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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 19 November 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. What do you understand by judicial barbarism? How democratic barbarism and judicial barbarism are related? Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains to us in what way judicial barbarism is now a systematic phenomenon with deep institutional roots.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the concept of judicial barbarism and differentiate it from democratic barbarism.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Set the context of the question by briefly narrating the background of it.

Body:

Start by defining what judicial barbarism is.

Discuss in detail the components of it; Overwhelming appearance of arbitrariness in judicial decision-making. The application of law becomes so dependent on the arbitrary whims of individual judges that the rule of law or constitutional terms no longer has any meaning.

Then present the concept of democratic barbarism, differentiate the two.

Discuss their implications.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to avoid slipping into such barbarism.

Introduction:

Application of law becomes dependant on arbitrary whims of individual judges that the rule of law or constitutional terms no longer mean anything is known as judicial barbarism. When the law itself becomes a tool for oppression, it turns out to be Democratic Barbarism. Judicial barbarism is now a systematic phenomenon with deep institutional roots.

Body:

Components of judicial barbarism:

  • Overwhelming appearance of arbitrariness in judicial decision-making.
  • The application of law becomes so dependent on the arbitrary whimsof individual judges that the rule of law or constitutional terms no longer have any meaning.
  • The law becomes an instrument of oppression.
  • The court becomes excessively concerned with its version of lese majesty: Like a scared monarch.
  • Democratic barbarism has been part of a global trend. For example, in Turkey, Poland and Hungary the judiciary aids democratic barbarism.

Relationship between the democratic barbarism and judicial barbarism:

  • Democratic barbarism: It is a politics that sees protest, dissent, and freedom of expression all through the prism of potential enemies of the state. It occurs when the state treats a section of its own citizenry as enemies of the people.
  • Judicial barbarism: For example, weak protection for civil liberties and dissenters and an unusual degree of deference to state power, especially in constitutional matters. Giving judicial form to the language of democratic barbarism.

Signs that Indian judiciary slipping into judicial barbarism:

  • Misuse of Power of contempt: Maintaining credibility by its power of contempt.It is now a systematic phenomenon with deep institutional roots.
  • Favouritism in listing of cases: The court has refused to do timely hearings of casesthat go to the heart of the institutional integrity of a democracy. For example, the electoral bonds case.
  • Arbitrariness in courts processes: The rules for the grant or denial of bail by the Supreme Court and correspondingly by several high courts have reached new levels of arbitrariness. For example, Patriots like Sudha Bharadwaj or thinkers like Anand Teltumbde are being denied bail. Similarly, the fate of so many young student anti-CAA protestors remains uncertain.

Possible implications of the institutional efficiencies:

  • Legitimises bad laws: Barbarism will slowly creep into the ideological foundations of the state. For example, legislation on “love jihad”.
  • Growth of Inequality: Few people are not treated equal citizens before the law. The democratic barbarism now directly aided by judicial power.
  • Affects Fundamental Rights: As per Justice SA Bobde’s that the Supreme Court is trying to discourage the use of Article 32. Article 32 is one of the glories of the Indian Constitution that protects fundamental rights. It can be suspended only in a state of emergency.

Conclusion:

Every issue should not be thought through the prism of partisan combat. There is need to protect the respectability for the institution.

 

Topic : Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Article 32 affirms the right to move to the Supreme Court if a fundamental right is violated. How does this provision of the Constitution define this right, and how has the SC interpreted it over the years? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Recently a Supreme Court Bench headed by Chief Justice of India S. A. Bobde observed that it is “trying to discourage” individuals from filing petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the interpretation of article 32 over the years.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the provisions of Article 32. And discuss the present context; the observation came during the hearing of a petition seeking the release of journalist Siddique Kappan, who was arrested with three others while on their way to Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, to report on an alleged gang rape and murder.

Body:

Explain what is Article 32? – It is one of the fundamental rights listed in the Constitution that each citizen is entitled. Article 32 deals with the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’, or affirms the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution.

Discuss what the issue all about is.

Present the views and observations of the Supreme Court over the years one by one. Present the previous judgments too.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Constitutional experts say that it is eventually at the discretion of the Supreme Court and each individual judge to decide whether an intervention is warranted in a case, which could also be heard by the High Court first. There is need to bring in more clarity by judiciary on the matter of article 32 so that people do not lose their hope in the justice system as the ultimate remedy for the violation of their rights.

Introduction:

Article 32 of the Constitution (Right to Constitutional Remedies) is a fundamental right, which states that individuals have the right to approach the Supreme Court (SC) seeking enforcement of other fundamental rights recognised by the Constitution. Article 32 deals with the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’, or affirms the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution.

Body:

It states that the Supreme Court “shall have power to issue directions or orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo-warranto and certiorari, whichever may be appropriate, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by this Part”. The Article cannot be suspended except during the period of Emergency.

Significance of Article 32

  • The Article is included in Part III of the Constitutionwith other fundamental rights including to Equality, Freedom of Speech and Expression, Life and Personal Liberty, and Freedom of Religion.
  • Only if any of these fundamental rights is violated can a person can approach the Supreme Court directlyunder Article 32.
  • In the Constituent Assembly debates, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar said that without article 32 this Constitution would be a nullity. He further said that “It is the very soul of the Constitutionand the very heart of it”
  • Article 32 is one of the greatest safeguardsthat can be provided for the safety and security of the individual.
  • Since Article 32 gives a person the right to approach the Supreme Court as a remedy if fundamental rights are violated, “it is a right fundamental to all the fundamental rights” guaranteed under the Constitution.

Can High Courts be approached in cases of violation of fundamental rights?

  • Both the High Courts and the Supreme Court can be approached for violation or enactment of fundamental rights through five kinds of writs
  • In civil or criminal matters, the first remedy available to an aggrieved person is that of trial courts, followed by an appeal in the High Court and then the Supreme Court.
  • When it comes to violation of fundamental rights, an individual can approach the High Court under Article 226 or the Supreme Court directly under Article 32. Article 226, however, is not a fundamental right like Article 32.

Supreme Court’s observations on Article 32:

  • In Romesh Thappar vs State of Madras (1950), the Supreme Court observed that Article 32 provides a “guaranteed” (SC cannot refuse) remedy for the enforcement of fundamental rights.
  • During the Emergency, in Additional District Magistrate, Jabalpur vs S S Shukla (1976), the Supreme Court had said that the citizen loses his right to approach the court under Article 32

Recent trends:

  • In the case of the journalist Siddique Kappan,the court asked why the petitioners could not go to the High Court. It has sought responses from the Centre and the UP government, and will hear the case later this week.
  • In another case invoking Article 32, filed by a Nagpur-based man arrested in three cases for alleged defamatory contentagainst Maharashtra CM Uddhav Thackeray and others, the same Bench directed him to approach the High Court first.
  • In another matter, three-judge Bench of SC had issued a contempt notice to the Assistant Secretary of the Maharashtra Assembly who, in a letter to Republic TV editor-in-chief Arnab Goswami,had questioned him for approaching the top court against the breach-of-privilege notice. The court had then said that the right to approach the Supreme Court under Article 32 is itself a fundamental right
  • The above instances have been cited by Citizen Activists to criticize the working of Judiciary where access to Justice at apex level is liable to influence and power.

Conclusion

Constitutional experts say that it is eventually at the discretion of the Supreme Court and each individual judge to decide whether an intervention is warranted in a case, which could also be heard by the High Court first.

 

Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. With the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership expected to impact investment flows into India, the country faces trials in maintaining its capability against highly competitive countries in the post-Covid world. Critically analyse. (250 words )

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains that the RCEP and the ‘China +1 strategy’ is likely to impact investment flows into Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Indonesia, which have emerged as key investment destinations.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse in what way India could face an uphill task in maintaining its viability against highly competitive countries in the post-pandemic world.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the context of the question briefly.  

Body:

First throw light on the aspects of post-pandemic economy.

The Asia region is expected to see remarkable growth with the formal launch of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Its growth would depend on the role of trade and investment flows into these economies, and this would again be the centerpiece of global growth.

The 15 RCEP member countries account for nearly 30% of the global GDP.

This largest free trade agreement in the world includes provisions to cover the entire gamut of trade and commerce.

Explain what the challenges before India are.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s approach to the changed scenario needs to be well-calibrated.

Introduction:

RCEP is a trade deal that was originally being negotiated between 16 countries including India, after exit of India, now has been signed by 15 countries. 10 Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) members: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. 5 other FTA partner countries of ASEAN: Australia, China, Korea, Japan, and New Zealand.

Body:

To strengthen economic linkages and to enhance trade and investment related activities between participating countries. The Global Economic Stagnation due to Covid-19: With global trade and the economy facing a steep decline due to Covid-19 pandemic, RCEP can serve as a bulwark in containing the free fall of the global economy and re-energising economic activity.

Reasons for India’s Withdrawal

  • Unfavourable Balance of Trade:Though trade has increased the post-Free Trade Agreement with South Korea, ASEAN countries and Japan, imports have risen faster than exports from India.
  • India has a bilateral trade deficit with most of the member countries of RCEP- Niti Aayog.
  • Role of China:India has already signed FTA with all the countries of RCEP except China. Trade data suggests that India’s deficit with China, with which it does not have a trade pact, is higher than that of the remaining RCEP constituents put together.
  • This trade deficit is the primary concern for India, as after signing RCEP cheaper products from China would have flooded the Indian market.
  • Further, from a geopolitical perspective, RCEP is China-led or is intended to expand China’s influence in Asia.
  • Non-acceptance of Auto-trigger Mechanism:To deal with the imminent rise in imports, India had been seeking an auto-trigger mechanism.
  • Auto-trigger Mechanism would have allowed India to raise tariffs on products in instances where imports cross a certain threshold.
  • However, other countries in the RCEP were against this proposal.
  • Protection of Domestic Industry:India had also reportedly expressed apprehensions on lowering and eliminating tariffs on several products like dairy, steel etc.
  • For instance, the dairy industry is expected to face stiff competition from Australia and New Zealand.
  • Currently, India’s average bound tariff for dairy products is on average 35%.
  • The RCEP binds countries to reduce that current level of tariffs to zero within the next 15 years.
  • Lack of Consensus on Rules of Origin:India was concerned about a “possible circumvention” of rules of origin.
  • Rules of origin are the criteria used to determine the national source of a product.
  • Current provisions in the deal reportedly do not prevent countries from routing, through other countries, products on which India would maintain higher tariffs.

Suggestions:

Need for Economic Realism: India should deter seeing RCEP only from the Chinese perspective.

  • India should acknowledge – RCEP trade bloc represents 30% of the global economy and world population, touching over 2.2 billion people, and staying out may result in suboptimal economic growth without leveraging Asia-Pacific demand.

Development of Indo Pacific : Japan & Australia, as they chose to bury their geopolitical differences with China to prioritise what they collectively see as a mutually beneficial trading compact.

Strategic Need: It is not just because gains from trade are significant, but the RCEP’s membership is a prerequisite to having a say in shaping RCEP’s rules.

  • To safeguard India’s interests and the interests of several countries that are too small to stand up to the largest member, China.
  • Moreover, staying out of RCEP may also affect India’s Act East policy.

Way forward

India, as an original negotiating participant of RCEP, has the option of joining the agreement without having to wait 18 months as stipulated for new members in the terms of the pact.

  • India required to make its domestic industries competitive and strong enough to compete in any international market. It will make negotiating any international agreement easy and profitable.
  • Conclusion of 17th ASEAN-India Virtual Summit and adoption of ASEAN-India Plan of Action for 2021-2025 proves that despite conclusion of RCEP, ASEAN countries are welcoming towards India. India must try to find out possibilities of increasing trade with ASEAN countries.
  • India currently has agreements with members like the ASEAN bloc, South Korea and Japan and is negotiating agreements with members like Australia and New Zealand.
  • Reviews of its existing bilateral FTAs with some of these RCEP members as well as newer agreements with other markets with potential for Indian exports.
  • India should invest strongly in negotiating bilateral agreements with the US and the EU.

 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. What are transferable development rights? Discuss their possible contribution to the development of the urban areas in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The opinion from financial express explains to us in what way transferable development rights can prove to be a win-win deal.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain the concept of transferable development rights in detail and discuss their possible contribution to the development of the urban areas in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what transferable development rights are.

Body:

Transferable Development Rights or TDR is an economic tool that has been successfully tried and tested internationally in various forms. It enables cost savings and meets the infrastructural needs without compromising on the location, time and rights of the property owners.

In India, this tool was first used in Mumbai and later in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Pune, and others, with varied purposes and responses. Hyderabad adopted this tool in a user-friendly way. First, let us understand what this tool is and what it means to urban dwellers.

Discuss how it is a win-win deal, where property owners get timely and market-based returns from their property, and urban local bodies get space to provide facilities without huge expenditure for a larger public good.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and its importance.

Introduction:

Transfer of Development Rights (TDR) is a zoning technique used to permanently protect land with conservation value (such as farmland, community open space, or other natural or cultural resources) by redirecting development that would otherwise occur on this land (the sending area) to an area planned to accommodate growth and development (the receiving area).

Body:

Transferable Development Rights or TDR can be considered as an important raw material in the real estate industry as it allows the developer to build over and above the permissible Floor Space Index (FSI) under the prevalent rules of the respective locations. On the back of growing urbanization and lack of availability of space, TDR assumes a greater importance especially in the suburban areas of the cities.

Based on the stage of development, a city is classified into various zones like fully developed, moderately developed and sparsely developed.
There are four types of TDR that are generated – Road TDR, Reserved plots TDR, Slum TDR and Heritage TDR. In most of the cities, majority of the construction activities take place with the aid of slum TDR.

Potential of TDR:

  • Achieve various policy goals. The city of São Paulo, for example, has used an instrument certificates of additional construction potential bonds as a tool to create development rights for up-zoning.
  • Legal mechanism offers some local government jurisdictions as a form of development control.
  • A way to avoid constitutional takings issues caused by rezoning areas that would otherwise eliminate a significant amount of value from the property.
  • Offers landowners financial incentives or bonuses for the conservation and maintenance of the environmental, heritage or agricultural values of their land.
  • Development rights can in some jurisdictions be used, unused, sold, or otherwise transferred by the owner of a parcel.
  • TDR certificates can be traded in the market for cash, most of the developers purchase the same and utilize them for increasing their permissible development rights.
  • The Transferable Development Rights are usually transferred from the fully developed zones to other zones and not vice-versa. For example, in the case of a city like Mumbai, the TDR which is generated in the island city (i.e. southern part) will be utilized for development in the suburban areas (i.e. northern part). The underlying principle of such utilization is also to facilitate development of the underdeveloped areas.
  • TDR trading follows the open market principle wherein the pricing is entirely driven by demand, supply and availability and there is no Government control over the same.
  • TDR credit banks can be used to store development rights that have been purchased if there is not yet a receiving area development identified.
  • This mechanism is used when the time of the sale in the sending area is not concurrent with a development in the receiving area.
  • Useful in communities that have the opportunity to purchase the rights from an area of high conservation interest but do not have a development that can receive higher density at the time.

Receiving districts are typically are located urban areas that are ripe for development. Receiving districts are generally areas more suited for higher density developments and sending districts are areas with environmental, heritage or agricultural values that the county, city or town wishes to preserve.

India is at the brink of a massive transition from being predominantly rural to half urban in the next two decades. Our 7,000-odd cities are minting over 70% of the country’s GDP, whilst dismally crumbling under the lack of basic infrastructure and inefficiently used costly urban land.

TDR credit banks should be operated by a third party organization that is empowered to negotiate the sale of development rights such as a non-profit organization or an agency operating within the community.

Conclusion:

Undoubtedly, it is a fiscal tool and needs to be handled very carefully. It will take skilled planners, professional staff, awareness among citizens and the private sector to channelise TDR into urban reality. Indeed, all urban local bodies already mired under financial stress, human resource deficits and huge development pressure might not have adequate resources, to design and implement a suitable TDR product.

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6.  Define emotional intelligence and explain its major components. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the concept of emotional intelligence and its components.

Key Demand of the question:

Define emotional intelligence and explain its major components.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of emotional intelligence.

Body:

Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as knowing and understanding one’s own emotions and other’s emotions and regulating one’s emotions to behave in a socially desirable manner. In simple way, it is about intelligent management of emotions for effective behaviour.

Explain in detail the four components of EI; self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, social skill management.

Give examples to justify the importance of these components in detail.

Conclusion:

According to research done by Daniel Goleman, 80% of success at work depends on EI while 20% on IQ. The civil servants should have high EI along with aptitude and skills to tackle the difficult situations they face in day-to-day administration.

Introduction:

Emotional intelligence or EI is the ability to understand and manage your own emotions, and those of the people around you. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth.

Body:

Concept of EI:

According to Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist who helped to popularize emotional intelligence, there are five key elements to it:

  • Self-awareness:
    • The ability to recognize and understand personal moods and emotions and drives, as well as their effect on others.
    • Hallmarks of self-awareness include self-confidence, realistic self-assessment, and a self-deprecating sense of humour.
    • Emotional awareness: This deals with knowledge of one’s emotions and their effects. People having this competency are more aware of their feelings and performance.
    • Accurate self-assessment: This involves being aware of one’s strengths and weaknesses. One is open to feedbacks, new viewpoints, etc.
    • Self-confidence: This relates to complete affirmation of one’s worth and abilities. They are usually more confident and are able to make sound decisions despite any uncertainties or pressures
  • Self-management:
    • Ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods, and the propensity to suspend judgment and to think before acting. Hallmarks include trustworthiness and integrity; comfort with ambiguity; and openness to change.
    • Adaptability: This involves flexible attitude towards change. People with this competency find it easy to handle changing routines, multiple roles and even shifting priorities.
    • Innovativeness: This involves getting easy with and open to new information and ideas. People who possess this are able to gather new ideas from multiple sources, set challenging roles and are able to take calculated risks. They evolve original solutions to various problems.
  • Social Awareness:
    • The ability to understand the emotional makeup of other people. A skill in treating people according to their emotional reactions.
    • Empathy does not necessarily imply compassion. Empathy can be ‘used’ for compassionate or cruel behaviour. Serial killers who marry and kill many partners in a row tend to have great emphatic skills.
  • Relationship management:
    • Proficiency in managing relationships and building networks, and an ability to find common ground and build rapport. Hallmarks of social skills include effectiveness in leading change, persuasiveness, and expertise building and leading teams.
  • Motivation:
    • A passion to work for internal reasons that go beyond money and status -which are external rewards, – such as an inner vision of what is important in life, a joy in doing something, curiosity in learning, a flow that comes with being immersed in an activity.

Applications of EI:

  • Emotional intelligence in administration can be used for the following ways:
    • Appraising emotions arising from situations.
    • Using emotions for reason based decisions and policy making.
    • Identifying emotions in faces, voices, postures, and other content during public management activities.
  • Recruitment:
    • EQ measurement is invaluable in selecting and recruiting high performance workers.
  • Predicting performance:
    • Some companies are blending IQ testing with scientific measurement of EQ to predict job performance and direct workers to jobs where they are most likely to succeed.
  • Negotiation:
    • Whether you’re dealing with a trading partner, competitor, customer or colleague, being able to empathize and be creative in finding win-win solutions will consistently pay off
  • Performance management:
    • 360-degree feedback is a common tool for assessing EQ. Knowing how your self-perception compares with others’ views about your performance provides focus for career development and positive behavioural changes
  • Peer relationships:
    • Good networking skills are a staple of job effectiveness for the average worker.
    • Networking has too often been associated with “using” other people, but a heightened EQ ensures a mutually beneficial approach to others.
  • Social responsibility:
    • When a leader cares about others, he is not a centre of attention and keeps everyone in the loop by making their intentions known.
  • Stress tolerance:
    • To stay focused, stress should be managed and it involves own reactions to stress or the reactions of others to the stress.
  • Impulse control:
    • Independent people evaluate the alternatives and initiate the work by taking appropriate action by executing the right options.
    • People who manage their impulses avoid being distracted and losing control of the situation.
  • Optimism:
    • Optimistic people have a target that they’re aiming toward. These people are confident in their ability to carry out the required actions and meet the target by looking for successful solutions to problems.

Conclusion:

Good ethics reaffirm the emotional intelligence of a person. High  emotionally  intelligent  individuals  are  more  adept  at  reasoning  through  the emotional antecedents of their own and others’ behavior and using this information to guide thinking and action. Individuals high on emotional intelligence will be able to manage their emotions and react less aggressively to the behaviours of others.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Discuss why people continuously try to make life safe and secure? Does this endeavor make them selfish and force them for wrongful conduct? Present your opinion. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on ‘human nature’ and the urge of people to continuously try to make life safe and secure.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how the urge of people to continuously try make life safe and secure forces them into wrongful conduct.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Human nature is difficult to understand though many philosophers have tried to understand and explain why human behaves in certain manner.

Body:

In the answer body first explain reasons why people continuously try to make life safe and secure.

Give views by various philosophers; According to Thomas Hobbes human beings always try to secure their lives and their interests. This is animal nature of human. Every animal tries to make its life safe and secure from threats of surrounding environment. In similar way, human being also tries to protect self. In pursuance of these efforts, they may act in selfish manner or wrongful conduct.

Aristotle viewed human nature from positive perspective. He says that human is political, social and benign animal. It is broader view of human behaviour. In general, people tend to behave in moral manner. They tend to uphold human values such as trust, love, compassion, respect etc.

Give examples and present your viewpoints.

Conclusion:

Though people try to secure their life, they try to make that through moral conduct. Therefore, endeavor of making life safe and secure do not always make people selfish or adopt wrongful conduct.

Introduction:

According to Thomas Hobbes human beings always try to secure their lives and their interests. This is animal nature of human. Every animal tries to make its life safe and secure from threats of surrounding environment. In similar way, human being also tries to protect self. In pursuance of these efforts, they may act in selfish manner or wrongful conduct. Human actions are guided or motivated by various external and internal factors

Body:

Need for secure life

  • To fulfil the basic needs of life
  • To enhance or enrich one’s life both materialistically and spiritually
  • To face the uncertainties associated with life
  • To maintain physical and mental well being

In this pursuit often at times people tend to become ethically egoistic where they act in self-interest, doing things that only maximizes our happiness and minimize their unhappiness.

Negative impacts of such acts

  • Universalization of selfishness
    • Creating anarchy in the society
  • Contradictions with altruism
  • Does not resolve conflict of interest
    • Self-centred choices
  • Against public service principle
  • Ignores the interest of future generations
    • Global warming and Climate Change

Aristotle viewed human nature from positive perspective. He says that human is political, social and benign animal. It is broader view of human behaviour. In general, people tend to behave in moral manner. They tend to uphold human values such as trust, love, compassion, respect etc.

Positive impacts:

  • Not always detrimental
    • The motivation to help family members and friends is one’s personal connection to them and the distress that would be caused by their misfortune or suffering.
  • Self-preservation is the first law of existence- Mandeville
  • Individual’s self-interest promotes society’s general interest
  • All of our commonly accepted moral duties, from doing no harm to others to speaking truth and keeping promises are rooted in one fundamental principle of self interest

Conclusion:

Jesus said “love thy neighbour as thyself” which is clearly demonstrating a balance between your own needs and those of others – yes you should care about and look after yourself, but you should also recognise the humanity in other people and care about them too: you should not hurt them and where possible you should help them.

Even while pursuing selfish ends, people have to ensure that they can pursue such ends over the long term. If people are too brazen or aggressive in pursuing their selfish ends to the extent of riding roughshod over others, they will meet resistance, people will be wary of them and will avoid them. Then they cannot pursue their ends.


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