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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 27 November 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : GS-1: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. What is “Love Jihad”? critically analyse the issues associated with the law against love jihad. (250 words)

Reference: The Print

Why the question:

The article explains how the UP governments’ anti-‘love jihad’ ordinance can deprive women of their agency.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain what “Love Jihad” is and critically analyse the issues associated with the law against love jihad.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining the context of the question, narrate the background briefly.

Body:

Start by discussing what is the whole controversy about. What is the uproar about and proposal by the government of UP and why it is facing criticism.

The proposal is a vicious mix of patriarchy and communalism. The idea was propounded by Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister. It legitimizes a term that constitutes an obvious insult against inter-faith marriages and relationships in which one of the parties is a Muslim man. The reason for bringing in such a law is that the Hindu women are under the threat from Muslim youth seeking to win over girls for religious conversion in the name of marriage.

Explain what are the flaws in the concept? – There is no legal sanction to political terms such as ‘love jihad’. There can be no legislation based on an extra-legal concept. In any case, legislative intervention in marriages involving consenting adults will be clearly unconstitutional.

Discuss the court rulings in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

 

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2. “To make cities women-friendly, urban planners must focus on two core issues —greater safety from violence and adequate childcare support.” comment. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The article analyses redesigning urban spaces for women in the country and their importance.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the need to make cities women-friendly and that urban planning has key role in achieving it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with statistics and data that show – Urban planning in India does not factor in gender perspectives. The 2019 Safe City Index, prepared by the Economist Intelligence Unit, ranks Mumbai and Delhi as one of the worst cities where women’s safety is concerned.

Body:

Explain that Cities need to be redesigned to address the concerns of women; so that women can work, look after their families easily, and without having to expend more energy, time and money than men do.

Discuss what needs to be done? – To make cities women-friendly, urban planners must focus on two core issues —greater safety from violence and adequate childcare support. Much of the current discourse focuses on improving street lighting and providing safe toilets. These are important but even more critical to making public spaces safer is mixed land-use planning. The segregation of commercial and residential areas automatically increases the commute from work to home and creates entry barriers to mobility for women. Mixed land-use, by encouraging office space and commercial areas in residential localities, makes for regular use of streets, better lighting and encourages women to use public spaces.

Give examples/case studies to justify your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

3. What are desalination plants and what is their feasibility? Discuss their application in addressing Indian water woes.(250 words)

Reference: The Print

Why the question:

The explained page of Indian express presents to us insights on the concept of desalinization plants and their feasibility.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain what desalinization plants are , their feasibility and their application prospects in addressing water woes of the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Worldwide, desalination is seen as one possible answer to stave off water crisis. Recently, Maharashtra announced the setting up of a desalination plant in Mumbai, becoming the fourth state in the country to experiment with the idea.

Body:

Discuss the concept involved in the working of desalinization plants; A desalination plant turns salt water into water that is fit to drink. The most commonly used technology used for the process is reverse osmosis where an external pressure is applied to push solvents from an area of high-solute concentration to an area of low-solute concentration through a membrane.

Explain its applications in the Indian context. Bring out the pros and cons.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such technologies.

 

Topic : GS-2: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. As per the figures presented by the Reserve Bank of India recently, India is in an economic recession for the first time in its independent history. In this context discuss the need for India to shed its exaggerated fears of trade agreements to create new jobs. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

As per the figures presented by the Reserve Bank of India, India is in an economic recession for the first time in its independent history. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

discuss the need for India to shed its exaggerated fears of trade agreements to create new jobs

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Brief upon the issues at hand related to Jobs, exports and trade pacts in the country.

Body:

Jobs are the first casualty during a recession. Thousands of people lost their jobs due to the slowing economy in 2018-19 and 2019-20. Unemployment had reached a 45-year high. More than 2 crore people lost their jobs and incomes during the lockdown.

Exports – Despite the “Make in India”, export volumes have decreased in the last six years. The reason for this is seen as the complete reversal in the direction of India’s foreign trade policy with higher tariffs, non-tariff barriers, quantitative limits, the return of licensing, border country restrictions and the appreciating value of the rupee.

Then talk about the trade agreements; Exports are linked to trade agreements. The member-countries of a trade agreement promote trade among themselves with easy rules but restrict trade with non-members with hard rules. Unfortunately, India has turned towards what seems like an anti-FTA policy.

Explain what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India must re-learn to engage with other countries and negotiate favorable trade agreements through the bilateral and multilateral routes. The art of survival in a fiercely competitive world is engagement and negotiation.

 

Topic: GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. With recently introduced labour reforms aimed at changing industrial relations, trade unions must include operative social dialogue to get their grievances redressed. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Ten central trade unions (CTUs) have called for a nation-wide strike to condemn what they consider to be the anti-people and anti-labour economic policies of the government. Thus the question context.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain why the trade unions in the country must include operative social dialogue to get their grievances redressed.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by providing for a brief timeline of trade unions and their concerns in the country.

Body:

With the introduction of economic reforms since 1991, employers and the global financial institutions have been lobbying for labour market and structural reforms.

Explain that the recently introduced Codes are based on the fundamental unproven premise that labour laws and inspection system are obstacles in attracting investment, and, hence the government must promote a cheaper and flexible labour market. Discuss the flaws in the codes in detail.

Discuss the impact of Covid-19 and the repercussion of migration on the labour.  Explain what the options available before the trade union are.

Conclusion:

Suggest way forward and conclude.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. India’s democracy, as envisaged by the makers of the constitution, thrived essentially because of the respect of the leaders for the ethical constitutionalism and moral activism of the grassroots activists. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains the fact that the elected must protect all the unelected instruments of democracy- – judiciary, media and civic organizations.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the significance of ethical constitutionalism and moral activism of the grassroots activists in carving out the Indian Democracy envisages through the constitution.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Present the background of the question.

Body:

Start by defining what you understand by ethical constitutionalism and moral activism and discuss their importance.

Explain how having faith in the above principles have led us to the idea of ethical democracy.

Take cues from the article and explain the views of great leaders and thinkers such as – Mahatma Gandhi, Aristotle, Ambedkar etc.

Elaborate on the concept of ethical democracy and suggest upon its advantages.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Indian democracy has been immensely benefitted from such diverging viewpoints. The core values which our freedom fighters stood for are still the basic structure on which our constitution proudly stands.

 

Topic : Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

7. “What really matters for success, character, happiness and life-long achievements is a definite set of emotional skills— not just purely cognitive abilities.” — Daniel Goleman. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the importance of emotional intelligence.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain the importance of emotional skills over mere cognitive abilities.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction should briefly explain about cognitive abilities.

Body:

Cognitive abilities are those skills, which are present by birth or innate abilities. E.g. some people are week in calculations which their poor cognitive ability. In general, such cognitive abilities are considered important for professional success, profit and personal growth in career.

Explain what emotional skills are and why they are important for long term success, happiness and strong character.

Emotional skills refer to emotional quotient or emotional intelligence of a person. To achieve long term success in life, eternal happiness and strong character person needs to have high emotional intelligence and not just cognitive abilities.

Conclusion:

According to research by Daniel Goleman, 80% of success at work is because of EI while only 20% is because of cognitive abilities (IQ).


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