Secretary of State for India.

Conclusion:

Thus process of regulation and facilitation of East India Company’s trade and administration which started in 1773 led to their complete replacement in 1858.

 

Topic : Social empowerment

3.Deliberate on the archaic, gendered constructs and divisions present even today in our country and their deep but differential impacts on women and men with suitable illustrations. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The editorial very well brings to us the Gender disparities prevalent in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the factors responsible for the gender disparities in the country.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that Indian women have been shouldering a debilitating burden of unpaid household and care work for ages and it’s no different even today.

Body:

Start discussing about what Unpaid labour is. Its connection with Indian women household.

Explain in what way the gender gap in time spent is larger in domestic maintenance than employment related activities.

Take hints from the article and present the underlying causative factors that have led to such gender disparities.

Suggest what needs to be done. Discuss the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals wholly or partly due to their gender. It arises from differences in socially constructed gender. According to the Global Gender Gap Report released by the World Economic Forum (WEF) in 2011, India was ranked 113 on the Gender Gap Index (GGI) among 135 countries polled.

Body:

Situation in India:

  • India also scored poorly on overall female to male literacy and health rankings.
  • UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index-2014: India’s ranking is 127 out of 152 countries in the List. This ranking is only above Afghanistan as far as SAARC countries are concerned
  • World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Index- 2014: India’s ranks at 114 in the list of 142 countries of the world. This Index examines gender gap in four major areas:
  • Economic participation and opportunity: 134th
  • Educational achievements: 126th
  • Health and Life expectancy: 141st
  • Political empowerment: 15th

Dimensions of Gender Inequality:

Economic Inequality:

  • Globally, the value of women’s unpaid work performed is three times higher than that of men, whereas in the Asia-Pacific region, it is four times higher.
  • Women often lack access to the financing needed to start or expand a business.
  • Unconscious bias in the workplace like Glass Ceiling Effect.
  • Though they comprise almost 40 percent of agricultural labour, they control only 9 percent of land.
  • More than 50 percent of women have no valuable assets to their name.
  • India has a lower share of women’s contribution to the GDP than the global average.

Social Inequality:

  • Dual role conflict in managing household chores and work.
  • Literacy Gap in women as compared to Men.
  • 65% women are literate as compared to 82% Men.

Degraded health status of women:

  • with invisible sex selective abortions being carried on causing skewed sex ratio.
  • Immunisation rate although is 62%, it leaves out most vulnerable sections of society.
  • More than 50% of women of reproductive age are anaemic.

Feminisation of Poverty.

Political Inequality:

  • Only 14 % of women are representatives in Parliament

Physical and Cultural Inequality of Women:

  • Women face great physical insecurity.
  • Crimes against women such as rapes, dowry deaths, and honour killings.
  • A culturally ingrained parental preference for sons — emanating from their importance as caregivers for parents in old age.

Patriarchal mind-set:

  • Patriarchy is a social system of privilege in which men are the primary authority figures, occupying roles of political leadership, moral authority, control of prosperity and authority over women and children.
  • Cultural institutions in India, particularly those of patrilineality (inheritance through male descendants) and patrilocality (married couples living with or near the husband’s parents), play a crucial role in perpetuating gender inequality.

Legal and constitutional safeguards against gender inequality:

Constitutional safeguards:

  • Indian Constitution provides for positive efforts to eliminate gender inequality.
  • The Preambleto the Constitution talks about goals of achieving social, economic and political justice to everyone and to provide equality of status and of opportunity to all its citizens.
  • Article 15of the Constitution provides for prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex also apart from other grounds such as religion, race, caste or place of birth.
  • Article 15(3)authorizes the Sate to make any special provision for women and children.
  • The Directive Principles of State Policyalso provides various provisions which are for the benefit of women and provides safeguards against discrimination.

Legal safeguards:

Various protective Legislations have also been passed by the Parliament to eliminate exploitation of women and to give them equal status in society.

  • The Sati (Prevention) Act, 1987was enacted to abolish and make punishable the inhuman custom of Sati.
  • The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961to eliminate the practice of dowry.
  • The Special Marriage Act, 1954to give rightful status to married couples who marry inter-caste or inter-religion.
  • Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse) Bill(introduced in Parliament in 1991, passed in 1994 to stop female infanticide and many more such Acts.
  • Section 304-Bwas added to the Indian Penal Code, 1860 to make dowry-death or bride-burning a specific offence punishable with maximum punishment of life imprisonment.

Challenges:

  • Stereotypical thinking and Patriarchal mind-set is the biggest challenge.
  • Declining child sex ratio (CSR), the practice of gender-biased sex selection, and child marriage.
  • Domestic violence against women is also high.
  • Women being exposed to violence by their partners.
  • Judicial remedies or police reforms, though absolutely necessary, are mostly curative, rather than being preventive.
  • Benefits like maternity leave or related facilities will not be accessible to her in the informal sector.

What can be done to improve gender inequality in India?

  • Apart from providing education to women, they need to be provided with all kinds of opportunities and skills without any discrimination or stereotyping.
    • For Eg : Women Entrepreneurship Platform by NITI AAYOG.
  • The health and safety of women should be given priority to enable them to participate in public life efficiently.
    • For Eg : Janani Suraksha Yojana, Maatru Vandana Yojana.
  • The disparity in pay structure for women for same work and skill set needs to be closed at all levels.
    • For Eg : Effective implementation of Equal Remunerations Act.
  • Women should be given the right to decide the size of their family i.e. number of and spacing between children. Further, all women need to be made aware about contraception.
    • For Eg : Effective Property rights implementation.
  • Supportfrom the society, family and corporate is required to create a soothing working environment for a woman.
  • A working couple needs to spend part of their income on domestic arrangements; otherwise the woman will get marginalized.
  • The family of a woman needs to understand that she is pursuing a particular job as her passion, not just to earn some income.
  • Also, life of the child needs to be planned by couple in advance so that s/he does not suffer.
  • Now-a-days, companies do not want to lose their efficient employees. They are generally ready to provide much necessary break (maternity leave) to women.
  • Countries need to work with society and its adolescent population to identify gaps which are limiting women’s access in any field and should try to bridge those gaps.
  • Evidence shows that women make better decisions. Therefore, their participation in top decision making bodies at corporate as well as at democratic level needs to be boosted.

Conclusion:

For India to maintain its position as a global growth leader, more concerted efforts at local and national levels and by the private sector are needed to bring women to parity with men. Increasing the representation of women in the public spheres is important and can potentially be attained through some form of affirmative action, an attitudinal shift is essential for women to be considered as equal within their homes and in broader society. Indian government has “prioritised” women’s issues in its policies and programmes but there is need for greater momentum.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

GS-3: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

4. Deliberate on the role of knowledge creation, innovation and human development in growth. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The article explains in what way knowledge impacts society.

Key Demand of the question:

One must deliberate on the role of knowledge creation, innovation and human development in growth.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by appreciating the fact that the differences in levels of prosperity across nations depend on the amount of knowledge that society holds.

Body:

Explain first the fact that national prosperity is always created, and rarely is inherited. It grows out of the quality of education the country adopts. It grows out of the labour pool, transparency in administration and its currency’s value.

With relevant examples and case studies explain the role of knowledge creation, innovation and human development in growth.

For instance present the case of education in Singapore and its contributions to its growth.

Briefly talk about the concept of ‘knowledge society’.

Conclusion:

Conclude by stating how a knowledge society values and acknowledges the impactful role and contribution of knowledge in pursuit of socio-economic development.

Introduction:

India continues to remain one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Despite recent slowdown, India’s growth of real GDP has been high with average growth of 7.5% in the last 5 years as per Economic Survey 2018-19.

Yet, there are structural problems like non-inclusive growth, jobless growth, inadequate spending on social infrastructure and unsustainable development. Economic growth should be in consonance with other major developmental goals like improvement in education, health, effective technological expansion in productive employment for all and environmentally sustainable development.

Body:

Need for Knowledge Economy:

  • knowledge based economies use ICT, innovation and research, higher education and specialised skills to create, disseminate, and apply knowledge for growth.

 

  • Today, knowledge-intensive and high-technology industries contribute the most to long-term growth.
  • S. accounts for 33% of global output of knowledge-intensive services, China 10%, but India only 2%.
  • A shift to innovation-based growth would help avoid the middle-income trap and also address rising income inequalities
  • To boost agriculture productivity and providing technology for the aid of farmers
  • For production of high quality goods at low cost for boosting exports.

Potential of Human Capital:

Human Capital is a measure of the skills, education, capacity and attributes of labour which influence their productive capacity and earning potential. Investment in human capital is needed for technological growth, improving productivity, creating social innovations. Human capital determines the rate of development, economic, technological and scientific progress.

Impact of Knowledge creation and Human Development lead to:

  • Inventions, Innovations and Technological Improvement
    • It will lead to more innovations in the areas of production and related activities.
    • Innovation leads to more growth.
    • It also creates the ability to absorb new technologies.
  • Raises Production
    • Human capital formation raises production levels and leads to economic growth by adding to GDP.
    • Knowledgeable and skilled workers can make better use of resources at their disposal.
  • High Rate of Participation and Equality
    • By improving productive measures of the labour force, human capital formation increases excellent employment.
    • This leads to a high rate of participation in the labour force.
  • Improves the Quality of life
    • Income and health depend upon the level of education, skill formation, etc.
    • Human capital formation increases these skills and improves the quality of life of masses.

Concerns / Challenges:

Knowledge Creation:

  • Collaboration between academic researchers, industry and government is weak in India.
  • Low funding to research as percentage of GDP, with very few Indians taking to formal learning and research.
  • New technologies like robotics, and increasing stress on resources like energy and water, are emerging as threats.
  • High percentage of illiteracy and informal economy in India makes large population to be left out in reaping the benefits of Knowledge based Economy.
  • Lack of Innovation and Research and Development in India.

Human Capital Formation:

  • Exponential rise of Population – Affecting resource distribution and degrades the per capita availability of the present facility. A large population involves extra investments.
  • human development is a long term process because skill enhancement requires extra time.
  • Gender Inequality and High Regional Disparity
  • High Poverty Level:In India, a large portion of the population is below the poverty line. Therefore, they do not have easy access to primary health and education.

Way Forward:

  • Investment in SHE (Skill, Education and Health):There is a need to increase government spending in these areas to create a healthier, smarter and competitive workforce.
  • Industrial training:Incentives should be provided to job creating sectors like IT, BPOs, diamond, textiles industry, leather industry, etc for on the job training and skilling of workers.
  • Use of technology:With rising internet penetration, government should collaborate with industry leaders to create online tutorials in local regional languages to impart knowledge and skills to all.
  • Reviving agriculture sector:Rural youth should be promoted to adapt to new methodologies of farming which are in high demand. For ex: organic farming, aquaponics, drip irrigation techniques, etc.
  • Promoting labour-intensive sectorssuch as gems and jewellery, textiles and garments and leather goods.
  • Investment in infrastructure:Good transport, communication, availability of mobile phones and the internet are very important for the development of human capital in any developing economy.

Conclusion:

By increased investment in human capital formation, and investing in Knowledge economy we can reap the benefits of our demographic dividend. Human capital along with innovation is an important asset for the economy as it boosts domestic demand and consumption spending. Hence, investing in knowledge creation, innovation and human capital formation is critical for achieving the goal of $5 trillion economy.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. “Execution shortfalls in the EIA Rules 2006 have led to hefty burden of litigations, delayed completion of projects and financial losses for the project advocates in our country.” Discuss with pertinent examples. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the case of Kaleshwaram project and related green clearance and associated violation of laws.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the implementation issues associated with the EIA rules 2006 and its impact on various fronts.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what the EIA rules 2006 are.

Body:

Start with the definition of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA); it is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.

Take the case of Kaleshwaram project and explain in what way the project is a classic example of violation of Green laws.

Discuss how it impacts by burdening the courts, leads to incomplete projects or their delayed implementation etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting the need to come up with a more stricter framework that ensures better and strict implementation of EIA rules in the country.

Introduction:

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse. Environment Impact Assessment in India is statutorily backed by the Environment Protection Act, 1986 which contains various provisions on EIA methodology and process.

Body:

The government has come up with Draft Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2020, which seems to dilute 2006 notification.

Features of this new draft notification are:

  • The draft proposes is the provision that projects can receive clearances post facto.
  • Public consultation that formed a crucial part of the EIA process has been diluted considerably.
  • Eg: public hearings on individual environment impact assessments from 30 to 20 days.
  • The 2020 draft says no information on “such projects shall be placed in the public domain”.
  • exemption of long list of projects from public consultation. Ex: linear projects such as roads and pipelines in border areas will not require any public hearing
  • All inland waterways projects and expansion/widening of national highways will be exempt from clearance
  • The 2020 draft also exempts most building construction projects of built-up area up to 1,50,000 sq. m

Criticisms of the draft that leads to Delay in Litigation process:

Retrospective Approval

  • clearances for projects can be awarded even if they have started construction or have been running phase without securing environmental clearances.
  • This also means that any environmental damage caused by the project is likely to be waived off as the violations get legitimised.
  • As the only remedy would be to impose a fine or punishment; but that would not reverse the detrimental consequences on the environment.
  • Post facto approval is the derogation of the fundamental principles of environmental jurisprudence and violation of the“precautionary principle,” which is a principle of environmental sustainability.
  • In 2017, post-facto clearance given to projects in Tamil Nadu was struck down by the Madras high court.

Public Consultation Process

  • The draft notification provides for a reduction of the time period from 30 days to 20 days for the public to submit their responses during a public hearing for any application seeking environmental clearance.
  • The danger is that if adequate time is not given for the preparation of views, such public hearings then would not be meaningful.
  • Unless a public hearing is meaningful, the whole EIA process would lack transparency and credibility.
  • the reduction of time would particularly pose a problem in those areas where information is not easily accessible or areas in which people are not that well aware of the process itself.

Compliance Issue

  • The 2006 notification required that the project proponent submit a report every six months, showing that they are carrying out their activities as per the terms on which permission has been given.
  • However, the new draft requires the promoter to submit a report only once every year.
  • During this period, certain irreversible environmental, social or health consequences of the project could go unnoticed.
  • For example, if a diversion of forest project is being carried out at someplace which can be potentially hazardous to the nearby population and can contaminate the air, and water nearby, a half-yearly compliance report would better help in addressing these concerns.

Diversion from EIA Process

  • the central government gets the power to categorise projects as “strategic.”
  • Once a project is considered as strategic, the draft notification states that no information related to such projects shall be placed in the public domain.
  • Violations can only be reported suo motu by the project proponent, or by a government authority, appraisal committee, or regulatory authority. This is against the principles of natural justice.
  • It states that the new construction projects up to 1,50,000 square metres do not need “detailed scrutiny” by the Expert Committee, nor do they need EIA studies and public consultation.
  • All these features inevidently cause delay in litigation process.

Way forward:

  • Need for broad based consultations with the civil society.
  • Also, an independent committee should be setup to consider the feedback received from public.
  • Instead of reducing the time for public consultation, need for focus on ensuring access to information as well as awareness about the public hearing.
  • In order to improve ease of doing business, need for bringing down the average delay of 238 days in granting environmental clearance, that emanates from bureaucratic delays and complex laws.

Conclusion:

Diluting the public hearing process and placing increasing number of projects in categories that require no environment clearances, impinges on the idea of democratic participation. This will have a serious effect in protecting and improving the quality of the environment in the country and also will be in clear violation of constitutional mandate under Article 48A which is to protect and improve the environment.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Ethics in professional life is the function of ethics in personal life. Do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question hints at the correlation of ethics in personal life and that of professional life.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain with relevant illustrations how ethics in professional life is the function of ethics in personal life.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by Ethics. Ethics is a system of principles that helps us tell right from wrong, good from bad.

Body:

Good Ethics is a fundamental requirement of any profession. It is integral to the success of the business as well. Ethics is a system of moral principles governing the appropriate conduct of a person or a group. Maintaining good ethics is being consistent with the principles of correct moral conduct constantly.

Explain as said by Albert Schweitzer says, “Ethics is the activity of man directed to secure the inner perfection of his own personality”.

Give examples to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Personal ethics refers to the ethics that a person identifies with in respect to people and situations that they deal with in everyday life. Professional ethics refers to the ethics that a person must adhere to in respect of their interactions and business dealings in their professional life.

Good Ethics is a fundamental requirement of any profession. It is integral to the success of the business as well. Ethics is a system of moral principles governing the appropriate conduct of a person or a group. Maintaining good ethics is being consistent with the principles of correct moral conduct constantly. Good ethics is good business, as it not leads to run the business successfully, but it also provides many ways for growth and development by leaving a good impression about an organization in the market.

Body:

An organization strives continually to be in pursuit of its goals while benefiting the employees in building up their high competencies. In this direction, the adherence to high ethical standards of the employees can be very much contributory to the impressive achievements of business goals being turned out as planned and intended.

Professional Ethics is function of ethics in Personal Life:

  • The sense of right and wrong in carrying personal activities influences sense of right and wrong in professional sphere.
    • Eg : Lal Bahadur Shastri’s integrity in taking up responsibility of train accident.
  • The way we conduct ourselves in personal life would reflect in professional spheres.
    • Eg : The discipline which we carry in personal life reflects in professional life.
  • Degree of honesty and integrity would be proportional to professional honesty and probity.
    • Eg : Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam, was honest and integral in personal life that developed his probity.
  • In resolving conflicts of interest: The way we resolve conflict in personal sphere keeps conflict of interest in professional sphere, at bay.
    • Eg : The Emotional intelligence required to solve personal issues help in resolving professional issues.
  • Act with good faith and independent judgment. Not allowing self-interest or other factors to sway your recommendations.
    • The ability of taking impartial decisions in personal sphere motivates one to be impartial in deciding in professional sphere.
  • Exercising of privacy, in personal life influences in development of skill of maintaining confidentiality in professional sphere.
  • Maintaining an internal controls system to guard against unethical behavior in professional sphere is regulated by the value of self-control one practices in personal space.
    • Eg : The skill of effective speaking that promotes social competence in professional sphere in influenced by the self-control while talking in personal sphere.

Conclusion:

Maintaining ethical standards is must for the prosperity of an organization as well as the development of one’s personality. Good ethics will lead us to maintain our honest image. It will enable us to refrain from such activities that may discredit to our profession. Thus, adhesion to good ethics is to let our conscience be our guide at all times. Albert Schweitzer says, “Ethics is the activity of man directed to secure the inner perfection of his own personality.”

 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Discuss the issue of media trial in India while bringing out the importance of corporate ethics. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the case of Media trials in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the issue of media trial in India while bringing out the importance of corporate ethics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Media trials are.

Body:

In the answer body explain what corporate ethics are; Business ethics (also corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations.

Explain that the impact of television and newspaper coverage on us has been tremendous, no doubt and hence no reasoning is being given. Thus trials undertaken virtually by these forms of media also have become very effective and dominant in India, since the last decade.

Quote examples from the article.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue and emphasize on the importance of corporate ethics in general.

Introduction:

Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations. Trial by media may defined as a process in which media investigate any legal case by its own way and put their verdict among society before or after the court verdict.

Body:

Issues relating to Trial by Media:

  • Trust of Citizens being misused by Media: people trust on media blindly, people accept and assume true whatever the media says. This fact is often abused by media.
    • For E.g.: Recent reaction of Bombay High Court to the media’s reportage in the case of actor Sushant Singh Rajput’s death, instructing media to stay in limits.
  • Compromised Integrity of Media: Superficially it seems Media provides a platform for anyone to express their thoughts, but the same information is used to create biased perceptions among masses
    • For Eg: essence of writing “Clickbait Headlines” is rooted in sensationalization of news.
  • Media takes their Freedom in wrong way: media should be independent by government or any political power, but sometime media take their independency in a wrong way.
    • For Eg: Supreme Court’s barring of Sudarshan News from telecasting a controversial programme on the entry of Muslims into the country’s civil services, named “UPSC Jihad”.
  • Media Verdict violates Rule of Law: verdict of media on any legal case before the court verdict is the contempt of the court, because verdict of media before court verdict is not correct. Media has no right to say anything about court verdict, so media should understand it and do their work properly in society.
    • For Eg: Media reporting of murder of Aarushi Talwar, when it pre-empted the court and reported that her own father Dr. Rajesh Talwar, and possibly her mother Nupur Talwar were involved in her murder, misguided the investigation process.
  • Media incarnation into Janata Adalat violates values of Ethical Public sentiments: It completely overlooks the vital gap between an accused and a convict keeping at stake the golden principles of ‘presumption of innocence until proven guilty’ and ‘guilt beyond reasonable doubt’.
  • Sensationalised Media Investigation affects value of Professionalism: Media itself does a separate investigation, builds a public opinion against the accused even before the court takes cognizance of the case.
  • This prejudices the public and sometimes even judges and as a result the accused, that should be assumed innocent, is presumed as a criminal leaving all his rights and liberty unrepressed.
  • This leads to undue interference with the “administration of justice.
  • Promotion of Fake Trials Promotes Irresponsible Leadership: For selfish interests, media do their work under political power to promote biased trials
    • For Eg: Extortion of money to protect the reputation of Jindal Brothers in Jindal Coalgate scam by zee news by spreading of fake news.

However, Media’s trial is not always wrong but many times their trials appreciated, for example the media trial on 2002 ‘Gujarat Riots’ was really appreciated. The trail of media helped the police to caught the real accused persons like ‘Bajrangi’ who was the one of the accused person, this was even considered by the supreme court during its verdict.

Conclusion:

Media’s trial is true if it is done by honest feeling otherwise it is false. No doubt that media is an integral part of a democratic county but media should work independently of selfish interests, political biases, greediness to improve TRPs, in essence media trial should not violate corporate ethics.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos