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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 November 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. What is Germany’s new boardroom quota for women? Can it be viewed as the next step in narrowing the gap of sexual inequality in the country? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Germany’s coalition government has agreed to a mandatory quota for women on the boards of listed companies in what’s being hailed as a landmark moment for Europe’s biggest economy.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the significance of Germany’s new boardroom quota for women and explain in what way it can be viewed as the next step in narrowing the gap of sexual inequality in the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief about the recent move made by the government of Germany. Germany is planning to impose a mandatory quota for the number of women working in senior management positions in the country’s listed firms.

Body:

First explain the plan mooted by the government of Germany.

 Since 2015, Germany, which is Europe’s biggest economy, has had a voluntary quota of 30 per cent for women on supervisory boards.

Present statistics across the world and also have a Indian dimension and discuss the need to adopt such a move in our country too.

Discuss how this helps improve the proportion of senior executive positions held by women.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such a move.

Introduction:

Germany is planning to impose a mandatory quota for women in senior management position to curb sexual inequality in the country’s listed firms. This historic move can be a next step in narrowing the gap of gender inequality in the country.

Body:

Provisions of the Boardroom Quota:

  • If there are more than three persons in the executive board of listed company, one must be a woman.
  • Company with federal government has stake will have 30% quota for women in supervisory boards.

Need for Quota:

  • 115 of country’s major publicly company do not have a single woman in their board.
  • Germany’s Europe’s biggest economy had voluntary quota for 33% women in advisory boards but it did little to improve proportion of women in senior management position.
  • Only 12.8% of women in management board of German companies listed Dax Index.
  • Since law came in 2015, proportion of women rose to 32% from 25% in supervisory boards but there are only 7.7% women in management board in 2017 financial year.

Boardroom Quota as a next Step:

  • Affirmative action – Breaking away from gender glass ceiling and gender ghettoization of labour.
  • Gender sensitisation in actions of Board – Spill over effect in other dimensions. Women seen in decision making roles inspires more men and women to break away from social constraints.
  • Social equity and social justice – Human rights upholding women as equal in opportunities as well as social hierarchy.
  • Mixed Team: This will provide mixed team of men and women and it will enhance the chance of new and innovative ideas.
  • Equal chance: This will provide female an equal chance to represent them at highest position.
  • Progress of society: Equality leads to progress of society as well as nation. It will help in increasing Country’s GDP.
  • Sustainable modern society: Equality of opportunity leads to sustainability as well as peaceful society.
  • Greater representation of women could bring in heterogeneity in values, beliefs, and attitudes, which would broaden the range of perspectives in the decision making process (OECD, 2012) and stimulate critical thinking and creativity.
  • With the rise of women in the labor force, increasing their representation in senior positions would mitigate gender differences between managers and subordinates, which could enhance workers’ productivity.
  • The impact of gender diversity in the boardroom on firm performance is inconclusive. Influential work by McKinsey (2007) and Catalyst (2007) documented a strong positive association between the representation of women on the boards of Fortune 500 companies and corporate performance. Other studies have also linked more women in senior management and in the board room to better financial outcomes and governance of listed firms.
  • Geographic mobility is possible when women enter into the board which destroys social patriarchy.
  • The protection for sexual harassment can be taken.
  • Women can put forward paternity leave for men so children will get all round care. This breaks the social norms.

Indian Context:

  • Under Section 149(1) of the companies Act, 2013 a company has to include at least one women director which is a listed company with a paid up capital of 100 crores and turnover of 300crores.
  • Narrowing the economic gender gap (According to Global Gender Index,2019 India is only country where Economic gap is wider than Political gap.)
  • While Home Care is highly unaccounted contribution of women to GDP, a formal recruitment is recorded. According to UNDP, India could boost its GDP by 47% if it leverages on women labour potential.
  • According to World’s Economic Forum report ‘’Global Gender Gap’ India is at 14th rank among 153 countries.
  • Reservation in Panchayati Raj institution has shown leadership roles being taken by Women.
  • India ranks 23 out of 56 countries with 8.5% of women occupying senior roles, which is significantly lower than global average of 20.6%.
  • India also has the lowest ranks in the “Asia Pacific ‘’ with regard to female Chief executive officer (CEO) representation and female chief financial officer (CFO) representation.
  • India has third lowest global representation for women in senior management with only 2% as CEO.

Conclusion:

Countries like Norway, France, Sweden and Italy have the largest representation of women in senior roles as a result of quotas and formal targets set by governing authorities. Now Germany is also in its way to do it. India can take this as an opportunity to increase the women representation in the country. This historic step will also help in achieving gender equality and empower all women and girls. Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but a necessary foundation for a peaceful, prosperous and sustainable world.

India must realise, A Bird cannot fly with unequal wings and a nation cannot stride without involving both genders.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

2. There is a view that India must discard the outdated perception and seize the new strategic partnerships in the Gulf region. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

The article explains the dire need of the hour is to seize the new strategic partnerships in the Gulf region.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the importance of new strategic partnerships of India in the Gulf region.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly account for the relationships of India with the Gulf region from the past to present.

Body:

The recent External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar’s visit to Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates recently is a good moment to reflect on the structural changes taking place in the Gulf and the region’s growing influence in the Indian Ocean.

First present the issues in approach towards the region. Then move on to discuss the areas of possible relationships with the Gulf. Take hints from the article and list down.

Conclusion:

Conclude that as India seeks to recalibrate its ties with the Gulf, the real challenge for South Block is to get the rest of the Indian establishment to discard outdated perceptions of the Gulf and seize the new strategic possibilities with the region.

Introduction:

Gulf region like Bahrain, Kuwait, UAE etc are strong hands with India from historical period to present pandemic in multiple ways like Energy, Cooperation etc. For decades, Indian mercantilism saw Gulf as a source of oil and destination for labour exports and Delhi’s narrow bureaucratic approach to the Gulf was incapable of political engagement with the region’s interest.

Body:

Outdated perception of India towards Gulf:

  • Historical links: Arab travelers traded with Ancient Hindustan (jewelry, gold, textiles etc).
    • Major Famous: Silk Route
  • Religion perspective: All Gulf nations are Muslim dominated which have close links with Pakistan. They come with extremist ideology.
  • Restricted laws:
    • Severe punishments for violation.
    • Hectic approach to tourists.
    • Neck tight approach to women.
  • Hampering relations in fear. Ex: Iran because of sanctions of US
  • Gulf was viewed as petro states run by conservative feudatories.
  • India need to discard these reforms due to reforms in religious, economic and social areas in Gulf region.

New Strategic Partnership Areas:

  • India needs to capitalize on Khaleeji capitalism. As these would help in infrastructure building in India.
  • India and Gulf can cooperate in peace and prosperity of Western Indian Ocean as both are main contender in this region. Can also conduct maritime exercise.
  • India has been made observer member of Djibouti code of conduct.
  • There is need of cooperation in human right protection, Terrorism and de radicalization.
  • Economic cooperation between India – Gulf countries can extend beyond oil to IT, Renewable energy and higher education. India can use Gulf investment in Make in India initiative.
  • Indian Gulf can cooperate for peace in middle east (Israel Palestine) and Afghanistan.
  • India must maintain Gulf vs Iran tussle as both of them are equally important to India.

Way forward:

  • India should promote rules based dialogue between respective stake holders.
  • UAE, South Arabia remain neutral when abrogation of article 35A, article 370.
  • UAE currently chairs IORA and has been eager to work in India in developing joint infrastructure projects.

Conclusion:

As it re calibrates India’s ties with Gulf, the real challenge for South block is to get rest of India establishment to discard outdated perception of the Gulf and seize the new strategic possibilities with the region.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. RBI has recently recommended giving banking licenses to corporate houses as a part of banking reforms. In this context, critically analyse allowing corporates in Indian banking system. (250 words)

Reference: Economic Times 

Why the question:

The article argues against the suggestion of allowing the corporate houses in the banking sector in India. Thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One must critically analyse the recent steps taken by RBI in giving banking licenses to corporate houses as a part of banking reforms.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give a brief background of the question; also explain what role the corporate houses play for the economy.

Body:

An Internal Working Group of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has recommended that corporate houses be given bank licenses. Discuss the background of the actions taken by the RBI in this direction.

List down the advantages and disadvantages of such a move. Explain the risks involved in taking such steps.

Explain that India’s banking sector needs reform but corporate houses owning banks hardly qualifies as one. If the record of over-leveraging in the corporate world in recent years is anything to go by, the entry of corporate houses into banking is the road to punishment.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Banking sector of any country is critical for sustaining economic growth. However Indian banking system is in bad shape. The total balance sheets of banks in India is still lower than 70% of GDP, which is around 175% in global peers like China.

Body:

In this backdrop RBIs internal working group’s recommendation of allowing large corporate houses to promote and run banks looks promising as: –

  • Credit Growth: With government finances already strained and public sector banks already struggling with NPAs, it is large corporate houses with deep pockets that can fuel India’s needed credit growth.
  • More competition: with increase in number of players, the banking will be more efficient.
  • If implemented properly it can transform India’s banking sector and also compliment Aatmanirbhar Bharat mission.
  • High efficiency: It will lead to more innovation and financial products due to capital infusion.
  • Financial inclusion: These players have much larger ground presence in the hitherto rural areas of the country which lacks professional banks services.

The idea is also being criticized as a penny wise and pound foolish due to following:

  • Connected lending and conflict of interest as the promoter or owner of bank is also a borrower.
  • Worsening of concentration of economic power and crony capitalism leading to more inequality.
  • Difficult to trace: It is almost next to impossible for already overburdened RBI to trace routing of funds by mischievous corporate houses. Indonesia’s core is an example.
  • Corporate owned banks will be exposed to risks of non-banking activities of the corporate too; public deposits.
  • Can lead to interconnected lending: the recommendation allows corporates to hold 26% stakes in banks. This can be used to lend to its own related parties.
  • Prone to loss of customer confidence: the poor performance of non-banking stakeholders will influence customer confidence in the bank.
  • Riskier household deposits: Such bank will risk their household deposit with them, which have hitherto been considered safest after cash.

Serious implications can be reduced to an extent by following measures:

  • Building capacity: RBI can invest in building regulatory capacity and technical staff to regulate such banks.
  • Using new technologies: AI can be used to detect interconnected lending.
  • Reducing allowed stakes: the maximum stakes allowed should be reduced from 26% to 20%.
  • Integrity Qualifications: Only corporates with effective corporate governance must be allowed.

Conclusion:

Though capital is required for Indian economy but RBI needs to think in long term perspective. Accountable and Transparent can only contribute to Aatmanirbhar Bharat. The entering of large firms could be a game changer for Indian Banking sector as capital is required in this globalized economy system.

 

Topic: Land reforms in India.

4. Discuss the primacy of land reforms to address the ongoing agrarian crisis in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on how land reforms can be the next big game changer to address the agrarian crisis in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the primacy of land reforms to address the ongoing agrarian crisis in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with few key statistics depicting the current conditions of agriculture in the country.

Body:

Explain that the need of the hour is to bring about Land Reforms and the focus areas must be: creation of a land record repository, digitisation and integration of all records relating to titles and encumbrances, formalising cadastral maps of all plots of land, defining a structured timeline for timely resolution of property disputes and making public land disputes data etc.

Re-emphasize upon the importance of land reforms for the country.

Discuss the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Thus, with an aspirational goal of India becoming a $5-trillion economy by 2025 the imperative need today is to unleash the power of land and reap fruits by bringing about the much needed Land Reforms which are waiting to see the light of the day.

Introduction:

According to Economic Survey 2019-20, the share of agriculture and allied sector has reduced from 18.2%to 16.5% from 2014-15 to 2019-20. The Indian agriculture employs about 48% of the population and contributes around 17% to GDP.

Body:

Reasons for Agrarian crises:

  • Fragmentation of land: 80% of land owners hold small sites land and 20% hold 80% of total lands.
  • Unavailability of credit: inaccessible to credit.
  • Irrigation: exploitation of underground water by large landholders.
  • Lack of market access and exploitation by the middlemen.
  • Agriculture trade deficit.
  • Feminization of agriculture.
  • Mono cropping
  • Lower productivity
  • Litigation in possession of land.

Need of land Reforms which consists of:

  • Creating nationwide land repository.
  • Computerisation of land records.
  • Integration of all land records.
  • Overall mapping of agriculture lands.
  • Alternate dispute resolution system regarding agricultural land.
  • Simplify rules related to leasing, transfer of ownership, tax payment etc to increase investment and Ease of doing business ranking.
  • Since land reform is state subject, support to state govt to introduce reforms as per regional needs.
  • Transferable development rights should be imbibed in rural areas also.

Land reforms and its impact:

  • Simplified rules on lease, purchase and loan requirement.
  • Fast clearances of new setting of Industries, food processing etc.
  • Growth will increase, generation of resources to govt, banks etc.
  • Public investment construction of road, electricity supply. Etc.
  • Farmers income increase.
  • Rural demand will increase.
  • Agriculture sector will grow.
  • Enable farmers to be Agripreneurs and thereby reach target of Doubling farmers income target.
  • Widen govt role in supporting marginal and small farmers through DBT, easy loan, public investment.
  • Transparent land transaction.
  • Safeguard the rights of tenants.
  • Poverty alleviation.
  • Restructuring of agrarian relations to achieve an egalitarian structure

Government efforts:

  • Digital India, digitise records.
  • SVAMITVA: provide “record of rights” to rural household, accurate land records for better rural planning.
  • Recently trying to link e courts with land records for easy disposable of land dispute cases.

Conclusion:

Thus, with an aspirational goal of India becoming a $5-trillion economy by 2025 the imperative need today is to unleash the power of land and reap fruits by bringing about the much needed Land Reforms which are waiting to see the light of the day.

 

Topic: Basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

5. How can Cryptocurrency be used for money laundering? Discuss and suggest measures to curb the unlawful use of crypto currency. (250 words)

Reference: Live MintThe Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently 132 countries attend 4th Global meet on criminal finances, the conference underlined the need to expand capabilities on ways to probe virtual assets and regulate virtual asset service providers to prevent money laundering. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how Cryptocurrency can be used for money laundering, Discuss and suggest measures to curb the unlawful use of crypto currency.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of cryptocurrency.

Body:

Recent increases in the number and quality of investigations in the field of cryptocurrency-facilitated crime and subsequent money laundering means that law enforcement and other public entities are continuing to enhance their level of knowledge and expertise in this crime area.

Discuss in detail the interlinkages of cryptocurrency and crime.  Give examples to justify the same.

Explain what needs to be done to overcome the problems posed by cryptocurrency and the money laundering supported thereof.

Suggest solutions like – capacity building measures on ways to probe virtual assets, establishing clear regulatory framework to prevent money laundering, adopting ‘follow the money’ strategies against criminal proceeds, strengthening information exchange to dismantle criminal networks, and exploiting new technologies in criminal finances investigations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

A digital currency in which transactions are verified and records maintained by a decentralized system using cryptography, rather than by a centralized authority. It is not issued by any central authority, rendering it theoretically immune to government interference or manipulation. According to blockchain analytics firm Chainalysis, Criminals laundered $2.8bn in 2019 in Bitcoin to exchanges.

 Body:

Cryptocurrency and money Laundering:

  • Criminals open online accounts with digital currency exchanges, which accept fiat currency from traditional bank accounts. Then, they start a ‘cleansing’ process (mixing and layering), i.e., moving money into the cryptocurrency system by using mixers, tumblers, and chain hopping (also called cross-currency). Money is moved from one cryptocurrency into another, across digital currency exchanges — the less-regulated the better — to create a money trail that is almost impossible to track.
  • According to the “Cryptocurrency Anti-Money Laundering Report,” criminals also use theft and gambling to launder cryptocurrencies.
  • Creation of Dark Web or Dark Market which cause it to exploit users through hacking.
  • With a market capitalization of $350 billion, bitcoin is the largest cryptocurrency in the world. A distinctive feature of bitcoin is that a record of all transactions is held in a public ledger maintained simultaneously across thousands of computers. As per bitcoin proponents, the latter are prone to manipulation or hacking.
  • Cryptocurrency does not have any legal tender. So it cannot be authorized and subscribed by anyone which results in money laundering.
  • Since it doesn’t have regulatory authority, it is easy to trade between countries and can cause money laundering in disguise of trading.
  • Cryptocurrency is highly encrypted and cannot be traced easily.
  • Layering: Cryptocurrencies can be purchased with cash (fiat) or other types of crypto (altcoin). Online cryptocurrency trading markets (exchanges) have varying levels of compliance with regulations regarding financial transactions. Legitimate exchanges follow regulatory requirements for identity verification and sourcing of funds and are AML compliant. Other exchanges are not as AML compliant, not that they aren’t putting in the effort. It falls more to their ongoing struggle to exceed compliance regulations with sub-par tools. This vulnerability is where most transactions related to bitcoin money laundering take place.
  • Hiding: Crypto-based transactions can generally be followed via the blockchain. However, once a dirty cryptocurrency is in play, criminals can use an anonymizing service to hide the funds’ source, breaking the links between bitcoin transactions. This can be accomplished both on regular crypto exchanges or by participating in an Initial Coin Offering (ICO), where using one type of coin to pay for another type, can obfuscate the digital currency’s origin.
  • Integration: The point at which you can no longer easily trace dirty currency back to criminal activity is the integration point – the final phase of currency laundering. Despite the currency no longer being directly tied to crime, money launderers still need a way to explain how they came into possession of the currency. Integration is that explanation. A simple method of legitimizing the illicit income is to present it as the result of a profitable venture or other currency appreciation. This can be very hard to disprove in a market when the value of any given altcoin can change by the second.
  • Tumblers: Mixing services, known as “tumblers,” can effectively split up the dirty cryptocurrency. Tumblers send it through a series of various addresses, then recombine it. The reassembly results in a new, “clean” total (less any service fees, which can often be substantial.
  • Unregulated Exchanges: Another avenue through which criminals can undertake bitcoin money laundering is unregulated cryptocurrency exchanges. Exchanges that are not compliant with AML practices and which fail to perform strict and thorough identity checks allow for cryptocurrencies to be traded over and over again across various markets, deposited onto unregulated exchanges, and traded for different altcoins.
  • Peer to Peer: To lower bitcoin money laundering risk, many criminals turn to decentralized peer-to-peer networks which are frequently international. Here, they can often use unsuspecting third parties to send funds on their way to the next destination.
  • Most cryptocurrency money laundering schemes end with the clean bitcoin funneled into exchanges in countries with little or no AML regulations
  • Gaming site: Online gambling and gaming through sites that accept bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies is another way to conduct a crypto money-laundering scheme. Crypto can be used to buy credit or virtual chips which users can cash out again after just a few small transactions.

KYC

Way forward: 

  • Bringing KYC norms into cryptocurrencies.
  • Bringing Japan Model where they are provided with licenses and can be easily traceable.
  • Adhering to FATF guidelines regarding cryptocurrency.
  • Need to expand capabilities on ways to probe virtual assets and regulate virtual asset provides to prevent money laundering.
  • A multi-agency or multi-disciplinary agency to work with public and private partnership is key tackling criminal finances.
  • Strengthening information exchange to dismantle networks.
  • Enforcing new technologies in criminal finance networks.
  • Enacting Data Protection Laws, hiring ‘’White Caps’’ and enabling web audits of money transfer by banks.
  • Financial stability board: Global watchdog that runs financial regulation for G-20 economies for regulating digital currencies.
  • United Kingdom: Its Legal to operate currencies but have to register with financial conduct authority and also assure the anti-money laundering and counter terrorism standards.
  • South Korea: Here it’s not a legal tender but use of anonymous bank accounts for virtual coin trading is prohibited.

 Conclusion:

Since Cryptocurrencies doesn’t have legality, in long term it poses risk to total economy. They have to be regulated on par with normal currencies and measures have to be taken accordingly.

 

Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. The symbiotic phase of implementing Jal Jeevan Mission can be productively used to engage in a dialogue with the states about the larger water resources management agenda, beyond the mission’s goals. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains that the Centre and states in the country must seize opportunity to come together for water governance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way JJM can be productively used to engage in a dialogue with the states about the larger water resources management agenda, beyond the mission’s goals.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief about the mission, its objectives; JJM aims at providing potable water at service level of 55 liter per capita per day (lpcd) to every rural household through Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) by 2024.

Body:

A slew of bills on water await Parliament’s approval. Two of them, passed by the Lok Sabha, were listed for clearing by Rajya Sabha in the monsoon session The Interstate River Water Disputes Amendment Bill 2019 and the Dam Safety Bill 2019.The latest centrally sponsored scheme (CSS), Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), too is pumping massive finances into achieving universal access to safe and secure drinking water in rural areas otherwise a domain of the states.

Discuss the need to deal with the emerging challenges of inter-state water governance.

Explain how and why water Governance is must for Sustainable Development.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the statement in question and its importance.

Introduction:

The Prime Minister announced the Jal Jeevan Mission during the 2019 Independence day speech, which plans to supply water to all households by 2024. It will be a decentralized, community-managed and sustainable water management scheme.

Body:

Salient features of Jal Jeevan mission:

  • Jal Jeevan Mission aims at ensuring potable water supply in adequate quantity at the rate of 55 litres per person per day and of prescribed quality to every rural household of the country through Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTC) by 2024.
  • The provision of household tap connection in rural areas will help in removing ‘drudgery’ of women, especially the girls. It will also improve the ‘ease of living’ for people living in rural areas.
  • JJM focuses on integrated demand and supply-side management of water at the local level.
  • Creation of local infrastructure for source sustainability measures as mandatory elements, like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse, would be undertaken in convergence with other government programmes/schemes.
  • The Mission is based on a community approach to water and includes extensive Information, Education and Communication as a key component of the mission.
  • JJM looks to create a jan Andolan for water, thereby making it everyone’s priority.
  • The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and states is 90:10 for Himalayan and North-Eastern States, 50:50 for other states, and 100% for Union Territories.
  • The Central government has recently released the operational guidelines for JJM.
  • For the implementation of JJM, following institutional arrangement has been proposed:
    • National Jal Jeevan Mission (NJJM) at the Central level
    • State Water and Sanitation Mission (SWSM) at the State level
    • District Water and Sanitation Mission (DWSM) at the District level
    • Village Water Sanitation Committee (VWSC) at Village level
  • Every village will prepare a Village Action Plan (VAP) which will have three components:
    • Water source & its maintenance
    • Water supply and
    • Greywater (domestic wastewater) management.

Current Scenario of water supply in rural areas:

  • For many years, the central and state governments have been making efforts to increase access to safe and adequate drinking water.
  • The provision of a basic quantity of drinking water in rural India has been achieved through hand pumps, dug wells, household water supply (HWS), etc.
  • Thus, while states like Sikkim managed to achieve high levels of HWS, a relatively low percentage of rural Indian households have access to this.

Challenges faced:

  • In rural drinking water service delivery, there is inadequate attention given to taking measures to sustain the source of the water, in most cases groundwater is a challenge.
  • This proposed mission will make source sustainability measures mandatory prior to pumping and distributing water to households.
  • Another issue with the traditional approach to service delivery was that the provision of drinking water was viewed primarily as an engineering solution, with schemes being planned and executed by the public health and engineering departments.
  • However, water is an ideal sector for the applicability of the principle of subsidiarity, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.

Jal Jeevan mission – a solution:

  • With adequate capacity building and training, water can be most efficiently managed at the lowest appropriate level.
  • Adopting this principle, the Jal Jeevan Mission’s first preference will be to have community-managed single village ground water-based schemes, wherever sufficient quantity and good quality of groundwater exists.
  • Wherever adequate quantity of safe groundwater is not present, or where it may be technically not feasible to have single-village schemes, surface water-based multi-village schemes will be promoted.
  • Further, in some remote regions, where it may not be techno-economically feasible to have household water supply schemes, local innovations, such as solar-based schemes will be encouraged.
  • It is not commonly known that household waste water from HWS amounts to about 75% of the amount of water supplied.
  • With the rural households to get HWS under the proposed mission, huge quantities of household waste water will be generated across the country, therefore making its effective management critical.
  • There is a plan to include a mandatory provision under the mission for the effective channelling and treatment of household waste water, through appropriate and low cost drainage and treatment systems.
  • Once appropriately treated, this waste water can be used for both recharge of groundwater as well as for irrigation purposes.

Way forward:

  • An extensive information, education and communication will be needed to create a people’s movement for water management.
  • The ongoing Jal Shakti Abhiyan will help in creating awareness about the importance of integrating source sustainability and water reuse.
  • This integrated approach to decentralised, community managed, and sustainable water management is the backbone of the government’s plan to ensure that every household gets the benefits of water supply.

Conclusion:

The Jal Jeevan Mission will be a major step towards improving our people’s ease of living and meeting their aspirations of a New India.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Discuss the ethical aspects involved in regulation of betting and gambling. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Minister of State for Finance Anurag Thakur has ignited the debate on legalizing betting in sports, particularly in cricket. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the ethical aspects involved in regulation of betting and gambling with suitable examples.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by commenting on what betting and gambling are.

Body:

In India, in 2018, the Law Commission recommended that legalizing betting and gambling in the present scenario is not desirable and that a ban must be enforced on unlawful betting and gambling. It however said that if this is not possible, then regulating this activity is the viable option.

Comment on the legal status – falls in list 2 of 7th schedule; presently all gambling, except lottery, is banned in the country. Also, lotteries organized by the GoI or govt of any state falls under union list.

Present points both for and against betting and gambling; discuss the ethical concerns involved.

Conclusion:

Suggest a fair and balanced solution to address the issue ethically.

Introduction:

Betting and Gambling are both acts of wagering of money on the outcome of a race, game, or other unpredictable event. Kautilya in his famous book Arthashastra said Gambling is described as wagering with inanimate objects such as dice; betting appears to have involved challenges and was concerned with cock fights, animal races and similar contest.

Body:

Gambling and Betting in India:

  • States are entitled to formulate their own laws for gambling activities like Goa have legalised Casinos, Sikkim and Daman also have joined.
  • Betting and Gambling is present in list 2 of schedule 7 in Indian Constitution. In India, organised betting is restricted except lotteries and horse racing.
  • It is huge source of income for the state like Casinos in Goa which contributed Rs.135 crores to the state revenue in 2013.
  • Indian law clarifies games into two: game of skill and game of chance. The game of skill is not considered as gambling. According to Supreme Court, for example the game of running is a game of skill and not of chance.
  • The Public Gambling Act of 1867 prohibits public gambling house.
  • The Information Technology Act 2000 regulates cyber activities in India -which does not include gambling and betting.
  • Online Gambling is banned offense in Maharashtra under the Bombay Wages Act’.

Ethical issues involved:

  • Gambling and unregulated betting can give rise to malpractices like match fixing and player manipulation, legalising and framing rules for it can subject participants in this activity to greater public scrutiny.
  • Gambling leads to crimes such as domestic violence in lieu of addiction and greed for raising money, human trafficking, drugs etc.
  • It leads to Corruption and money laundering.
  • Cricket is considered as religion in India, and any sort of irregularities stirs up public sentiment.
  • Match fixing leads to control the outcome of match which withdraws people’s belief in the sports.
  • The real Sportsman spirit and competitiveness is lost.
  • The sense of addiction made person absentism from responsibilities.
  • The quality and integrity comes at stake because of manipulation of money.

Need to legalise Betting and Gambling:

  • Gambling and betting together, while illegal, have evolved into a multi-billion-dollar industry in India with one estimate pegging the market at $60 billion.
  • Legalising will help to control illegal betting which happens on large scale.
  • Using the unaccounted money earned from gambling for nefarious activities like terror financing.
  • this will curtail an important source of black money.
  • Legalising will helps to bring massive revenue for constructive social schemes.
  • Helps in creating large scale employment opportunities.

Why should not Gambling be legalised?

  • there is no guarantee that after legalising, flow of black money will stop.
  • a large crowd of workers would become a ready fodder as they will invest a part of their earnings, if betting is to be legalised.
  • Companies will host betting apps tempting poor people to try their luck.
  • Social evils: addiction to gambling, indebtedness, alcoholism, suicide, male absenteeism from family responsibilities.

Way forward:

Although legalising gambIing/ betting can be a good source of revenue for the government in this slow economic condition but economic growth with destroying the ethos of society is not good and the activity can destroy the values and morality of the society.


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