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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 November 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Effects of globalization on Indian society.

1. Examine whether globalization is a beneficial force or it erodes communities and widens the gap between the elites and the rest of the world. (250 words)

Reference: www.weforum.org

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of globalisation and its effects.

Key Demand of the question:

One must examine whether globalization is a beneficial force or it erodes communities and widens the gap between the elites and the rest of the world.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what globalisation is.

Body:

In the answer body present the coming of globalisation, its impact; how it led to unparalleled growth at the same time led to increased inequality.

Discuss their effect on developing countries. As we enter the fourth wave of globalization, driven by the digital revolution, there is renewed debate over whether it is a beneficial force: powering economic growth, and allowing the spread of ideas to improve people’s lives; or whether it erodes communities, and widens the gap between the elites and the rest of the world.

Present both pros and cons. Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Globalization is an open liberal market where international markets enter due to liberalised rules and regulations. Globalization refers to integration of nation’s economy with the world economy and free flow of capital, knowledge, humans, industries etc. The modern globalization originated with end of cold War and disintegration of Soviet Union in 1991. The driving factors are democracy and capitalism—Washington consensus or neo liberalism.

Body:

After the economic reforms of 1991 globalization came as a revolutionary force along with liberalization and privatisation and changed the soul of Indian economy as a whole.

Globalization as a beneficial force:

  • Transfer of Technology in developing countries like India, African countries etc.
  • Helps in lifting of economy through worldwide interaction (entire world becomes global village) e.g.: South East.
  • Increase competitiveness among business players.
  • Strive for better quality of product in less Price and quantity or availability is more.
  • Less developed region can attract investment due to inherent cost developing.
  • Develop or developing States see surge in forex reserve which helps them with their budget.
  • Cultural and social awareness: By reducing cross-border distances, globalisation has increased cross-cultural understanding and sharing.
    • A neutral globalized society boosts up the rate at which people are exposed to the culture, attitudes and values of people in other countries.
  • Helps to decrease poverty.
  • Globalization results in increased trade and standard of living. It heightens competition within the domestic product, capital, and labour markets.
  • Vehicles of Social justice: ex. Providing employment.
  • Globalization represents free trade which promotes global economic growth, creates jobs, makes companies more competitive, and lowers prices for consumers.
  • Higher disposable income.

Impact of Globalization:

  • Crime is increased due to large number of population is highly influenced by western culture and lifestyle.
  • Influence of drugs, drug menace.
  • It has brought us away from humanity and bring towards money making cycle.
  • Misuse of technology.
  • Increasing inequality:
  • The UN Development Program reports that the richest 20% of the world’s population consume 86% of the world’s resources while the rest 80% consume just 14 percent.
  • Malpractices of MNC’s:
  • Multinational corporations (MNCs) are accused of social injustice, unfair working conditions (including slave labour wages, living and working conditions), as well as lack of concern for the environment, mismanagement of natural resources, and ecological damage.
  • Many think there is a threat of corporations ruling the world because they are gaining power, due to globalization, loss of local industries.
  • Multinational corporations, which are increasingly influencing political decisions.
  • Fail to Contribute Towards Desired Gains:
  • The argument that globalization has helped people in developing most of the countries out of poverty is somehow controversial. Because the opinions differ as to the quantity and the quality of the jobs being offered by globalization.
  • Contribute towards Cultural Homogeneity:
  • Globalisation promotes people’s tastes to converge which may lead to more cultural homogeneity.
  • Due to this, there is a danger of losing precious cultural practices and languages.
  • Also, there are threats of cultural invasion of one country over another.
  • Shrinking Agriculture Sector: Agriculture now contributes only about 15% to GDP. Greater integration of global commodities markets leads to constant fluctuation in prices.
  • Increasing Health-Care costs: Greater interconnections of the world has also led to the increasing susceptibility to diseases. Whether it is the bird-flu virus or Ebola, the diseases have taken a global turn, spreading far and wide. This results in greater investment in healthcare system to fight such diseases.
  • Child Labour: Despite prohibition of child labor by the Indian constitution, over 60 to a 115 million children in India work. While most rural child workers are agricultural laborers, urban children work in manufacturing, processing, servicing and repairs. Globalization most directly exploits an estimated 300,000 Indian children who work in India’s hand-knotted carpet industry, which exports over $300 million worth of goods a year.
  • Socio cultural impact:
  • Access to education:explosion of information on the web that has helped in greater awareness among people. The advent of private education, coaching classes and paid study material has created a gap between the haves and have-nots.
  • Growth of cities: It has been estimated that by 2050 more than 50% of India’s population will live in cities. The boom of services sector and city centric job creation has led to increasing rural to urban migration.
  • Indian cuisine:is one of the most popular cuisines across the globe. Historically, Indian spices and herbs were one of the most sought after trade commodities. Pizzas, burgers, Chinese foods and other Western foods have become quite popular.
  • Clothing:Traditional Indian clothes for women are the saris, suits, etc. And for men, traditional clothes are the dhoti, kurta. Hindu married women also adorned the red bindi and sindhur, but now, it is no more a compulsion. Rather, Indo-western clothing, the fusion of Western and Sub continental fashion is in trend. Wearing jeans, t-shirts, miniskirts have become common among Indian girls.
  • Indian Performing Arts:The music of India includes multiples varieties of religious, folk, popular, pop, and classical music.
  • The Indian Classical music has gained worldwide recognition but recently, western music is too becoming very popular in our country. Fusing Indian music along with western music is encouraged among musicians. More Indian dance shows are held globally. The number of foreigners who are eager to learn Bharatanatyam is rising. Western dance forms such as Jazz, Hip hop, Salsa, Ballet have become common among Indian youngsters.
  • Nuclear Families: The increasing migration coupled with financial independence has led to the breaking of joint families into nuclear ones. The western influence of individualism has led to an aspirational generation of youth. Concepts of national identity, family, job and tradition are changing rapidly and significantly.
  • Old Age Vulnerability: The rise of nuclear families has reduced the social security that the joint family provided. This has led to greater economic, health and emotional vulnerability of old age individuals.
  • Pervasive Media: There is greater access to news, music, movies, videos from around the world. Foreign media houses have increased their presence in India. India is part of the global launch of Hollywood movies which is very well received here. It has a psychological, social and cultural influence on our society.
  • McDonaldization: McDonaldization is a reconceptualization of rationalization, or moving from traditional to rational modes of thought, and scientific management.
  • Walmartization:It can be seen with the rise of big businesses which have nearly killed the small traditional businesses in our society.
  • Psychological Impact on Indian Society
  • Development of Bicultural Identity: A good example of bicultural identity is among the educated youth in India who despite being integrated into the global fast paced technological world, may continue to have deep rooted traditional Indian values with respect to their personal lives and choices such as preference for an arranged marriage, caring for parents in their old age.
  • Growth of Self-Selected Culture: means people choose to form groups with like-minded persons who wish to have an identity that is untainted by the global culture and its values.
  • Emerging Adulthood: The timing of transitions to adult roles such as work, marriage and parenthood are occurring at later stages in most parts of the world as the need for preparing for jobs in an economy that is highly technological and information based is slowly extending from the late teens to the mid-twenties.
  • Consumerism: Consumerism has permeated and changed the fabric of contemporary Indian society.

Decline of globalization:

  • Suppression of liberal democracy: The malaise of slow economic growth, wealth inequality and rising unemployment provided a perfect breeding ground for political leaders to appeal for nationalism as the solution to political and economic ills.
  • Perils of neo-liberal doctrine:While the free-market ideology has been fighting a battle of credibility since it took the maximum blame for the 2008 crisis, free trade policies have now been severely impacted due to Covid-19.

Conclusion:

Globalisation is an age old phenomenon which has been taking place for centuries now. We can experience it so profoundly these days because of its increased pace. The penetration of technology and new economic structures are leading to an increased interaction between people. As with other things there have been both positive and negative impacts.

Given its enormous potential for economic gains, it would be a waste to categorically repudiate the phenomena of Globalisation. Instead, there is a need for better understanding of Globalization’s effects and the interplay of its economics with other issue areas.

 

Topic : GS-1: urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. In the backdrop of World toilet day which is celebrated every year on 19th November, Discuss the need for sustainable sanitation systems in the country. (250 words)

Reference: www.un.org

Why the question:

World Toilet Day 2020‘was celebrated on 19th November under ‘Swachh Bharat Mission – Grameen; Union Minister of Jal Shakti to felicitate top Districts/States with ‘Swachhata Puraskar’.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for sustainable sanitation systems in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present an overview of the context in question; World Toilet Day has been an annual United Nations Observance since 2013. It celebrates toilets and raises awareness of the 4.2 billion people living without access to safely managed sanitation.

Body:

Explain that it is about taking action to tackle the global sanitation crisis and achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6: water and sanitation for all by 2030.

A well-functioning toilet is connected to a sanitation system that takes away and deals with human waste.

Discuss the importance of having sustainable sanitation systems in the country, discuss what sustainable sanitation systems are, how they can be achieved.

Present the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting their importance to the overall growth and development of the country.

Introduction:

Mahatma Gandhi said “Sanitation is more important than independence”. He made cleanliness and sanitation an integral part of the Gandhian way of living. Keeping this thought supreme, the government launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on October 2, 2014, and for facilitation of citizens Swachhata Puraskar.

UN celebrates World Toilet Day and raises awareness of the 4.2 billion people living without access to safely managed sanitation. It is about taking action to tackle the global sanitation crisis and achieve Sustainable Development Goal 6: water and sanitation for all by 2030.

Body:

Sustainable sanitation begins with a toilet that effectively captures human waste in a safe, accessible, and dignified setting. The waste then gets stored in a tank, which can be emptied later by a collection service, or transported away by pipework.

The next stage is treatment and safe disposal. Safe reuse of human waste helps save water, reduces and captures greenhouse gas emissions for energy production, and can provide agriculture with a reliable source of water and nutrients.

Need of Sanitation system:

  • Everyone must have sustainable sanitation, alongside clean water and handwashing facilities, to help protect and maintain our health security and stop the spread of deadly infectious diseases such as COVID-19, cholera, and typhoid.
  • Toilets can help us to fight climate change too! Wastewater and sludge from toilets contain valuable water, nutrients, and energy. Sustainable sanitation systems make productive use of waste to safely boost agriculture and reduce and capture emissions for greener energy.
  • Open defecation and women security issues, privacy for women.
  • Girls drop out in rural due to lack of toilets suffering health issues during menstruation.
  • Down to Earthreported 210 million people lack access to improved basic sanitation in India.
  • India confronted a grim situation, access to the household toilets was limited to under 40% of the overall population.

Issues:

  • The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has flagged irregularities in the construction of toilets in schools by Central Public Sector Enterprises (CPSEs).
  • The objective of providing separate toilets for boys and girls was not fulfilled in 27% of the schools.
  • Maintenance and Sanitation:
  • 75%of toilets did not follow the norm for daily cleaning at least once a day.
  • Construction Issues:
    • almost 40% of toilets were non-existent, partially completed or unused.
    • Construction of toilets is considered still a taboo in some sections of society.
  • Lack of dedicated funds, poor maintenance, poor water availability is some of the challenges.

Government Initiatives:

  • Through SBM, India received a new thrust, with focus shifting from sewerage networks to sanitation, putting in place a time-bound plan to improve access to toilets across the country.
  • Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation (DDWS) under the Ministry of Jal Shakti has launched the 10-year Rural Sanitation Strategy starting from 2019 up to 2029.
  • It lays down a framework to guide local governments, policy-makers, implementers and other relevant stakeholders in their planning for Open Defecation Free (ODF) Plus status, where everyone uses a toilet, and every village has access to solid and liquid waste management.
  • The strategy aims to sustain the behavioral change regarding sanitation
    • ODF: An area can be notified or declared as ODF if at any point of the day, not even a single person is found defecating in the open.
    • ODF+: This status is given if at any point of the day, not a single person is found defecating and/or urinating in the open, and all community and public toilets are functional and well maintained.
    • ODF++: This status is given if the area is already ODF+ and the faecal sludge/septage and sewage are safely managed and treated, with no discharging or dumping of untreated faecal sludge and sewage into the open drains, water bodies or areas.
  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched various initiatives to make SBM-U a successful project. Some of them include,

ODF, ODF+ and ODF++ Protocol:

    • Norms under ODF: No visible faeces shall found in the environment and every household, as well as public/community institutions, should be using safe technology option for disposal of faeces.
    • Norms under ODF+: Not a single person should be defecating and/or urinating in open. All community and public toilets should be properly maintained and cleaned.
    • Norms under ODF++: Proper treatment and management of faecal sludge/septage and sewage is safely managed and treated. There should be no discharge or dumping of untreated faecal sludge/septage and sewage in drains, water bodies or open areas.
    • Water + Protocol: It is designed to ensure that no untreated wastewater is discharged into the open environment or water bodies.
    • Star rating protocol for Garbage free cities: It is based on 12 parameters which follow a SMART framework – Single metric, Measurable, Achievable, Rigorous verification mechanism and Targeted towards outcomes.
    • As on date, 4 cities namely, Indore (Madhya Pradesh), Ambikapur (Chattisgarh), Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra) and Mysuru (Karnataka) have been certified as 5-star cities.
    • Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs): MoHUA has also partnered with National Highways Authority of India(NHAI) to use the plastic waste for road construction.
    • Additionally, cities have been asked to set up adequate Material Recovery Facilities (MRFs) to handle the segregation, processing and recycle of plastic waste.
    • Swachh Survekshan: MoHUA launched the Swachh Survekshan 2020 (SS 2020) league, a quarterly cleanliness assessment of cities and towns in India.
  • Safai karamcharis getting protective gears by SC orders.
  • Mechanising cleaning of sewers and drains under prohibition of employment as manual scavengers act, 2013 provides dignified life to manual scavengers.

Conclusion:

Sustainability of sanitation is a key challenge as well as a scope to improve sanitation facilities in India. The Government should use more technical tools, expertise to develop a sustainable framework of latrines, sewages across the country, and strengthening capacity and capability building. Sustainability is not only related to the physical part of the issue, it additionally covers the physiological aspects where the attitude, behavior, and cultural beliefs of the society should be changed and people should accept the improved mean of sanitation rather continuing the decade old practices.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. Account for the significance of permanent seat at UNSC to India. What have been India’s efforts for UN reforms to get UNSC permanent membership? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article talks about India’s efforts for UN reforms to get UNSC permanent membership.

Key Demand of the question:

One must account for the significance of permanent seat at UNSC to India. And explain what have been India’s efforts for UN reforms to get UNSC permanent membership.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Recently, India has said that “one or two countries” are obstructing reforms at the United Nations.

Body:

Recently India has got elected as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council (UNSC) for a two-year term for the eighth time.

Explain the significance of permanent seat at UNSC to India. The permanent member will have a veto power.

Getting veto power can be used by India to safeguard their interests against aggressive countries like china and also to protect their sovereignty. For example – Kashmir issue. The prestige associated with being a permanent member will match with the present global economic stature of India. This helps India to influence countries in political and economic matters, especially in its neighbourhood.

Conclusion:

Conclude by emphasizing on the importance of UNSC membership to India.

Introduction:

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is an employment scheme to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100 days of guaranteed demand based wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work under the ministry of Rural development. Beneficiaries are willing rural population, unskilled manual labourers and seasonally unemployed.

It is because of its bottom up approach, towards governance and social security scheme to provide employment.

Body:

Setbacks suffered by Rural workers:

  • Many of the workers have to spend half of their wages to travelling to far distant banks to receive payments.
  • The beneficiaries are not able to receive the due amount payable to them, even after transaction messages received.
  • Aadhar authentication is manipulated thus money siphoned off to middlemen.
  • Travel to banks cause spending of full day causing loss of time and wages.
  • At the bank, 42% of respondents from Jharkhand and 38% from Rajasthan had to spend over four hours to access their wages.
  • Lack of digital literacy and less telecom density. 36% TRAI reports rural India) causes communication gap.
  • Face repeated rejection due to biometric error and wrong information.
  • During COVID 19 pandemic transport availability was harder.
  • Less bank branches per capita in rural areas. Approximately one branch per 20 gram panchayats.
  • Lack of information, only one in 10 get SMS of their wages to be credited.
  • Rude behavior of officials: unprofessional and unwelcome attitude of bank employees towards the workers/ marginalized add a to the daily challenges of workers.
  • Lack of redressal mechanism
  • Inter State inequalities: in various states, daily wage of mgnrega workers is less than agriculture worker of states like Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

Measures needed:

  • Increase the daily wage to recommended Rs. 375.
  • Set up a grievance redressal mechanism.
  • Gives emphasis on digitalisation of all process especially for payment document verification.
  • Provide training to deal with bank and work related problems.
  • Increase minimum guarantee work days from 100days.
  • Spread awareness about rural worker struggle to create an enabling environment in society.

Governmental measures taken:

  • Jan dhan scheme for opening bank account.
  • Digital India campaign to digitise official records and work.
  • Direct benefit transfer to remove Middlemen.
  • In COVID pandemic time, Government intensified infrastructure project to provide work to migrant and unemployed.

 Conclusion:

MGNREGA is a bottom-up, people-centred, demand-driven, self-selecting and rights-based programme. Thus, MGNREGA remains crucial for integrated resource management and livelihoods generation perspective.

 

Topic :  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Discuss the problems being faced by the rural workers dependent on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).(250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The article presents the problems being faced by the rural workers dependent on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the problems being faced by the rural workers dependent on the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS).

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Explain the context of the question.

Body:

Discuss the issue at hand – According to a study by LibTech India, many of the workers are forced to make multiple trips to the bank, adding travel costs and income losses, and face repeated rejections of payment, biometric errors and wrong information, just to get their hands on their wages.

The study found that almost 40% of the workers must make multiple trips to the bank branch to withdraw their money. It was also found that despite being informed that their wages had been credited, they found that the money was not in the accounts.

The last mile challenges make it hard for workers to access their own wages in a timely manner. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the situation is exacerbated as transport becomes harder.

Take hints from the article.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward.

Introduction:

The first quarter of 2020-21 saw a decline of 23.9% in growth, which potentially highlight the economic brunt faced by the nation.

Body:

India faces multiple challenges in economic sphere compounded by COVID 19:

  • Slowing economic growth with 23%.
  • Unemployment: millions of jobless have been accrued due to pandemic.
  • Investment: Rising fiscal deficit of government has decelerated pace of investment.
  • Infrastructure: India needs to build 75% of its infrastructure requirement of 2050.
  • Demographic dividend: India’s working age will peak in 2021, which need to harnessed efficiently to yield benefits.
  • Women participation: more than 70% women doesn’t take part in economic activity, which restricts economic growth.
  • Global slowdown and de globalization.
  • Falling of exports, rising trade deficit.
  • Low GDP growth.
  • Thucydides trap: US and China conflict, and disruption of global supply chain.
  • Increased CPI(combined) inflation; 7.6% (oct 2020) general price rise in commodities.
  • Supply chain disruption due to lockdown to curtail COVID 19.
  • Increased unemployment and economy heading towards stagflation.
  • Decline in direct and indirect tax collection.
  • Widening of fiscal deficit as mandated by FRBM act, 2003.

Present situation of India w.r.t exports:

  • India has 1.7% share in global trade as compared to China 12%.
  • India exports increased from $275 bn in financial year ’16 to $331 bn in FY’18.

Government Steps to increase export:

  • Midterm review of trade policy 2018-20 in 2017.
  • Product linked incentives.
  • Export preparedness Index by NITI Aayog.
  • Aatmanirbhar Bharat (15% of GDP)

Measures needed to improve economy:

The Siamese twins of investment and exports can prove to be key for economic growth.

  • India can boost exports in face of global economic slowdown, reducing trade deficit and Balance of Payment.
  • Greater exports will lead to inflow of foreign currency acting as reserve buffer.
  • Increased investment rise in productivity of manufacturing units and increased employment.
  • Exports can strengthen global supply chain and facilitate more economic integration.
  • Participating in trade blocs, bilateral trade pacts, and free trade agreement can boost exports.

Way forward:

  • Strengthening MSME Sector
  • Greater role of EXIM and promoting exports through trade facilitation.
  • Leveraging self-sufficiency.
  • India needs to upskill it’s working population.
  • Promote competition and shed protectionism.

Conclusion:

“India can be back to path of growth through 5I’s – Intent, investment, inclusion, Infrastructure and innovation.” – PM Modi

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Analyse the key challenges that lie in front of Indian economy also, explain how exports can prove to be a key to economic growth. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Arvind Panagariya’s new book, India Unlimited: Reclaiming the Lost Glory, discuss systematically how to reconstructs a path to higher growth. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the key challenges that lie in front of Indian economy also, explain how exports can prove to be a key to economic growth.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present the background of the question, account for some key facts that suggest the challenges before the Indian economy.

Body:

Discuss the effect of COVID-19 on the economic growth of the country. Public sectors confronting a mountain of debt, the fiscal will need to be reined in post-COVID across several emerging markets. COVID-19 will accentuate the prevailing export pessimism, as global potential growth is damaged and protectionist instincts are stoked.

Discuss the possible strategies before India. Present the role that exports can play and how they can affect the economy positively.

Take hints from the article and suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of exports to the Indian economy.

Introduction:

Carbon capture utilization refers to the recycling (collection, storages and then utilization) of carbon released from fossil fuels emissions. It is one of the flexibility phenomena under the Clean Development Mechanism of Kyoto Protocol.

The aim is to capture carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from point sources (especially industrial sources within the power, chemicals, cement, and steel sectors) in order to avoid the release of these gasses into the atmosphere.

Next, the captured CO2 is converted into other components and products, such as chemical feedstocks, fuels or building materials, which are otherwise typically derived from fossil-based resources.

Body:

Benefits:

  • The captured carbon is recycled for producing economically valuable products and services. Captured carbon can be engaged in producing oil, via Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) or can be used to produce fuels (eg methane, methanol, aviation fuels, gasoline), construction material, chemicals, plastics and algae-based products such as fertilisers and animal feed.
  • The costs associated with carbon capture can be partially offset by the revenue generated from the utilisation measures.
  • CC helps in economic goods and use in core sector such as, Carbon neutral industries of methanol, ammonia/fertilizer, olefins for plastic, steel and power.
  • Also helps to phase CO2 from atmosphere as CO2 leads to global warming.
  • Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) technologies are two subsets of the overall larger set of crucial technologies that is collectively called Carbon capture, utilisation, and storage (CCUS).

Carbon Capture Technology for India:

  • To tread the path of clean energy, India has to pursue different categories of carbon mitigation options, or the 4 R’s, i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle and remove,
  • India had identified Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) as a priority area in its Second Biennial Update Report that was submitted to UNFCCC.
  • In 2019, IOCL signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), on a combined CCUS and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) system.
  • As per the MoU, CO₂ that is captured at IOCL’s Koyali refinery would be transported by pipeline to the nearby ONGC Gandhar oilfield in the state of Gujarat.
  • Additionally, IOCL has also signed a similar MoU with Oil India Limited (OIL) for IOCL’s Digboi refinery to provide CO₂ for EOR at OIL’s Naharkatiya and Dikom oilfields in the state of Assam.
  • India is also an active participant of the Carbon Capture Innovation Challenge under Mission Innovation (MI) and has launched a funding opportunity to the tune of $17 million in FY19 for 47 projects across the themes of carbon capture, sustainable biofuels and converting sunlight.
  • India can look towards tackling emissions via a material efficiency approach, thereby addressing the dual challenge of resource scarcity and emission reduction. India has made some initial headways in the context of material efficiency. For instance, the Draft National Resource Efficiency Policy (NREP), 2019, represents a comprehensive framework for resource efficiency.
  • In line with the notion of Circular Carbon Economy (CCE) model, India may consider broadening the scope of the issue of climate change and acknowledge the role played by high material consumption in contributing to the energy demand and by extension to emissions.
  • According to a recent report by Ellen MacArthur Foundation and Material Economics (2019), while 55% of the emissions can be managed by mitigation pathways such as the use of renewable energy and adoption of energy efficiency measures, the remaining emissions can be tackled via the adoption of a circular economy model.
  • The deepening of the carbon credit market may be pursued, additionally. (carbon credit are tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide).

Global examples:

  • China is largest producer of methanol produces using carbon capture technologies.
  • South Africa has become world’s largest coal gamification based company.

Conclusion:

Carbon capture utilisation technologies can play a key role not only in meeting CO2 emission reduction targets (such as the ones set by the Paris Agreement), but also in accelerating the transition to Circular Carbon Economy. As the technology matures and the associated costs fall further, India should consider designing policies and programs to encourage faster deployment.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.  

6. What are carbon capture utilisation technologies? Discuss how India can adapt them and tread the path of cleaner energy systems. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The article explains that as G20 chair in 2022, how India must focus on carbon capture utilisation technologies.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and is about carbon capture utilisation technologies and their significance to India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the concept of carbon capture utilisation technologies.

Body:

Explain the coming of carbon capture utilisation technologies; Carbon Capture and Storage, is a technology which captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of coal and gas for power generation, and from the manufacturing of steel, cement and other industrial facilities.  It involves the transportation of CO2 either by pipeline or ship, for safe and permanent underground storage. Thus, it helps in preventing it from entering the atmosphere and contributing to anthropogenic climate change.

Discuss why India must adopt to these technologies, present the efforts of the current government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Civil service is an important institution of the government tasked with policy implementation and ensuring effective governance, rule of law and social justice. It is rightly called the “steel frame” of governance.

Body:

Arguments in favour:

  • Max Weber argued that bureaucracy constitutes the most efficient and rational form of organization because of its systematic processes, predictability and preciseness.
  • Its clear cut hierarchy and control mechanism is a one of its defining features.
  • Those at the bottom need to follow the orders of those above, else the very concept of centralized planning by learned experts becomes futile.

Arguments against:

  • The Hota Committee report (2004) mentions protecting civil servants against wrongful pressure exerted by administrative superiors.
  • The system is not without its faults. Blind obedience is one of the reasons for institutionalized corruption. Ashok Kemka, Roopa Moudgil are some bureaucrats who listened to their own conscience and refused to toe wrongs.
  • The “just following orders” argument is no longer acceptable. The case of the German officer Eichmann is a clear indicator of the consequences of blindly following orders.
  • Ground level implementation is often an entirely different scenario compared to the one-size-fits-all approach of centralized policy-making. Those at the ground-level implementation knows what exactly is required, and they must exercise their reason.
  • Civil servants, even the youngest ones, are recruited after a rigorous selection process. To make them mere puppets for following orders is to waste human potential.

Conclusion:

To conclude that a civil servant must obey the orders of his superiors. Nevertheless, there is a time & place for everything, and this issue also should not be seen in black & white terms. In some situations, (for example, during disaster management, crowd management, etc.), civil servants should follow the orders of superiors without questioning them.

In other cases, (for example, routine matters, or where scope of interpretation is wide), they should not merely follow superior order without questioning. Or at least, there should be scope for expressing dissent without fear. When performing a command which he considers illegal, a bureaucrat must express in writing his dissenting opinion prior to obeying said order.


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