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[Insights Secure STHIR– 2021] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Types of Condensation, Precipitation-Forms & Types, Distribution of rainfall, Air Masses and Fronts, Cyclones and anti-cyclones, World Climatic regions

1. Explain the features of tropical cyclones. While mentioning the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclone differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones. (250 words)

Reference:  Certificate Physical And Human Geography by G C Leong

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part geography.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss in detail the tropical cyclones as a concept, their features and the factors contributing in formation of tropical cyclones and differentiate them from extra-tropical cyclones.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the basic definition; Cyclone is an intense vortex or a whirl in the atmosphere with very strong winds circulating around it in anti-clockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. 

Body:

The answer body must have the following aspects covered:

  • Features of tropical cyclone
  • Factors contributing in formation of cyclones
  • Difference between tropical and extra tropical cyclones

Substantiate the above aspects with relevant diagrammatic demonstrations and give recent examples of cyclonic activities; one can as well add a case study from India.

Discuss the applied aspects, the havoc they create to human life and nature and press on need to mitigate the same.

Conclusion:

Thus, as cyclones carries destructive force there is a need for timely dissemination of warning and increasing preparedness of disaster management authorities.

 

Topic : Types of Condensation, Precipitation-Forms & Types, Distribution of rainfall, Air Masses and Fronts, Cyclones and anti-cyclones, World Climatic regions

2. What are Air masses? Discuss their classification and thus their influence on the World Weather. (250 words)

Reference: Certificate Physical And Human Geography by G C Leong

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , part geography.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must detail upon the concept of Air masses, their classification and their influence on the World Weather.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what air masses are; the air with distinctive characteristics in terms of temperature and humidity is called an air mass. It is a large body of air having little horizontal variation in temperature and moisture.

Body:

The answer is pretty much straight forward and must cover the following dimensions –

  • Chief characteristics of Air masses
  • Classification of Air Masses – various types, their characteristics
  • Influence of Air Masses on World Weather

Substantiate the above aspects with relevant diagrammatic demonstrations and explain their influence on World weather with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such a concept as a key deciding factor in carving the weather system of the World.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

3. India has invested significantly in monitoring air pollution, however, it is important to move ahead in the direction of finding context-specific solutions to solve the problem, Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains to us as to how monitoring air pollution alone isn’t enough; India needs context-specific solutions to tackle the problem.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain why monitoring air pollution alone isn’t enough; and that India needs context-specific solutions to tackle the problem in detail with suitable arguments.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key fact setting the context of the question, say; According to the 2019 World Air Quality Report released by the pollution tracker IQAir and Greenpeace, India accounts for two-thirds of the world’s most polluted cities — 21 of the most polluted 30 cities.

Body:

Discuss first the optimistic picture, India’s progress in tackling air pollution deserves praise, this progress starts from identifying the perils of air pollution and taking measures to tackle it. Air pollution for long was not considered a health hazard and this has changed.

Then move onto explain the public policies in this direction. Discuss the positives and negatives associated with it.

Suggest solutions to address the issue at hand – discuss the dimensions of research and development, leveraging technology etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that there needs to be a shift in approach when it comes to tackling air pollution, there is a need to come up with situation-specific solutions to tackle air pollution.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: GS-1: Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. The Himalayas are the primary drivers of the Asian climate”. In this context discuss the measures to be taken to mitigate the negative impact of development activities in the region. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The editorial brings to us in detail the insights of how by planning hydropower projects, India and China are placing the region at great risk.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to discuss the relevance and importance of Himalayan system as a key driver of the Asian climate and present measures to be taken to mitigate the negative impact of development activities in the region.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the fact the China’s major hydropower project as a part of its 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-25), on the Yarlung Zangbo River, in Mêdog County in Tibet.

Body:

Explain first the statement – “Himalayas are the primary drivers of the Asian climate”. Substantiate it with suitable examples and illustrations in the first half of the question.

Discuss what are the issues of concern owing to the developmental activities in the region. Present each of the issue and its impact.

Explain how developmental activities disturb both physiography and the demographic parameters of the region.

Give suggestions and solutions to address the problems.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic : Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Awareness in the fields of IT

5. Examine the role of 5g mobile technology in empowerment of people in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us importance of 5g mobile technology in the Indian context.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the role of 5g mobile technology in empowerment of people in India.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with a fact like  – India’s National Digital Communications Policy 2018 highlights the importance of 5G when it states that the convergence of a cluster of revolutionary technologies including 5G, the cloud, Internet of Things (IoT) and data analytics, along with a growing start-up community, promise to accelerate and deepen its digital engagement, opening up a new horizon of opportunities.

Body:

Briefly first discuss the concept of 5G.

Explain that in the case of India, 5G networks could improve the accessibility of services such as mobile banking and healthcare, and enable exponential growth in opportunities for unemployed or underemployed people to engage in fulfilling and productive work.

Discuss briefly the vision of India with respect to 5G technology. Explain the hurdles before India in realizing the full potential of 5G technology.

Conclusion:

Conclude by throwing light on what aspects India need to focus to ensure full benefit of 5G technology in India.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. Adhering to high standards of transparency is often in conflict with the duty towards maintaining confidentiality.  With examples, Deliberate on the problems faced by public servants in effective discharge of duties during such situations. (250 words)

Reference: oecd.org

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of managing Conflict of Interest in the Public Service with respect to adherence of transparency as one of the high standards.

Key Demand of the question: 

Explain in what way adhering to high standards of transparency is often in conflict with the duty towards maintaining confidentiality.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what transparency is and its importance.

Body:

Discuss how adhering to high standards of transparency is often in conflict with the duty towards maintaining confidentiality, one has to quote relevant examples from day to day life to substantiate this fact.

Explain how it often conflicts with confidentiality of the public servants.

Deliberate on the problems faced by public servants in effective discharge of duties during such situations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions.

 

Topic : Citizen’s Charter

7. “Good Governance is the Technology, Citizen’s Charter is the Tool” Elucidate the Indian experience of citizen’s charter in the context of the above statement.(250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications  

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of Citizen’s charter and its importance and Indian experience.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain the statement in question and elucidate the Indian experience of citizen’s charter.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what good governance is and citizen’s charter implies.

Body:

Citizens’ Charters initiative is a response to the quest for solving the problems which a citizen encounters, day in and day out, while dealing with the organisations providing public services.

Explain how it has been recognized the world over that good governance is essential for sustainable development, both economic and social. The three essential aspects emphasized in good governance are transparency, accountability and responsiveness of the administration. The “Citizen’s Charters initiative” is a response to the quest for solving the problems which a citizen encounters, day in and day out, while dealing with organisations providing public services.

Discuss how the basic objective of the Citizen’s Charter is to empower the citizen in relation to public service delivery.

Present the case of India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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