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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 13 November 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

1. Social control and socialization are two faces of same coin. Do you agree? Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference: sociologyguide.com

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of social control and socialization.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to elaborate in what way Social control and socialization are two faces of same coin.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what social control and socialization are.

Body:

Social control and socialization are closely related to each other. Social control is a part of socialization. During the process of socialization the process of social control also is in operation.

 Through socialization social control becomes effective. In order to maintain the social order there are definite procedures in society. These customs and procedures become a part of man’s life and man gets adjusted to the society.

As a matter of fact, societies depend heavily upon effective socialization to internalize social norms and values as the individual’s guides and motives to action. Through socialization societies aim to control the behavior of its members subconsciously.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion on the fact in the question.

Introduction:

Social control has been defined by MacIver as the way in which entire social order coheres and maintains itself –how it operates itself as a whole as a changing equilibrium. Socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus “the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained”.

Socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behaviour, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children.

Body:

Social control and socialization are closely related to each other.

Social control is a part of socialization. During the process of socialization, the process of social control also is in operation. Through socialization social control becomes effective. In order to maintain the social order there are definite procedures in society. These customs and procedures become a part of person’s life and man gets adjusted to the society. Societies depend heavily upon effective socialization to internalize social norms and values as the individual’s guides and motives to action. Through socialization societies aim to control the behaviour of its members subconsciously. The various agencies of socialization like family, state, school, club etc. are also the agencies of social control.

Socialization through social control may lead to desirable outcomes. Individual views are influenced by the society’s consensus and usually tend toward what that society finds acceptable or “normal”.

Social solidarity that is achieved through exercising social control and effective socialisation is essential for the existence of society. No two persons is alike in their nature, ideas, attitudes and interests. Every individual is a separate personality. There are cultural differences among the individuals. As a matter of fact, society is a heterogeneous organization. If every individual is allowed unrestricted freedom to act and behave, it may create social disorder. For an orderly social life social control is necessary. The aims of social control are to bring out conformity, solidarity and continuity of a particular group or society.

The aims of social control are to bring out conformity, solidarity and continuity of a particular group or society.

Various linkages of Socialization with Social Control:

  • Without social control socialization becomes destructive.
  • For Eg: Charles Sobraj case – without social control, his socialization factors caused anti-social behaviours which led to murders of multiple people.
  • The primary reason for rising rapes and domestic violence is the effect of socialisation without social control.
  • Without effective channelling of socialization skills, social control shall lead to isolation of individuals.
  • For Eg: Recent cases of Social isolation during covid times are result of effective social control devoid of socialization.
  • Without social control effective enculturation of different practices through socialisation will not be possible.
  • The rich population diversity of India wouldn’t have been possible without effective social control.
  • If social control is removed and every individual is left to behave freely so-city would be reduced to a state of lawlessness – Cases of Social and Political Anarchy.
  • Law is the most important formal means of social control and channels for socialization.
  • In modern society relationships are of secondary nature. Security of life and property as well as the systematic ordering of relationships make formalization of rules necessary.
  • Law pre-scribes uniform norms and penalties throughout a social system. What were in mores and customs earlier has now been formalized into a body of law.
  • Law prohibits certain actions for example anti-touch ability act prohibits untouchability in any form and a person practising untouchability is liable to punishment. Prohibition act forbids drinking at public places. Law exercises a powerful influence upon the behaviour of people in modern societies.
  • Education is a process of socialization through effective development of social control. It prepares the child for social living. It reforms the attitudes wrongly formed by the children.
  • It teaches him value of discipline, social cooperation, tolerance and sacrifice. It instils in him the qualities of honesty, air play and a sense of right and wrong.

Conclusion:

Socialisation through social control is motivated by self-interest, regulative upon habits and desires for harmonious customary developments. Finally, Creation of Social Capital for collective development of all can only be possible through effective channelization of social energy for development of Social Control and socialisation to develop collective good for all.

 

Topic : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2. Analyse the rise of social media as a consequence of lacunae in the traditional Indian society. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article brings to us detailed analysis of the rise of social media and its impact on our society.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the rise of social media as a consequence of lacunae in the traditional Indian society.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by talking about social media, how it has grown fast into our society impacting millions of lives.

Body:

Discuss the lacunae present in our society that have contributed to the rise of social media; effect of globalisation, differential impact on women, generational gap that is ever widening etc.

Explain then how should be social media ideally used?

Suggest what needs to be done to overcome these challenges and make social media more advantageous.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issues posed by it.

Introduction:

Social media are computer mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information and ideas via virtual communities and networks. Some of the most popular social media websites are Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and LinkedIn.

In the recent years, social media has played a pivotal role in knitting the fabric of the Indian society. It has changed the Indian society from a naive society to a mature one. Social media platforms provided Indians with a platform to raise their voice against injustice and inequality.

Body:

Lacunae in the Indian Society

  • Globalisation has led to the rush of ideas across the world meant that we are no longer connected only to our physical tribes.
  • This has also meant that we do not feel connected to our families and communities in the way that the previous generations were.
  • The disconnect is far more distinct in women than in men because men are more inclined to follow the traditional line of thought;
  • Independent women who have a voice and demand to be heard, who refuse to bow down to the old world order and refuse to fit in with cultural norms of what a woman “ought” to be like.
  • People need to be understood. Their worldview is so different from ours that we have spent much of our lives in isolation; an emotional isolation. The traditional communities fall short in understanding.
  • The isolation of the modern world has not been brought on by technology alone, but by the new ideas and by the distance between the ideas of the present generation and the previous one.
  • To Individuals who didn’t conform to normative ideas of social acceptance, traditional communities did not provide much support or emotional nourishment.
  • There is no replacement for the feeling of being heard and understood that one gets in the presence of people who can empathise, and offer advice that enables you to live a life that you want.

How should be social media ideally used?

  • Used as a substitute: Social media becomes a hindrance and an isolator only when you begin to use it as a replacement for real-life family and friends, ignoring their physical presence when you are glued to your device even in the presence of people around you.
  • Social media is not a substitute for physical networks.
  • Seeking Genuine and Meaningful engagements: Instead of constantly being in battle mode over politics or religion or the newest debate, we need to attempt to genuinely connect with people at a personal level, at the level of ideas and emotions and empathy.
  • A Supplementary aid: There are various support groups popping up on social media now, for this purpose. To help people find their tribes, who would understand them and help them overcome the unending loneliness that is the curse of people whose ideas are vastly different from the physical communities they are a part of.

Way forward

  • In a world that is increasingly becoming a mix of cultures, a mix of identities and a mix of selfhoods, we need a mix of multiple tribes to get through life.
  • The notion of tribes and communities needs to evolve as well.
  • Social media awareness is needed which may enable citizens to be in a position to understand and distinguish between the rights and wrongs of social media

Conclusion

Field of social media is the crossroads between technology, profit, freedom, politics, identity, power and insecurity that any effort to regulate social media will have to traverse. Social media is virtual world which is reflection of physical world; there is need of more concrete efforts to bring social media in concurrence with the physical world.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic :  Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

3. Discuss the role of the Attorney-General of India.(250 words)

Reference: Indian polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is about the role of Attorney –General of India.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and is about discussing the role of AG of India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Attorney General of India is the highest law officer of the country.

Body:

There isn’t much to deliberate about the question; one must explain what the role of attorney general of India is? – The Attorney General is necessary for advising the Government of India on legal matters referred to them. They also perform other legal duties assigned to them by the President.

Discuss in detail the role and responsibilities. Provide recent examples if possible.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the post.

Introduction:

The Attorney General is the chief legal adviser of Government of India. Attorney General of India is appointed by the President under Article 76 of Indian Constitution. Attorney General is said to be the lawyer from the government side.

Body:

Powers and functions of Attorney General of India:

  • As a Chief Legal adviser of the government Attorney General of India has to give the advice to the government of India upon such legal matters which assigned to him by the President.
  • As lawyer from the government side Attorney general is required to appear on behalf of the government of India in Supreme Court in which the government of India is concerned.
  • He may also be required to appear in any High Court on behalf of the government of India which the Government of India is concerned.
  • In the performance of his duties, the Attorney general of India has right to audience in any Court in the territory of India.
  • The Attorney General of India has right to speak and take a part in the proceeding of any house of Parliament, without the right to give vote (Article 88). The Attorney General of India is entitled to get all the immunities and privileges as a Member of Parliament.
  • Unlike the Attorney General of the United States, the Attorney General for India does not have any executive authority. Those functions are performed by the Law Minister of India. Also, he is not a government servant and is not debarred from private legal practice.
  • The Attorney General can accept briefs but cannot appear against the Government. He cannot defend an accused in the criminal proceedings and accept the directorship of a company without the permission of the Government.
  • The Attorney General is assisted by a Solicitor General and four additional Solicitors General. The Attorney General is to be consulted only in legal matters of real importance and only after the Ministry of Law has been consulted. All references to the Attorney General are made by the Law Ministry.
  • He is an advocate of the government and is allowed to take up private practice, provided the other party is not the state.

Conclusion:

The Attorney General is the first Law Officer of India. He is the Chief Legal Advisor to the Central Government and also acts as a lawyer in the Supreme Court on behalf of it. He also represents to the Government of India in any reference made by the President to the Supreme Court under Article 143 of the Constitution. All references are made to the Attorney General by the Union Ministry of Law and Justice.

 

Topic : Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

4. Discuss the role of the Finance Commission as a neutral arbiter in the Centre-state relation. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains the role of the Finance Commission as a neutral arbiter in the Centre-state relation in achieving the delicate balance.

Key Demand of the question:

The Fifteenth Finance Commission led by Chairman N. K. Singh submitted its report for the period 2021-2026 to President of India. Thus the question.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with relevant details of finance commission and its constitutional position in India.

Body:

Discuss in what way the main role of Finance Commission is to act as neutral arbiter in the Centre-state relation.

Its main function is to recommend how the Union government should share taxes levied by it with the states. These recommendations cover a period of five years. The commission also lays down rules by which the centre should provide grants-in-aid to states out of the Consolidated Fund of India.

Elaborate on its powers and functions.

Talk about the recent report of 15th finance commission.

Conclusion:

Highlight the importance of it being a neutral arbiter of centre- states relations. 

Introduction:

Article 280 of the Indian Constitution provides for the President to constitute the finance commission. The Fifteenth Finance Commission led by Chairman N. K. Singh submitted its report for the period 2021-2026 to President of India.

Body:

Role of Finance Commission as a Neutral arbitrator

  • To balance the horizontal and vertical fiscal imbalances
  • Balance the fiscal issues due to differing historical backgrounds or resource endowments
  • Distribution of net proceeds of taxes between Centre and the States
  • Determine factors governing Grants-in-Aid to the states and the magnitude of the same.
  • Ensuring greater financial autonomy to states by increasing the share of revenue- 14th FC
  • Measures needed to augment the Fund of a State to supplement the resources of the panchayats and municipalities in the state on the basis of the recommendations made by the finance commission of the state.
  • Any other matter related to it by the president in the interest of sound finance.

Threats to the neutrality

  • Dominance of the centre in the financial sphere
  • GST and associated irregularities and delayed compensation
  • Increasing cess and surcharges from 9% in 2014-15 to 15.3% in 2019-20- States have no share in the same.
  • Shrinking of divisible pool of taxes
  • Inefficient devolution of the 42% fiscal share to the states as per the 14th finance commission recommendation.
  • 15th FC Recommendations
    • Use of 2011 census for devolution- southern states find the move, a disincentive
    • The viability of creating a separate defence and national security fund as suggested by the Centre; this would result in lower share of funds to the states. – 15th Finance commission recommendation.

Importance of 15 FC

  • Reversing the trend towards fiscal decentralisation.
  • Fiscal architecture is reshaped.
  • How Centre-state relations are reset as the country attempts to recover from the COVID-19 shock.

What could be done by the FC to balance?

  • Any attempt to shift the uneasy balance in favour of the Centre will strengthen the argument that this government’s talk of cooperative federalism serves as a useful mask to hide its centralising tendencies.
  • As a neutral arbiter of Centre-state relations, the Finance Commission should seek to maintain the delicate balance in deciding on contesting claims.
  • This may well require giveaways especially if states are to be incentivised to push through legislation on items on the state and concurrent list.
  • The fiscal stress at various levels of the government necessitates a realistic assessment of the country’s macro-economic situation, the preparation of a medium-term roadmap, as well as careful calibration of the framework that governs Centre-state relations.
  • At this critical juncture, the Finance Commission should present the broad contours of the roadmap.
  • Though it could request for another year’s extension to present its full five-year report citing the prevailing uncertainty.
  • A relook at the Centre’s expenditure priorities would create greater fiscal space 

Way forward

  • The Centre can reduce States’ fears by tabling the report of FC without delay, and address any apprehensions it may give rise to.

Conclusion

Finance Commission has to play an important role in achieving the delicate balance in the conflicting domain of finance by addressing the concerns of both the players. Rajamannar Committee recommended that since FC is a constitutional body, expected to be quasi-judicial. Its recommendation should be heeded by the government.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. How has climate change impacted water resources distribution and availability across India? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: www.researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question is about impact of climate change on water resources distribution and availability in India.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain how climate change has impacted water resources distribution and availability across India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by presenting some key facts that justify the impact of climate change in general.

Body:

The water resources in the country are under the severe threat of climate change in terms of changes in the magnitude and intensity of rainfall, ground water recharge, floods, and drought disasters, including contamination of surface water and ground water resources.

Give examples from across the country in what way it affects the distribution of water too in the various parts.

Substantiate your answer with some key facts.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done, suggest solutions to address the issue.

Introduction:

The scientific evidence is clear: the climate is changing and will continue to change, affecting societies mainly through water. Climate change will affect the availability, quality and quantity of water for basic human needs, threatening the effective enjoyment of the human rights to water and sanitation for potentially billions of people.

Body:

Situation of India’s Water Resource:

  • According to the Water and Related Statistics published by the Central Water Commission, per capita annual water availability in the country has decreased from 1816 cubic metres (cu m) in 2001 to 1544 cum in 2011.
  • As per the Falkenmark Index, if the amount of renewable water in a country is below 1,700 cu m per person per year, the country is said to be experiencing water stress; below 1000 cu m it is said to be experiencing water scarcity.
  • The National Commission for Integrated Water Resources Development (NCIWRD) has projected the total demand for water at 1,180 bcm for a high demand scenario.
  • Water resources are facing pressure due to population explosion, urbanization, rising demand for water from the agriculture, energy, and industry sectors, pollution, inefficient use, poor management and poor institutional mechanisms. Several regions experience water scarcity due to the uneven distribution of water resources over space and time.
  • Economic survey 2018/19 observed that during the years when rainfall levels drop 100mm below average, farmer incomes would fall by 15 percent during the kharif and seven percent during the rabi crops seasons.

Challenges

  • Ever increasing dependence on ground water and its continuous excessive exploitation is adversely affecting the quality of drinking water supply, which is a complex challenge.
  • Drying of water sources, rapid depletion of ground water table, recurrence of drought and deteriorating water management in different states are presenting different types of challenges.
  • Repairs of closed bore pumps, water supply pipelines are not being done on time due to which there is crisis in the area.
  • Fluoride, nitrate, pesticides, etc. were found to be present in more than acceptable limits in the ground water of most cities and about 19,000 villages.
  • Studies by the World Bank and UNICEF show that not only is drinking water inadequate in rural India but its imbalance is widespread across the country.
  • According to official statistics published in the National Health Profile of India-2018, about one quarter or four cases reported in India are due to communicable diseases and one in every five deaths is due to waterborne diseases.
  • About two-thirds of the global population will face extreme water shortage. In real terms water crisis has become a major challenge in India.

Reforms needed:

  • The setting up of river basin organisations for major basins may be expedited.
  • NITI Aayog has developed a concept note on Revitalization of Rivers, which may be implemented on a pilot basis before being expanded across major states.
  • To ensure Aviral and Nirmal Dhara in the Ganga, the river should be managed as a single system.
  • There is need for a scheme on medium term measures for flood management. This should include completion of incomplete works in the states of Assam, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal. Besides, long term measures for Bihar, UP and NE states should be explored to achieve permanent protection from floods. The formation of North East Water Management Authority (NEWMA) in North- East states will comprehensively address the flood issue in the region.
  • A water regulatory framework should be established for water resources in all states.
  • An action plan should be drawn up to improve water use efficiency (with 2017 as the base year) by 20 per cent in all sectors by 2022.
  • The composite water management index developed by NITI Aayog may be used as a potent tool to assess and further improve the efficiency of water resources management.

Way Forward

A coordination mechanism at the field level may be set up for PMKSY to find the reasons for delays in the completion of projects and corrective measures undertaken project wise to
ensure speedy implementation.

Water efficiency

  • Incentivize the wider adoption of sprinkler and drip irrigation by diverting resources otherwise used to subsidize power and surface irrigation.
  • Special emphasis should be laid on desilting of water bodies, including river, lakes, ponds and reservoirs.

Recycle of waste water

  • A pilot scheme to irrigate 10 lakh ha with treated waste water by 2020 may initially be taken up.
  • Industries should be encouraged to meet a major share of their demand through recycled water. Besides, programmes for smart water meters and tradable permits for use of recycled water may be launched.

Groundwater management

  • Participatory aquifer management initiated in the 12th Plan National Aquifer Management (NAQUIM) under PMKSY should be strengthened.
  • The participatory approach to encourage behavioural changes and community engagement in ground water management at the gram panchayat level as envisaged in the Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY) should be adopted and extended to other regions.

Water harvesting

  • Watershed (check dam development)
  • Rainwater harvesting

 

 


General Studies – 4


 

6. Law is nevertheless an indispensable part of the picture. It is a necessary complement to both morality and ethics. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

Question is based on the interlinkages of law, morality and ethics.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the indispensability of law to ethics and morals in any situation.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction should briefly define law and ethics

Body:

In the answer body cover the following aspects relevant to the question –

  • Discuss with examples, the role of law for ethical conduct in society.
  • Explain how law complements both morality and ethics.
  • Give examples to substantiate the statement in question.

Conclusion:

Ethics come into picture especially when law is not able to ensure common good due to its limitation however that does not mean ethics undermines of law.

Introduction:

Laws are rules of conduct that government creates and requires people to obey whereas ethics refers to human conduct based on a set of established standards and morality is combinations of values, principles, and purposes. It’s helpful to have a coherent, consistent account that has been refined through history and can be applied in their day to day lives.

Body:

Ethics, Morality and Law are derived from certain common sources like religion, community values, cultural context, sense of justice, etc. However, ethics can also be a result of one’s own evolution, personal experiences, personal choices, etc.

While laws apply uniformly to all, ethics can vary from person to person and they change more frequently than laws. In case of a breach of law, the state is within its right to punish. Hence, they work as a medium of retributive justice. On the other hand, ethics and morality are not enforceable.

Law is Complementary to Ethics and Morality:

Many laws are representative of ethics of the time and have been shaped by what is considered ethical or immoral. Eg. The idea that everyone is equal before law is derived from the value that human are born equal.

  • At the same time, laws have shaped ethics and morality. They have been used to counter regressive doctrines. Eg. When Sati was abolished, it was not an unethical or immoral practice and derived its legitimacy from religion. But appropriate laws eventually forced to stop the unethical practices.
  • Some actions are ethical and moral, but illegal and some actions are legal, but unethical or immoral. Eg. Lying to a friend might be unethical but it’s not necessarily illegal. In many countries, any speech against the government is punishable by law but it’s ethical for citizens to express their grievances.
  • Some actions are ethical, but illegal and some actions are legal, but unethical or immoral. Eg. Lying to a friend might be unethical but it’s not necessarily illegal. In many countries, any speech against the government is punishable by law but it’s ethical for citizens to express their grievances.

From the above we can say that laws alone are not enough to promote ethical and immoral behaviour. The reasons being:

  • Laws can never be so exhaustive to cover each and every scenario possible. Hence, there will always be scope for discretion. In such scenarios, ethical and moral behaviour should come from within. For Eg: Helping someone in need.
  • There are many scenarios where laws cannot exist.g. we cannot have strict laws to scrutinize every small act of corruption, where only one’s ethical conduct through moral compass guides.
  • Even with laws, some unethical or immoral practices continue to exist. E.g. laws for violence against women have existed for ages. But that hasn’t caused such acts to end.

Conclusion:

Laws ethics and morality may have different reasons for its existence but the underlying idea of all is to maintain socially conductive practices.

 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. What do you understand by ‘global ethics’? How it is related to the concept of ‘Global Village’ or ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

Based on the concept of global ethics, question pertains to its importance for concept of ‘Global Village’ or ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concept of global ethics and its significance and centrality to the concept of ‘Global Village’ or ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define Global ethics.

Body:

The term global ethics refers to a set of common moral values and ethical standards which are shared by the different faiths and cultures on Earth. These common moral values and ethical standards constitute a humane ethic, or, the ethics of humanity.

Explain the meaning of global village and the philosophy of vasudhaiva kutumbakam.

Analyse how concept of global ethics is related to global village and vasudhaiva kutumbakam.

Conclusion:

Promoting Global ethics is need of the hour when the world is facing problems of refugees, climate change, terrorism, poverty and hunger.

Introduction:

Global ethics refers to a set of common moral values and ethical standards which are shared by the different faiths and cultures on Earth. These common moral values and ethical standards constitute a humane ethic, or, the ethic of humanity.

At the root of this fundamental consensus of values, standards and attitudes is a simple but very profound principle: “Treat others as you would like to be treated” or “Do not treat others as you would not like to be treated”.

Body:

Role that global ethics can play in attaining universally accepted goals:

  • globalizing world with its tremendous social, ecological and moral problems needs a globalization of moral values and ethical standards,
  • The interests of one country involve violation of the interests of other nations through
  • for Eg: military intervention, economic aggression, setting rules and agendas unfavourable to weaker countries, or exporting environmental problems, so there needs to be avoidance of this if the global goals are to be achieved.
  • Human needs are to be   met   everywhere; socioeconomic   and   technological   progress   are   to   occur   everywhere; it is the global environment that needs protecting; it is really, parallel to global security, global sustainable development that is the target.
  • Due to the unequal development, lack of resources, global ethics poses a challenge to achieve these goals. It is usually posed in these forms: non-violation; cooperation/ coordination; and positive intervention.
  • Cooperation and coordination between states is essential if many global common goods are to be effectively achieved;
  • For Eg: “peace and security,” environmental regulations (ensuring sufficient compliance), or technology transfer (and the avoidance of excessive patenting, which disadvantages poorer countries as with genetically modified.
  • Assistance or positive intervention may be needed when conditions in other countries are such that governments either will not or cannot address natural and human-made evils properly. Thus there is the need for international aid and for intervention for the sake of human rights.
  • None of these three types of response to global problems could occur without some kind of commitment to global goals as an ethical requirement or acceptance of global responsibilities.

Conclusion:

There is a need to make the golden rule and the many other common ethical standards and shared moral values to be accepted as the global ethic of humankind by as many people as possible. If the great majority of people would practice the golden rule and follow the directives of the global ethics, we would definitively live in a better and much more peaceful and just world where all world will be a global village also known as Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.


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