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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 December 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Structure, Composition of atmosphere, Weather & Climate, Heat & temperature, Insolation, Heat Budget, Distribution of temperature, Temperature Inversion

1. Explain different processes which help maintain heat balance of earth.(250 words)

Reference: World physical geography class XI NCERT

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I , section geography.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain in detail the different processes which help maintain heat balance of earth.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by Heat Budget in the introduction.

Body:

In the answer body explain the concept of heat budget first; The sun is the ultimate energy source for the entire universe. Though the sun is continuously radiating energy, the earth as a whole does not accumulate or lose heat. It maintains its temperature. This is popularly known as heat budget or heat balance of the earth.

Then move on to explain the different processes which help maintain heat balance of earth; energy of the sun reaches earth through radiation and circulates through various processes such as conduction, convection, advection, and terrestrial radiation.

Draw suitable diagrams.

Conclusion:

Conclude that earth neither warms or cools down despite the huge transfer of heat and maintains its heat balance.

Introduction:

The sun is the primary source of energy for the earth. The sun radiates its energy in all directions into space in short wavelengths, which is known as solar radiation. The earth receives a certain amount of Insolation (short waves) and gives back heat into space by terrestrial radiation (longwave radiation). Through this give and take, or the heat budget, the earth maintains a constant temperature.

Body:

The sun is the ultimate source of atmospheric heat and energy. There are different ways of heating and cooling of the atmosphere.

  • Terrestrial Radiation
    • Before discussing terrestrial radiation, the following facts about radiation are worth noting.
    • All objects whether hot or cold emit radiant energy continuously.
    • Hotter objects emit more energy per unit area than colder objects.
    • The temperature of an object determines the wavelength of radiation. Temperature and wavelength are inversely proportional. Hotter the object, shorter is the length of the wave.
    • So, when the earth’s surface after being heated up by the insolation (in the form of short waves), it becomes a radiating body.
    • The earth’s surface starts to radiate energy to the atmosphere in the form of long waves.
    • This is what we call as terrestrial radiation. This energy heats up the atmosphere from bottom to top.
    • It should be noted that the atmosphere is transparent to short waves and opaque to long waves.
    • The long-wave radiation is absorbed by the atmospheric gases particularly by carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Thus, the atmosphere is indirectly heated by the terrestrial radiation.
    • The atmosphere, in turn, radiates and transmits heat to space. Finally, the amount of heat received from the sun is returned to space, thereby maintaining a constant temperature at the earth’s surface and in the atmosphere.
  • Conduction (transfer of heat by contact)
    • Conduction is the process of heat transfer from a warmer object to a cooler object when they come in contact with each other.
    • The flow of heat energy continues till the temperature of both the objects become equal or the contact is broken.
    • The conduction in the atmosphere occurs at the zone of contact between the atmosphere and the earth’s surface.
    • Conduction is important in heating the lower layers of the atmosphere.
  • Convection (vertical transfer of heat)
    • Transfer of heat by the movement of a mass or substance from one place to another, generally vertical, is called convection.
    • The air of the lower layers of the atmosphere gets heated either by the earth’s radiation or by conduction. The heating of the air leads to its expansion. Its density decreases and it moves upwards.
    • The continuous ascent of heated air creates a vacuum in the lower layers of the atmosphere. As a consequence, cooler air comes down to fill the vacuum, leading to convection.
    • The cyclic movement associated with the convectional process in the atmosphere transfer heat from the lower layer to the upper layer and heats up the atmosphere.
    • The convection transfer of energy is confined only to the troposphere.
  • Advection (horizontal transfer of heat)
    • The transfer of heat through horizontal movement of air (wind) is called advection.
    • Winds carry the temperature of one place to another. The temperature of a place will rise if it lies in the path of winds coming from warmer regions. The temperature will fall if the place lies in the path of the winds blowing from cold regions.
    • Horizontal movement of the air is relatively more important than the vertical movement. In the middle latitudes, most of diurnal (day and night) variations in daily weather are caused by advection alone.
    • In tropical regions particularly in northern India during the summer season, local winds called ‘Loo’ is the outcome of advection process.

Conclusion:

The atmosphere is essential for the survival of plant and animal life. They also require the optimum temperature to keep themselves warm and grow. However, the effect of this variation is masked by some other factors like the distribution of land and sea and the atmospheric circulation. Hence the variation does not have a greater effect on daily weather changes on the surface of the earth.

 

Topic: Structure, Composition of atmosphere, Weather & Climate, Heat & temperature, Insolation, Heat Budget, Distribution of temperature, Temperature Inversion

2. How does unequal distribution of heat over the Earth causes variation of weather and climate? Explain, (250 words)

Reference: Class 11 Geography NCERT

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, section geography.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way unequal distribution of heat over the Earth causes variation of weather and climate.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what is weather and climate.

Body:

Rising global average temperature is associated with widespread changes in weather patterns. Scientific studies indicate that extreme weather events such as heat waves and large storms are likely to become more frequent or more intense with human-induced climate change. The answer must focus on changes in temperature, precipitation, storms, floods, and droughts that are a result of unequal distribution of heat over the Earth and cause variation of weather and climate.

The areas where there is high temperature, wind blows from low temperature areas. Therefore, wind move upward from equatorial regions and blow towards two poles. Due to this wind, pressure on both the poles increases.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the effect of recent anthropogenic activities and the resultant climate change, suggest solutions to address them.

Introduction:

The temperature is the measurement in degrees of how hot (or cold) a thing (or a place) is. The temperature of the atmosphere is not same across the Earth. It varies in spatial and temporal dimensions. The temperature of a place depends largely on the insolation received by that place. The interaction of insolation with the atmosphere and the earth’s surface creates heat which is measured in terms of temperature. It is important to know about the temperature distribution over the surface of the earth to understand the weather, climate, vegetation zones, animal and human life etc

Body:

  • Unequal distribution of heat over the Earth causes variation of weather and climate:
    • The latitude of the place – Intensity of insolation depends on the latitude. The amount of insolation depends on the inclination of sun rays, which is further depends upon the latitude of the place. At the equator sun’s rays fall directly overhead throughout the year. Away from the equator towards poles, the inclination of the Sun’s rays increases. In conclusion, if other things remain the same, the temperature of air goes on decreasing from the equator towards poles.
    • The altitude of the place – the atmosphere is largely heated indirectly by re-radiated terrestrial radiation from the earth’s surface. Therefore, the lower layers of the atmosphere are comparatively warmer than the upper layers, even in the same latitudes. For example, Ambala (30 21’ N) and Shimla (31 6’) are almost at the same latitude. But the average temperature of Shimla is much lower than the Ambala. It is because Ambala is located in plain at an altitude of 272 m above sea level whereas Shimla is located at an altitude of 2202 m above sea level. In other words, the temperature generally decreases with increasing height. The rate of decrease of temperature with height is termed as the normal lapse rate. It is 6.5°C per 1,000 m. That’s why, the mountains, even in the equatorial region, have snow covered peaks, like Mt. Kilimanjaro, Africa.
    • Distance from the Sea – the land surface is heated at a faster rate than the water surface. Thus, the temperature of the air over land and water surfaces is not the same at a given time. In summers, the sea water is cooler than the land and in winters, land is much colder than the sea water. The coastal areas experience the sea breezes during the daytime and the land breezes during the night time. This has a moderating influence on the temperature of the coastal areas. Against this the places in the interior, far away from the sea, have extreme climate. The daily range of temperature is less near the coastal area and it increases with increase in distance from the sea coast. The low daily range of temperature is the characteristic of marine climate. That’s why, the people of Mumbai have hardly any idea of extremes of temperature.
    • Ocean Currents – the effect of warm ocean currents and the cold ocean currents is limited to the adjoining coastal areas. The warm ocean currents flow along the eastern coast of tropical and sub-tropical regions and western coast of higher latitudes. On the other hand, cold ocean currents flow along the eastern coast of higher latitude and along the western coast of tropical and sub-tropical areas. The North Atlantic drift, an extension of Gulf Stream, warm the coastal districts of Western Europe (such as Norway) and British Isles keeping their ports ice-free
    • Air-mass circulation – air masses in form of winds helps in the redistribution of temperature. The places, which come under the influence of warm air-masses experience higher temperature and the places that come under the influence of cold air masses experience low temperature. The effect of these winds is, however, limited to the period during which they blow. Local winds like cold Mistral of France considerably lower the temperature and Sirocco, a hot wind that blows from Sahara Desert raises the temperature of Italy, Malta etc. The temperature rises at the time of arrival of temperate cyclones, while it falls sharply after their passage. Sometimes, local winds can cause sudden change in temperature. In northern India, ‘Loo’, a local hot wind, raise the temperature to such an extent that heat waves prolong for several days in continuation and many people die of sunstroke.
    • Slope, Shelter and aspect – slopes of a mountain facing the Sun experiences high temperature than the slopes on the leeward side due to more insolation A steep slope experiences a more rapid change in temperature than a gentle one. Mountain ranges that have an east-west alignment like the Alps show a higher temperature on the south-facing ‘sunny slope’ than the north facing ‘sheltered slope’. Consequently, there are more settlements in southern side and it is better utilized for agricultural and other purposes. The mountain ranges at certain places stop the cold winds and prevent the temperature from going down. This is found in areas where mountains lie in the direction facing the winds as in the case of Himalayas. In the absence of Himalayas, winters of India would have been very different.
    • Nature of ground surface – the nature of surface in terms of color, vegetation, soil, land use, snow cover etc. affects the temperature of a place. In the tropical and subtropical deserts, the sandy surface record high temperature because they absorb most of the solar radiations. Snow has very high albedo and thus, reflects much of the insolation without absorption. Thick vegetation (such as Amazon forest) cuts off much of the in-coming insolation and in many places sunlight never reaches the ground. It is cool in the jungle and its shade temperature is a few degrees lower than that of open spaces in corresponding latitudes. Light soils reflect more heat than darker soils. Dry soils like sands are very sensitive to temperature changes, whereas wet soils, like clay retain much moisture and warm up more slowly. Urban areas have relatively higher temperature than the surrounding.

Conclusion:

The earth receives almost all of its energy from the sun. The earth in turn radiates back to space the energy received from the sun. In the process the earth neither warms nor cools over a period of time. The amount of heat received by different parts of the earth is not the same. This variation causes pressure difference in the atmosphere. This leads to transfer of heat from one region to the other by winds. Thus, the weather and climate are ultimately caused by the unequal distribution of heat over the planet earth over space and time.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. The menace of Child trafficking is still a cause of concern, and there is a need to not just prevent such crimes but also ensure that the relief and rehabilitation process takes place in a smooth manner. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The editorial brings to us the importance of empowering first responders to end child trafficking in the country. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way the menace of Child trafficking is still a cause of concern, and there is a need to not just prevent such crimes but also ensure that the relief and rehabilitation process takes place in a smooth manner.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present the dismal picture of child trafficking with relevant facts justifying it. India has a very high volume of child trafficking. As many as one child disappears every eight minutes, according to the National Crime Records Bureau.

Body:

The answer body must discuss the following aspects –

The causes; there are many different causes that lead to child trafficking, with the primary reasons being poverty, weak law enforcement, and a lack of good quality public education. The traffickers that take advantage of children can be from another area in India, or could even know the child personally. Children who return home after being trafficked often face shame in their communities, rather than being welcomed home, forms of child trafficking and its prevalence.

Explain the different forms of it.

Discuss the approach to address the problem –highlight the importance of relief and rehabilitation process; take hints from the article and discuss solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with efforts of the government in this direction and suggest way forward.

Introduction:

Human trafficking is the process of trapping people through the use of violence, deception or coercion and exploiting them for financial or personal gain. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights warned the world that the Covid-19 pandemic would lead to a major increase in human trafficking.

Body:

  • Scale and Magnitude:
  • 3 In 5 People Trafficked Were Children. However, between 2011 and 2018, the total number of cases of human trafficking recorded in the country, according to NCRB reports, was 35,983.
  • People are trafficked for sexual exploitation, forced labor, forced begging, forced marriage; for selling children and as child soldiers, as well as for removal of organs;
  • Women make up 49% and girls 23% of all victims of trafficking;
  • Sexual exploitation is the most common form of exploitation (59% share) followed by forced labor (34% share).
  • Most victims are trafficked within their countries’ borders – those trafficked abroad are moved to the richest countries.
  • 72% people exploited in the sex industry are women.
  • 43% of victims are trafficked domestically within national borders.
  • What are the constitutional & legislative provisions related to Trafficking in India?
  • Trafficking in Human Beings or Persons is prohibited under the Constitution of India under Article 23 (1).
  • The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 (ITPA) is the premier legislation for prevention of trafficking for commercial sexual exploitation.
  • Criminal Law (amendment) Act 2013 has come into force wherein Section 370 of the Indian Penal Code has been substituted with Section 370 and 370A IPC which provide for comprehensive measures to counter the menace of human trafficking including trafficking of children for exploitation in any form including physical exploitation or any form of sexual exploitation, slavery, servitude, or the forced removal of organs.
  • Protection of Children from Sexual offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which has come into effect from 14th November, 2012 is a special law to protect children from sexual abuse and exploitation.
  • It provides precise definitions for different forms of sexual abuse, including penetrative and non-penetrative sexual assault, sexual harassment.
  • There are other specific legislations enacted relating to trafficking in women and children Prohibition of Child Marriage Act, 2006, Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976, Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, Transplantation of Human Organs Act, 1994, apart from specific Sections in the IPC, e.g., Sections 372 and 373 dealing with selling and buying of girls for the purpose of prostitution.
  • State Governments have also enacted specific legislations to deal with the issue. (e.g., The Punjab Prevention of Human Smuggling Act, 2012).
  • International Conventions on Trafficking:
    • UN Convention: India has ratified the United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime (UNCTOC) which has as one of its Protocols Prevention, Suppression and Punishment of Trafficking in Persons, particularly Women and Children.
    • SAARC Convention: India has ratified the SAARC Convention on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution.
    • A Regional Task Force was constituted to implement the SAARC Convention.
    • A study tour for SAARC Member countries was conducted to learn from the experiences of the Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTUs) established in various districts of the country. Representatives of Sri Lanka, Bhutan and Afghanistan participated in the study tour.
    • Bilateral mechanism: For dealing with cross border trafficking and to address the various issues relating to prevention of Trafficking, victim identification and repatriation and make the process speedy and victim-friendly between India and Bangladesh, a Task Force of India and Bangladesh was constituted.
  • Issues facing state institutions and Ngo’s during rescuing operations of trafficking:
    • Evolving nature of trafficking is a challenge like uprise of technology usage, coward ways of conducting crimes this days and pressure to have money by poor.
    • Process of forming a centralized databank of children who were rescued to make monitoring easy is not very effective.
    • Maximum number of trafficked girls falls in the age bracket of 8-10 years according to rescue foundation so procuring details about the family and having a database of information is difficult.
    • It is found that there is a strong nexus between politicians and other powerful people in this field so public functionaries do not help the civil society organizations in time.
    • Rescue operation is tough because:
      • Traffickers find new ways to smuggle girls like luring jobs by creating fake documents, multiple routes so it becomes tough to identify and rescue.
      • Traffickers have been trying new ways, including transporting women on tourist visas to Gulf nations to get round Indian immigration checks.
      • They are also trying routes through neighboring countries including Nepal where collusion of officials with traffickers is suspected.
      • Professional network chain of trafficking is such that victims are easily transported to the end use point quickly so it becomes difficult to locate them.
    • The victims themselves will not make any hue and cry
    • Sometimes when they are trafficked by inducement and fraud (forced labor, slavery, in the name of love) victim is not aware that he/she is being trafficked till they reach the final point.
    • Lack of awareness in victims regarding compensation:
      • The study also suggests that there remains a lack of information provided to survivors on victim compensation, lack of initiative on the part of legal services authority, low investment on part of legal aid that results in very few survivors having access to compensation.
      • In their study the researchers tracked the details of at least three case studies where the trafficking survivors had received compensation.
      • Survivors were able to apply only when they were informed and a private lawyer was involved in assisting them in filing application for victim compensation, highlighting that from their rescue till rehabilitation, the survivors are in touch with multiple agencies but none of them take any steps to help them get compensation.

    • Way Forward and Conclusion:
      • Strengthening the capacity building: To enhance the capacity building of law enforcement agencies and generate awareness among them, various Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops on Combating Trafficking in Human Beings for Police officers and for Prosecutors at Regional level, State level and District level were held throughout the country.
      • Judicial Colloquium: In order to train and sensitize the trial court judicial officers, Judicial Colloquium on human trafficking are held at the High court level.
      • The aim is to sensitize the judicial officers about the various issues concerning human trafficking and to ensure speedy court process.
      • Police should be proactive in booking the cases under trafficking provisions. Often cases are booked as kidnapping or missing person cases even though there is clear evidence of trafficking.
      • Increase investigations and prosecutions of officials allegedly complicit in trafficking, and convict and punish those found guilty
      • Improve central and state government implementation of protection programs and compensation schemes to ensure trafficking victims receive benefits, release certificates, and rehabilitation funds
      • Develop and implement standard operating procedures (SOPs) to harmonize victim identification and repatriation, and the prosecution of suspected traffickers when trafficking crimes cross state lines
      • Shelter homes need to upgraded to protect children and provide necessary services to them.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

4. How far India goes in achieving its billion-plus dreams will be decided by how well it nourishes its children. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is based on “Thousand days of nutrition, and a billion dreams” which was published in The Hindu. It talks about the linkages between Malnutrition, Covid-19 and POSHAN Abhiyaan. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to discuss the importance of nutrition to Children in the country and throw light upon the dismal picture of malnutrition.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. It places a burden heavy enough for India, to make it a top national priority.

Body:

Highlight first the vicious Cycle of Poverty and Malnutrition. Quote some statistical data; As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4 (2015-16), 35.7 per cent children below five years are underweight, 38.4 per cent are stunted and 21 per cent are wasted in the country. The indicator Children under 5 years who are underweight (weight-for-age) is one of the composite indicators for child malnutrition.

Malnutrition can be a drain on the potential human resources of India, can have a profound effect on dropout rates, educational outcomes etc. Children who pull through malnutrition find themselves in a very rocky path, in the absence of adequate necessary nutrients, their body parts do not develop to the fullest, including the brain.

Malnutrition can be a drain on the potential human resources of India, can have a profound effect on dropout rates, educational outcomes etc.

Then explain the cost of malnutrition to the society, explain its importance in building nation of a million plus dreams.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting solutions.

Introduction:

Malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalances in a person’s intake of energy and/or nutrients. As per the National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-4 (2015-16), 35.7 per cent children below five years are underweight, 38.4 per cent are stunted and 21 per cent are wasted in the country. The indicator Children under 5 years who are underweight (weight-for-age) is one of the composite indicators for child malnutrition.

Body:

  • Initiatives taken by government:
  • ICDS:
    • High priority was accorded to reducing undernutrition in preschool children.
    • The Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) was aimed at providing food supplements to children from poor and marginalized sections to bridge the gap between requirement and actual dietary intake.
    • Another component of ICDS Programme was weighing children for early detection of growth faltering and undernutrition.
  • Universal Salt Iodization:
    • National Iodine Deficiency Control Programme (NIDDCP) was initiated in 1992 with the goal that all salt for human consumption will be iodized to ensure universal household access to iodized salt.
    • There are a number of existing programmes targeting nutrition outcomes, directly or indirectly.
    • These include the National Health Mission – Janani Suraksha Yojana, the National Rural Drinking Water Programme, Matritva Sahyog Yojana, SABLA for adolescent girls, Mid-day Meal Scheme, Targeted Public Distribution System, National Food Security Mission, MGNREGA and the National Rural Livelihoods Mission among others.
  • National Nutrition Mission:
    • NNM has introduced a central nodal agency with extensive financial resources to coordinate various central and state government schemes and imbue them with additional financial resources.
    • The Programme will cover all states and districts in a phased manner.
    • The core strategy of the mission is to create decentralized governance systems with flexibility given to states, districts and local level with robust monitoring, accountability and incentive frameworks that will encourage local solutions.
    • More than 10 crore people are likely to be benefitted by this programme.
    • POSHAN Abhiyaan -PM’s Overarching Scheme for Holistic Nourishment from Jhunjhunu in Rajasthan.
    • The Programme through the use of technology, a targeted approach and convergence strives to reduce the level of stunting, undernutrition, anemia and low birthweight in children, as also, focus on adolescent girls, pregnant women and lactating mothers, thus holistically addressing malnutrition.
    • The programme aims to ensure service delivery and interventions by use of technology, behavioral change through convergence and lays-down specific targets to be achieved across different monitoring parameters over the next few years.
  • POSHAN Atlas:
    • To map the crops and food grains grown in different regions of the country so that nutritious protein rich food in local areas can be promoted.
    • Indian Government has taken important steps, such as the release of fortification standards for five staples by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) to fight micronutrient malnutrition, release of food composition tables by the National Institute of Nutrition to increase focus on dietary diversity, and now, the release of nutrition data to address the issue of malnutrition more holistically.
    • The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG)-2 goal, which aims to “end hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture”, is a priority area for India, which can offer key solutions for hunger and poverty eradication and also tackle the issue of malnutrition and undernourishment in the country.
  • Challenges still faced in fighting malnutrition:
    • Mother’s health:
      • Scientists say the initial 1,000 days of an individual’s lifespan, from the day of conception till he or she turns two, is crucial for physical and cognitive development.
      • But more than half the women of childbearing age are anaemic and 33 per cent are undernourished, according to NFHS 2006. A malnourished mother is more likely to give birth to malnourished children.
    • Social inequality:
      • For example, girl children are more likely to be malnourished than boys, and low-caste children than upper-caste children.
    • Sanitation:
      • Most children in rural areas and urban slums still lack sanitation. This makes them vulnerable to the kinds of chronic intestinal diseases that prevent bodies from making good use of nutrients in food, and they become malnourished.
      • Lack of sanitation and clean drinking water are the reasons high levels of malnutrition persists in India despite improvement in food availability.
    • Lack of diversified food:
      • With the increase in diversity in food intake malnutrition (stunted/underweight) status declines.
      • Only 12% of children are likely to be stunted and underweight in areas where diversity in food intake is high, while around 50% children are stunted if they consume less than three food items.
    • Lack of food security:
      • The dismal health of Indian women and children is primarily due to lack of food security.
      • Nearly one-third of adults in the country have a body mass index (BMI) below normal just because they do not have enough food to eat.
    • Failure of government approaches:
      • India already has two robust national programmes addressing malnutrition the Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) and the National Health Mission but these do not yet reach enough people.
      • The delivery system is also inadequate and plagued by inefficiency and corruption. Some analysts estimate that 40 per cent of the subsidized food never reaches the intended recipients
    • Disease spread:
      • Most child deaths in India occur from treatable diseases like pneumonia, diarrhoea, malaria and complications at birth.
      • The child may eventually die of a disease, but that disease becomes lethal because the child is malnourished and unable to put up resistance to it.
    • Poverty:
      • The staff of ICDS places part of the blame of malnutrition on parents being inattentive to the needs of their children, but crushing poverty forces most women to leave their young children at home and work in the fields during the agricultural seasons.
      • Regional disparities in the availability of food and varying food habits lead to the differential status of under-nutrition which is substantially higher in rural than in urban areas.
      • This demands a region-specific action plan with significant investments in human resources with critical health investments at the local levels.
    • Lack of nutrition:
      • Significant cause of malnutrition is also the deliberate failure of malnourished people to choose nutritious food.
      • An international study found that the poor in developing countries had enough money to increase their food spending by as much as 30 per cent but that this money was spent on alcohol, tobacco and festivals instead.
    • Measures needed:
    • Anganwadis system is the backbone of India’s nutrition target effort and we really have to improve it.
    • Primary health infrastructure is not strong so proper steps needs to be taken in this regard.
    • Farmers should be encouraged and incentivized for agricultural diversification.
    • Innovative and low-cost farming technologies, increase in the irrigation coverage and enhancing knowledge of farmers in areas such as appropriate use of land and water should be encouraged to improve the sustainability of food productivity.
    • Public Health Management Cadre.
    • The government should improve policy support for improving agricultural produce of traditional crops in the country.
    • Improve ICDS
    • The targeting efficiency of all food safety nets should be improved, especially that of the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS), to ensure that the poorest are included.
    • In addition, fortification of government-approved commodities within the social safety net programmes can improve nutritional outcomes.
    • Child feeding practices should be improved in the country, especially at the critical ages when solid foods are introduced to the diet.
    • Fortification, diversification and supplementation may be used as simultaneous strategies to address micro and macronutrient deficiencies.
    • Storage capacity should be improved to prevent post-harvest losses.
    • There is a need for more robust measures that can take cognizance of all aspects of SDG 2.
    • All the major welfare programmes need to be gender sensitive.
    • The inherited dehumanizing poverty explains the persistence of malnutrition on a large scale.
    • Children born in impecunious circumstances suffer the most from malnutrition. It is all the more reason for governments to intervene to provide adequate nutrition to all.
    • Taking medical services to the door step of villages
    • Funds for food to all yield great returns and help in unlocking the full potential of citizens besides strengthening the workforce.
    • Focus to improve the hygiene and cleanliness of our surrounding.
    • Real time delivery of such schemes to the targeted beneficiaries.
    • Schools kids and their parents should be made aware about the various government programmes.

Conclusion:

Truly grasp the depth and breadth of the COVID-19-caused nutrition crisis, the country must track nutrition indices through data systems. Evidence generated through data will also serve well to track the positive impact of POSHAN Abhiyaan, and course correct on the long journey to a well-nourished India. It takes time for nutrition interventions to yield dividends, but once those accrue, they can bring transformative generational shifts. Filling in the nutrition gaps will guarantee a level-playing field for all children and strengthen the foundations for the making of a future super-power.

 

Topic : GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources

GS-3: Awareness in the fields of IT

5. With the effects of the pandemic becoming increasingly severe by the day, there has been an almost total shift to online modes of operation, in this context analyse if access to internet is a luxury or a right?(250 words)

Reference: epw.in

Why the question:

The article brings us closer analysis of whether access to Internet is a luxury or a right.

Key Demand of the question:

With the effects of the pandemic becoming increasingly severe by the day, there has been an almost total shift to online modes of operation, in this context analyse if access to internet is a luxury or a right.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the background of the question.

Body:

Explain that with the effects of the pandemic becoming increasingly severe by the day, there has been an almost total shift to online modes of operation. However, this has created a huge digital divide in the country, aggravating the already existing inequalities.

One can present the case study of Covid-19 and the associated lockdown and in what way it forced every citizen to switch and access Internet as a rightful service.

 To realize the dream of a digitally inclusive India, internet has to be provided as a public good and at subsidized rates for low-income households.

Discuss the effect of internet access in association with the factors of inequalities and fairness.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Pandemic has outlined, more sharply than ever before, the digital divide and differential access, which are pushing the poor to high-risk behavior. COVID-19 emerged as a critical driver of digital transformation in India and the world. Concurrently, the societal ­divide has deepened alarmingly, as physical distance, the new lifestyle of work from home, and digitalization have become the new normal.

Body:

  • Total shift to online modes of operation:
  • In lockdown, people have veered to their computers and smartphones as lifelines and tools to substitute their in-person activities.
  • We have started learning to live differently, to learn, express, socialize, shop, worship and collaborate differently; we are doing all of this online.
  • The sudden shift to everyone living their lives online has led to unprecedented congestion and strain on critical information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure.
  • it is true that many are just realising how much they depend on digital connectivity, it is only true for those who are connected to the internet. Work from home and disruption of regular schedules, many are spending more time online, turning to digital addiction, often at the cost of personal and professional commitments.
  • Inequalities and Unfairness
  • India is home to the world’s second largest internet user base, consisting of more than 630 million subscribers, that is, more than the total population of the United States, the United Kingdom, Russia and South Africa put together
  • This stands at appro­ximately 49.80% of India’s population.
  • According to Frankfurt-based internet exchange, DE-CIX, data consumption on over-the-top and video-on-demand (VoD) platforms rose by 249% during March and April as against February 2020. During March to July 2020, this demand rose multifold to 947%
  • 20% of India’s population that are not connected and do not have access to basic information and opportunities
  • The internet eased lockdown life for millions. But millions more still cannot get online, and that is fundamentally unfair.
  • The pandemic is contributing to an acceleration in technological change, helping certain businesses stay open digitally and enabling many people to work from home who were previously unable to
  • Those groups who have access to the internet and are well-educated will gain from the shift to online technologies, such as Zoom, WebEx, and Google Meet, for virtual meetings, classes, conferences, communication and interactions, and various other tools to conduct businesses, make/receive payments, etc.
  • So, for the technologically enabled social groups, shift to online technologies will be a boon.
  • But underprivileged communities of our society living on the margins like the Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), backward classes, senior citizens and women who are still lagging in the digital race, have fallen further behind.
  • The pandemic has greatly heightened existing fault lines and inequalities.
  • United Nations Secretary General Antonio Guterres (2020) has observed that the pandemic, like an X-ray, has revealed the “fractures in the fragile skeleton of the societies we have built.”
  • The response to the pandemic “must be based on a new social contract and a new global deal that create equal opportunities for all and respect the rights and freedoms of all”
  • Informal Jobs
  • The pandemic has increased inequality between workers.
  • By the nature of the job that requires in-person presence, those who could not go online, were rendered jobless.
  • But in contrast, for the white-collar professionals who are able to work from home, the pandemic has had a more limited effect on their jobs and earnings.
  • Though they have experienced cuts in salaries and to little extent foreshortened the jobs, earnings continued, whereas the informal sector lost all earnings.
  • The rich and the entrepreneurial classes sustained themselves ­despite the lockdown, as some of the businesses shifted online.
  • The government’s responsive policies are also assuming that online economy works for everyone, whereas more than half of the population still cannot access an ­internet connection.
  • Education
  • There are few options other than shifting to digital platforms from the traditional face-to-face mode of classroom learning.
  • Teachers and school administrators have been advised to continue communication with students through virtual lectures or portals like massive open ­online courses.
  • However, in the absence of physical classrooms and proper digital infrastructure, both teachers and students are facing unprecedented challenges
  • The earning member of the family has to carry the phone while going out to work in a family with only one phone
  • In a family that has, say, three children, how does one decide who gets to attend classes, assuming the phone is accessible
  • The major challenge of homeschooling is the disparity in access —from electricity and internet connections to devices like computers or smartphones.
  • The impact is likely to be long term with the loss of six months’ education having a knock-on effect on future schooling, although the effects would be regional, with some rural areas, in particular, or poor parts of cities, suffering more than others.
  • This will accentuate and create new digital divides, adversely affecting further education and career paths of final-year school students.
  • Rural–Urban and Gender Divide
    • Even though 66% of the country’s population lives in its villages, rural internet density is just 25.3%. In comparison, urban areas have a significantly higher density of 97.9
    • Backward regions, hilly terrains and large tracts of rural India still struggle to get quality, uninterrupted access to internet, leave alone their affordability, capability to adopt and use latest instruments and apps in daily life.
    • People living in rural areas, low-income households and those residing in less developed states also get less reliable internet
    • Services such as online classrooms, financial transactions and e-governance invariably require access to internet as well as the ability to operate internet-enabled devices like phones, tablets and computers. Here, the urban–rural distinction is quite stark
    • India has among the world’s highest gender gap in access to technology.
    • Only 21% of women in India are mobile internet users, according to Global System for Mobile Communications Association’s 2020 mobile gender gap report, while 42% of men have internet access
    • The report says that while 79% of men own a mobile phone in the country, the number for women is 63%
  • While there do exist economic barriers to girls owning a mobile phone or laptop, cultural and social norms also play a major part.
  • The male–female gap in mobile use often exacerbates other inequalities for women, including access to information, economic opportunities, and networking
  • Digital Divide as a Challenge
    • Governor of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Shaktikanta Das, while recognising the “clear disconnect” bet­ween stock markets and the real economy, described it as a global phenomenon and attributed it wholly to the monetary response to the Covid-19 crisis of developed country central banks
    • That response involved the injection of trillions of dollars of cheap liquidity, some of which found its way into stock markets, including in emerging economies like India.
    • In the governor’s view, that is what resulted in a stock market revival, even when the real economy was steeped in a crisis
    • How­ever, it is typically the rich with knowledge of equity and bond markets, having access to internet and knowledge about information technology who own stocks, bonds and other financial assets.
    • Thus, they benefit from the boom of financial economy.
    • Easy liquidity policies to revive the sliding economy ends up benefiting the rich class, further widening wealth inequality. Notably, more than 1.2 million new ­investors opened demat accounts with the Central Depository Services Limited (CDSL) in March and April 2020, and the month of April saw the National Stock Exchange internet trading volume rise by 53% despite the ongoing nationwide lockdown and economy slowdown
    • This is an indication of more and more retail investors in the country taking to equities as against the traditional forms of investments like bank deposits, gold, etc.
    • Participation in digital economy powered by access to the internet as means, disproportionately rewards some and excludes others.
    • This digital divide is as much a symptom and a cause of these broader techno-economic phenomena and regarding it as a simple issue of connectivity is simplistic and reductive.
    • The use of internet and digital devices has increased exponentially in all spaces during the past decade. Governance got digitized with the increased use of computers.
    • Aadhaar, the unique identity card, evolved as mandatory proof of identity and address document, for availing different subsidies, benefits, services and easy regulatory compliances.
    • With India’s vast population and geographic dispersion, one of the major challenges of the government is to reach and provide ­access to all to the different government services.
    • National Optical Fibre network through BharatNet, National e-Governance Plan and Digital India campaign are focused towards such an empowering change in our country
    • The recently launched National Digital Health Mission (NDHM) envisions seamless personal health data portability across hospitals, diagnostic, pharmacists, laboratories, radiology clinics, ­insurers and others
    • Soon, instead of ferrying medical records in polythene carry bags from doctor to doctor, we should be able to access lab reports, x-rays and prescriptions irrespective of where they are generated and share with consent in real-time with doctors and family members.
    • The digital market may develop a range of applications to facilitate data exchange with all stakeholders.
    • Likewise, primary, secondary and higher education learning/teaching turned to virtual classes on YouTube channels and national broadcaster Doordarshan, YouTube links to chapters.
    • The shift to remote schooling/learning had arrived, under a compelling pandemic lockdown situation.
    • Lack of smartphones and absence of resources for “instant phone recharges and data packs” are key barriers to remote learning.
    • Beyond the impact on education and learning, the digital divide will exacerbate the disadvantage of the unserved, the underserved and the digitally disadvantaged, limiting their access to payments and commerce, healthcare and essentially information.
    • The main cause of this new digital divide is a lack of affordable quality bandwidth, particularly outside major cities in India.
  • Necessity, Not Luxury
  • “Civil rights traditionally have been about race and ethnicity, gender and faith, and orientation. It needs to also include this technical phenomenon called the internet as a legal right’’
  • Internet access has become necessary for employment, education, weather updates, agricultural commodity prices, civic engagement, telemedicine, etc.
  • People need to go online to find work, do homework, obtain many government services and stay connected, especially as more programmes move towards cloud-based subscription models
  • In an era when some Indians are cutting back on groceries and skimping on the rent just to stay online, there is a growing argument that high-speed home internet access is no longer a luxury, but a necessity
  • Thus, access to broadband connectivity evolved as a human right, essential in times like now, but just as essential even in the post-pandemic future as new socio-economic lifestyle, including governance, is entwined with internet. Several countries like Brazil (Law 12965, 2014), Spain (2011), Greece (2008), and Finland (2011) have imposed universal and affordable broadband internet access as a legal obligation to the incumbent service providers.
  • Estonia, in 2000, approved internet access as a basic human right. The Supreme Court rulings in Costa Rica and France declared internet access as a fundamental right
  • Like clean water, electricity and healthcare, broadband access has become a modern-day necessity.
  • The advent of information technology in the first decade of the 21st century itself necessitated the provision of universal internet access.
  • The spread of COVID-19 and the ensuing closure of economy and restrictions on in-person interactions make this seem like a new imperative.
  • The new paradigm demanded that even critical medical consultancy go online with video chat.
  • Welfare measures like providing safe drinking water, food grains through the public distribution system for the needy, and advocating strongly for the right to education as a fundamental right are required to attain better living standards.
  • It is time for the federal and state governments in India to discuss, debate and decide on broadband connectivity as a legal right to ensure universal access and in turn ensure seamless flow of services.
  • At present, this asset is restricted to a small portion of the population with affordability and availability.
  • Enabling Universal Access
  • Public good refers to a good or service made freely available to the public, which is non-rivalrous and non-exclusionary.
  • Regardless of economic attributes, a good/service can be provided as a public good if it has certain social attributes, such as high social value and/ or societal demand for its provision as a public good. The internet presents both
  • Over the last decade, internet connectivity developed as a critical infrastructure like roads, water and electricity for socio-economic development of the nation.
  • With its intrinsic social and economic value, internet access has evolved into a basic human right and an empowering tool.
  • It is time that the government should enable universal access to quality digital infrastructure networks for all and support the development of a digital economy, thus ushering in digital democracy.
  • Governments should promote the efficient provision of the internet as a public good at the national level, to foster economic growth and social inclusion, and at the international level, to establish common standards and a minimum level of internet access for all, and to reduce the digital divide
  • Instead of terming internet connections as a superfluous luxury, the government and public should view it as a crucial necessity to engage in day-to-day activities with public and private institutions and vice versa.
  • Way forward:
  • As a follow-up measure, governments should subsidize internet access for low-income households.
  • At the same time, the private sector must commit to providing equal service and networks to rural and underserved communities so that all individuals can participate in equal ways in digital India
  • Like the common community assets in villages and wards in the urban space for community usage, for example, a community hall for cultural activities, public finance may be invested to develop “common access centres.”
  • When provided with such centres in every habitat, it can develop as a basic asset for effective engagement in socio-economic activities and functions of government, by providing equal access and opportunity.
  • These can emerge as centres of digital literacy, besides supporting digital human capital formation in the underprivileged communities and disadvantaged areas.
  • Public and civil society institutions should earnestly strive to impart skills to live, learn and work in a society where communication and access to information is increasing through digital technologies like internet platforms, social media and mobile/laptop/desktop and television devised systems
  • NITI Aayog should evaluate the urgent need to set up the Digital Equity Fund at the national level to finance core digital inclusion activities at the local level to be carried out with active involvement of state and ­local self-government.
  • This fund can be collected to start with by imposing a notional digital cess on internet service providers and other digital market players.
  • The centrality of digital connectivity in daily life is essential to be recognized by the state.

Conclusion:

Regardless of declaring it as a legal right, the state should provide for universal quality broadband connectivity in India. Otherwise, the digital divide, not the traditional parochial divisions of Indian society, would jeopardize the dreams of a digitally inclusive, comprehensively connected India from emerging as a critical spoke in the digital world.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

6. Discuss the prospects and challenges faced by the Beekeeping sector in the country and explain what needs to be done to realize the full potential of it. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The CSE study on contamination in honey is a wake-up call for a sector with potential, thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the prospects and challenges faced by the Beekeeping sector in the country and explain what needs to be done to realize the full potential of it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present the status of Beekeeping industry in the country, Beekeeping is one of the oldest practices in India but it has gained vast popularity in recent few years and currently, India has about 35 lakh bee colonies and the number of beekeepers and beekeeping companies is increasing day by day in a very fast speed.

Body:

The answer must discuss the potential of the industry and challenges facing it.

Discuss the importance of Bee keeping. The main advantages of beekeeping are:

  • Provides honey, which is the most valuable nutritional food.
  • Provides bee wax which is used in many industries, including cosmetics industries, polishing industries, pharmaceutical industries, etc.
  • Plays an excellent role in pollination. Honey bees are the best pollinating agents which help in increasing the yield of several crops.
  • According to the recent studies, the honey bees venom contains a mixture of proteins which can potentially be used as a prophylactic to destroy HIV that causes AIDS in humans.

Then ponder upon the challenges facing this industry.

Throw light on the efforts made by the government.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

honey production has increased, according to the Ministry of Agriculture, from 51,000 tonnes in 2006-07 to 115,000 tons in 2018-19, India ranks eighth in the world (China being No 1) and fifth as an exporter.

Body:

  • Prospects of Beekeeping:
    • As per Food and Agricultural Organization database, in 2017-18, India ranked eighth in the world in terms of honey production (64.9 thousand tons) while China stood first with a production level of 551 thousand tons.
    • Further, beekeeping can be an important contributor in achieving the 2022 target of doubling farmer incomes.
  • Challenges faced by Beekeeping sector:
    • Beekeeping with Apis Cerena Indica and Apis Mellifera
    • Using the Correct Species for Beekeeping
    • Availability of Genetically Superior Queens for Increased Honey Production
    • Lack of Technical Knowledge for Efficient Management of Colonies for High Honey Yields
    • Lack of Infrastructure at the Grass Roots and National Level for Beekeeping
    • Poor Quality Control for the Production of Honey: Bees are contaminated not only by the use of sugar syrup in processing but also through pesticide and antibiotics use. The use of antibiotics such as terramycin and oxytetracycline to deal with bee-related disease has raised questions in European markets where residue standards are stringent.
    • Lack of sufficient financial help from government and lending institutions for the development of beekeeping.
    • No Control on the Use of Pesticides by Farmers Leading to Death of Bee Colonies in Field Locations.
    • No Tax or other Monetary Benefits for Beekeeping.
  • What needs to be done?
    • Expand the scope: Beekeeping cannot be restricted to honey and wax only, products such as pollen, propolis, royal jelly and bee venom are also marketable and can greatly help Indian farmers.
    • Increase in area: Based on the area under cultivation in India and bee forage crops, India has a potential of about 200 million bee colonies as against 3.4 million bee colonies today. Increasing the number of bee colonies will not only increase the production of bee-related products but will boost overall agricultural and horticultural productivity.
  • Recommendations made by Beekeeping Development Committee under EAC-PM:
    • The Economic Advisory Council to the Prime Minister had set up a Beekeeping Development Committee under the Chairmanship of Professor Bibek Debroy.
    • BDC was constituted with the objective of identifying ways of advancing beekeeping in India, that can help in improving agricultural productivity, enhancing employment generation, augmenting nutritional security and sustaining biodiversity.
    • Some of the recommendations in the report include:
      • Recognizing honeybees as inputs to agriculture and considering landless Beekeepers as farmers.
      • Plantation of bee friendly flora at appropriate places and engaging women self-help groups in managing such plantations.
      • Institutionalizing the National Bee Board and rechristening it as the Honey and Pollinators Board of India under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers’ Welfare. Such a body would engage in advancing beekeeping through multiple mechanisms such as setting up of new Integrated Bee Development Centres, strengthening the existing ones, creating a honey price stabilization fund and collection of data on important aspects of apiculture.
      • Recognition of apiculture as a subject for advanced research under the aegis of Indian Council for Agricultural Research.
      • Training and development of beekeepers by state governments.
      • Development of national and regional infrastructure for storage, processing and marketing of honey and other bee products.
      • Simplifying procedures and specifying clear standards for ease of exporting honey and other bee products.

Conclusion:

India’s recent efforts to improve the state of beekeeping have helped increase the volume of honey exports from 29.6 to 51.5 thousand tons between 2014-15 and 2017-18 (as per data from National Bee Board and Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers’ Welfare). India must raise its bar on testing, apply the best technologies, and integrate beekeeping with organic farming initiatives, which will bolster the economic viability of the latter.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Case study

7. You are stranded in traffic in your car. You are driving the car. A poor girl looking very frail approaches you and start begging for money. Looking at he frail appearance, out of compassion, you take out your wallet to search for a ten Rupees note. The girl who is standing very near to you snatches the wallet and starts running. A man on a motorbike who see this act, catches the girl and starts beating her in full view of public. Now the traffic is moving and your car is in the middle of the road.

What will you do in such a situation? And why? (250 words)

Why the question:

The question is a case study.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is an ethical situation that is based on the dilemma faced owing to certain assumptions and virtue of compassion. One has to explain the possible steps that one can take in such situation.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present the summary of the case in question briefly.

Body:

Explain what action should be taken:

 Park Car- so that no disturbance to the traffic.

 Call to destination where I was heading about the emergency so that they will not wait for me.

Reach the spot where the man is beating girl and immediately stop him and ask him not to beat or take law in his hand. Thank him for taking notice of the theft and taking action, but remind him that the girl is very young and could have acted out of hunger too. Remind him gently that it is a public space and such act physical violence could land him in legal trouble. This should lower his anger.

If girl is injured- carry out first aid from the box available in the car. Get her something to eat and drink. Try to know her history and then informing to NGO or child care centre and personally taking to there will be my choice since leaving her just like that will make her to repeat the act since it’s the poverty and poor care made her to act. If these are given girl will desist from such acts.

Make an occasional follow up of the girl with the agency to whom she had been handed over to.

(Please see there are many ways in which the answer can be approached to)

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

In the above case study, I am in a situation, where I need to remove my car from the traffic or I need to safeguard the girl who stolen my wallet. It is a unique case of ethical dilemma between the compassion and civic sense.

Body:

  • Stake holders involved are:
  • Poor Girl: who is in a clutch of poverty.
  • Motorbike rider: who is beating the girl for stealing the wallet in public.
  • Course of Action:
    • Park Car- so that no disturbance to the traffic.
    • Call to destination where I was heading about the emergency so that they will not wait for me.
    • Reach the spot where the man is beating girl and immediately stop him and ask him not to beat or take law in his hand. Thank him for taking notice of the theft and taking action, but remind him that the girl is very young and could have acted out of hunger too. Remind him gently that it is a public space and such act physical violence could land him in legal trouble. This should lower his anger.
    • If girl is injured- carry out first aid from the box available in the car. Get her something to eat and drink. Try to know her history and then informing to NGO or child care centre and personally taking to there will be my choice since leaving her just like that will make her to repeat the act since it’s the poverty and poor care made her to act. If these are given girl will desist from such acts.
    • Make an occasional follow up of the girl with the agency to whom she had been handed over to.

Conclusion:

As Mahatma Gandhiji said, “Poverty is the worst form of violence”. As India is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, poverty is on the decline in the country, with close to 44 Indians escaping extreme poverty every minute, as per the World Poverty Clock. So it is the right time to reap the demographic dividend.


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