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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 3 December 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. Differentiate between tropical and extra-tropical cyclones. (250 words)

Reference: World physical geography by Savindra Singh/ G C Leong ,The Hindu  Business Line 

Why the question:

From Sri Lanka, cyclone ‘Burevi’ to head for South TN coast, thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and one must differentiate between tropical and extra-tropical cyclones.

Directive:

Differentiate – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with basic definition of cyclones introducing the two cyclones.

Body:

The atmospheric disturbances which involve a closed circulation about a low pressure centre, anticlockwise in the northern atmosphere and clockwise in the southern hemisphere, are called cyclones.

They fall into the following two broad categories: (a) Extra-tropical and (b) tropical cyclones.

Differentiate between the two on the basis of various parameters like origin, size etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with recent examples.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: India and its neighborhood- relations.

2. The Nepal-India relationship has never been free of controversy as the perspectives of both sides are yet to change, In this context discuss the need for recalibrating their ties. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on the Nepal-India relationship and the need to recalibrate their ties.

Key Demand of the question:

Bring fore how Nepal-India relationships have never been free of controversies and that there is dire need of recalibrating their ties.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly elucidate the historical ties between India and Nepal.

Body:

Present a timeline that depicts major events between India and Nepal and highlights the controversies around their relations.

Discuss the underlying factors responsible for unchanging perspectives for each other.

Discuss ties at different levels between the two – people to people ties, government to government ties, the China factor etc.

Explain that there are some fundamentals that we simply cannot forget: geography will not change, the border will remain open as millions of livelihoods on both sides depend on it, and China is going to be a big global player with varied interests in the neighbourhood. Therefore, the India-Nepal relationship has to be recalibrated.

Conclusion:

Suggest the need for a relook at the India-Nepal ties in the changing geopolitical circumstances and conclude.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

3.  Discuss briefly the various measures taken by the government in protection of rights of disabled person in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

There has been much outrage expressed over the denial of a sipper and straw to Father Stan Swamy. Thus the article brings us insights on measures taken by the government in protection of rights of disabled person in India.

 Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the measures taken by the government in protection of rights of disabled person in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly give the background of the question; one good way can be by highlighting the recent case and discussing the issues around it.

Body:

The question is pretty much straightforward one has to list down various measures taken by the government in protection of rights of disabled person in India.

Disabled persons have the right to live with their families or with foster parents and to participate in all social, creative or recreational activities. Disabled persons shall be protected against all exploitation and treatment of a discriminatory, abusive or degrading nature.

Discuss laws, policies and other aspects that focus to ensure protection of rights to the disabled persons in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with lacunae if any and that there is much needed to be achieved in this direction yet.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. Discuss what gaps need to be addressed so as to ensure cheaper solar power generation in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

Explain the importance of cheaper solar power generation in the country. The article brings to us the gaps that exist in achieving the same.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the gaps need to be addressed so as to ensure cheaper solar power generation in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Body:

Explain that cheap solar generation cannot by itself fix most of the multi-faceted stresses facing the power system, unless issues of market structure, discom finances, timely payment of generators and contractual sanctity are addressed.

Discuss the concerns in detail, take hints from the article. Until issues of market structure, discom finances, timely payment of generators and contractual sanctity are addressed, the occasional salve of cheap intermittent power will remain just that: temporary relief.

Explain what needs to be done to achieve cheaper solar power, how the gaps can be fixed.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

 Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Do you think Paris agreement can prove to be a panacea for all the environmental issues? Analyse and present your views with suitable arguments. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us insights on the Paris agreement that has been in news for various reasons.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain if in your viewpoint Paris agreement can prove to be a panacea for all the environmental issues.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss first, briefly the background of the question.

Body:

At first, briefly discuss the past efforts of environmental protection.

Talk about – Stockholm Conference (1972), Rio Conference (1992), adoption of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) etc.

Then move on to discuss the Paris Agreement and in what way it can prove to be a panacea ; discuss the associated shortcomings, merits etc.

Conclusion:

The IPCC report acknowledges that “the pathways to avoiding an even hotter world would require a swift and complete transformation not just of the global economy but of society too”. This will only be possible if the world rejects nationalism and parochialism and adopts collaborative responses to the crisis. The Paris Agreement falls short of that imperative.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

6. Privacy and RTI are often labeled as the two sides of same coin. In this context what are the practical challenges in RTI implementation? Also propose the management of conflicts that arise while upholding the both. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently, in a case involving activist Saket Gokhale, the Bombay high court ordered the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting to remove Mr Gokhale’s contact details from its website. Thus the question context.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how Privacy and RTI are often interconnected and thus making it challenging for the RTI implementation. Also discuss the issues involved in the management of conflicts that arise while upholding the both.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

First discuss the link between privacy and RTI.

Body:

List down the issues and challenges posed by such interlinkages between privacy and RTI.

Explain in what way as RTI Act is related to our fundamental right of speech right to expression and right to life. On the other hand, Privacy is now a fundamental right. So, cooperation among these rights is the need of the hour.

Discuss how such a conflict between the two can be resolved. One can present case studies/examples to justify the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Law is nevertheless an indispensable part of the picture. It is a necessary complement to both morality and ethics. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is amidst the link between law and ethics and in what way both go hand in hand.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way law being indispensable has to necessarily complement both morality and ethics.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define law and ethics in the introduction.

Body:

Law is defined as ordinance of reason to achieve common good. Law is reason based and fact based. It has objective standards. Law is generally made by State especially legislature. They deal with various aspects of human affairs. Law becomes the basic for regulating human affairs.

Ethics is a branch of moral philosophy that guides people about the basic human conduct. It sets a standard of how a person should live and interact with other people. It envisages Common Good approach.

 Explain with examples, the role of law for ethical conduct in society.

Then explain how law complements both morality and ethics wherein decision is taken in common interest of the society.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Ethics come into picture specially when law is not able to ensure common good due to its limitation however that does not mean ethics undermines of law.


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