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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 November 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes

1. What do you understand by ‘recurving of cyclones’? Discuss with recent examples and also focus the factors supporting such events. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently Scientists have revealed that re-curving cyclones play an important role in sensing the movement of cyclones, thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain what you understand by ‘recurving of cyclones’ and discuss with recent examples and also focus the factors supporting such events.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with the definition of ‘recurving of cyclones’.

Body:

Explain in detail the key features of it; on its way to diminish if cyclone gets a sort of second wind by deflected right or eastwards is known as re-curving cyclones. This is due to air currents in the local atmosphere that push cold air from the poles towards the equator and interfere with cyclone formation.

In the southern hemisphere, the cyclones spin clockwise and therefore also re-curve in the opposite direction. During the monsoon months, cyclones in the Western Pacific move westwards towards India and aid the associated rain-bearing systems over the country. However, in the years of a re-curve, they do not give as much of a push to the rain as they do in the good monsoon years.

One can present the example of cyclone Ockhi; present details and explain the effects of recurving.

Conclusion:

Conclude by discussing its implications and suggest solutions to address the same.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.  Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

2. What explains India’s poor rank under the Global Hunger Index, and what are the solutions? And do you think focus on lack of availability of food as the main cause of hunger takes the attention away from ineffective human development policies in India? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us deeper insights on the factors contributing to hunger – mainly the lack of food availability and in what way it has led to ignorance of ineffective human development policies in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain India’s poor rank under the Global Hunger Index, and discuss the possible solutions also explain how it has taken the focus away from the ineffective human development policies in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the fact of India’s status on global hunger index.

Body:

Two recent reports — the annual report on “The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2020” by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations and the 2020 Hunger report, “Better Nutrition, Better Tomorrow” by the Bread for the World Institute  – document staggering facts about Indian food insecurity and malnutrition. Discuss key points from them in the first part of your answer.

Then explain why focus on lack of availability of food is often the main cause of hunger.

Later explain the ineffective human development policies in India that are often shadowed by hunger.

Conclusion:

Suggest solutions to the whole issue like immediate universalization of the PDS, distribution of quality food items and community kitchens etc.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

3. Explain the phenomenon of Blue tide? How does it affect the marine ecosystem of the country? Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Blue tide.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the phenomenon of Blue tide and explain with examples as to how it affects the marine ecosystem of the country.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what Blue-tide is.

Body:

The tide producing a fluorescent blue hue, popularly known as bioluminescence, recently made an appearance at Mumbai’s Juhu Beach and Devgad Beach in Sindhudurg, along Maharashtra’s coastline.

Bioluminescence has been an annual occurrence along the west coast since 2016, especially during the months of November and December. The spectacle occurs when phytoplankton (microscopic marine plants), commonly known as dinoflagellates, produce light through chemical reactions in proteins. A wave disturbs these unicellular microorganisms and makes them release blue light.

Explain its effects on marine ecosystem.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue and suggest way forward.

 

Topic: GS-2: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

 GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. What has been India’s experience with FTAs in the past? Why are FTAs not working as expected for India? What are the steps taken by India to strengthen its existing FTAs? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

Recently, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) was finally signed with participation of 15 members including 10 ASEAN member countries, after over a decade of negotiations. While it is being described as the world’s largest free trading agreement, India had decided against joining RCEP last year citing several concerns.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the India’s experience with FTAs in the past and why are FTAs not working as expected for India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by discussing what FTA’s are.

Body:

FTAs are arrangements between two or more countries or trading blocs that primarily agree to reduce or eliminate customs tariff and nontariff barriers on substantial trade between them.

Then discuss the past experiences of India with respect to FTAs. Explain what significance do free trade/FTAs hold for India in the present global scenario.

Explain India’s experience in detail, while presenting the case of India and Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).

Discuss the steps taken by India to strengthen its existing FTAs.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balance opinion and suggest way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Discuss the importance of Sustainable peat land management and explain in what way it has the potential to prevent future pandemics. (250 words)

Reference: Down to Earth 

Why the question:

The article explains the importance of Sustainable peat land management and in what way it has the potential to prevent future pandemics.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of Sustainable peat land management and explain in what way it has the potential to prevent future pandemics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Peat lands are.

Body:

Start by discussing the importance of Sustainable peat land management – Peatlands harbour a variety of disease-spreading hosts; flora and fauna in them are also being harvested, increasing contact with humans.

Peat lands are rich in biodiversity, including many potential vertebrate and invertebrate vectors, or carriers of disease. These included numerous vertebrates known to represent a risk of spreading zoonotic disease, such as bats, rodents, pangolins and primates. Zoonotic diseases are those that jump from animals to humans.

Take hints from the article and present a case study and explain the need to manage them.

Discuss in what way it has the potential to prevent future pandemics.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of Sustainable peat land management.

 

Topic : Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

6.  India is the world’s biggest producers of jute, in this context discuss the potential of Jute industry while highlighting the issues before it and the reforms required to promote. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article presents deeper insights on the Jute industry of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Bring out the potential and challenges faced by India in the Jute industry and present the reforms that are required to achieve its full potential.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the fact that India is the world’s biggest producer of jute, a sustainable, versatile fibre, but it shows very little imagination for its promotion.

Body:

The body of the answer must capture the following dimensions in detail –

Challenges faced by jute industry in India; Shortage of Raw Material. Despite of the Government efforts to increase area under Jute, India is not self-sufficient in raw material. Obsolete Mills and Machinery; the mills and machinery in Jute sector are obsolete and need technology up gradation etc.

Jute is the second most important industry next to cotton textiles and plays a dominant role in the industrial economy of eastern India supporting nearly 40 lakh. Thus explain the potential of the Industry to the country.

Discuss the future prospects.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7.  What is the main difference between psychological egoism and ethical egoism? Compare and contrast. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude

Why the question:

The question is about differentiating between psychological egoism and ethical egoism? Compare and contrast.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to present the main difference between psychological egoism and ethical egoism.

Directive:

Compare and contrast – provide for a detailed comparison of the two types, their features that are similar as well as different. One must provide for detailed assessment of the two.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the two terms first.

Body:

Ethical egoism

  • It is based on premise of ‘what is good for individual is good for society.’
  • Jeremy Bentham gave this concept.
  • It forms the basis for Utilitarian theory in normative ethics (Maximum pleasure, Minimum pain’).
  • It focuses more on individual liberty, freedom and happiness.

Psychological egoism

  • It is based on premise of ‘human being is selfish brutish and self-protective.’
  • Thomas Hobbes gave this concept.
  • It forms the basis for Social Contract theory given by Thomas Hobbes.
  • Human will sacrifice some rights for sake of peace and order in society.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of the two.


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