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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 19 November 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. What do you understand by judicial barbarism? How democratic barbarism and judicial barbarism are related? Examine. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains to us in what way judicial barbarism is now a systematic phenomenon with deep institutional roots.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the concept of judicial barbarism and differentiate it from democratic barbarism.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Set the context of the question by briefly narrating the background of it.

Body:

Start by defining what judicial barbarism is.

Discuss in detail the components of it; Overwhelming appearance of arbitrariness in judicial decision-making. The application of law becomes so dependent on the arbitrary whims of individual judges that the rule of law or constitutional terms no longer has any meaning.

Then present the concept of democratic barbarism, differentiate the two.

Discuss their implications.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to avoid slipping into such barbarism.

 

Topic : Indian Constitution—historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure.

2. Article 32 affirms the right to move to the Supreme Court if a fundamental right is violated. How does this provision of the Constitution define this right, and how has the SC interpreted it over the years? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Recently a Supreme Court Bench headed by Chief Justice of India S. A. Bobde observed that it is “trying to discourage” individuals from filing petitions under Article 32 of the Constitution. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to discuss the interpretation of article 32 over the years.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the provisions of Article 32. And discuss the present context; the observation came during the hearing of a petition seeking the release of journalist Siddique Kappan, who was arrested with three others while on their way to Hathras, Uttar Pradesh, to report on an alleged gang rape and murder.

Body:

Explain what is Article 32? – It is one of the fundamental rights listed in the Constitution that each citizen is entitled. Article 32 deals with the ‘Right to Constitutional Remedies’, or affirms the right to move the Supreme Court by appropriate proceedings for the enforcement of the rights conferred in Part III of the Constitution.

Discuss what the issue all about is.

Present the views and observations of the Supreme Court over the years one by one. Present the previous judgments too.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Constitutional experts say that it is eventually at the discretion of the Supreme Court and each individual judge to decide whether an intervention is warranted in a case, which could also be heard by the High Court first. There is need to bring in more clarity by judiciary on the matter of article 32 so that people do not lose their hope in the justice system as the ultimate remedy for the violation of their rights.

 

Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. With the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership expected to impact investment flows into India, the country faces trials in maintaining its capability against highly competitive countries in the post-Covid world. Critically analyse. (250 words )

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains that the RCEP and the ‘China +1 strategy’ is likely to impact investment flows into Vietnam, India, Bangladesh and Indonesia, which have emerged as key investment destinations.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse in what way India could face an uphill task in maintaining its viability against highly competitive countries in the post-pandemic world.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the context of the question briefly.  

Body:

First throw light on the aspects of post-pandemic economy.

The Asia region is expected to see remarkable growth with the formal launch of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP). Its growth would depend on the role of trade and investment flows into these economies, and this would again be the centerpiece of global growth.

The 15 RCEP member countries account for nearly 30% of the global GDP.

This largest free trade agreement in the world includes provisions to cover the entire gamut of trade and commerce.

Explain what the challenges before India are.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s approach to the changed scenario needs to be well-calibrated.

 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. What are transferable development rights? Discuss their possible contribution to the development of the urban areas in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The opinion from financial express explains to us in what way transferable development rights can prove to be a win-win deal.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain the concept of transferable development rights in detail and discuss their possible contribution to the development of the urban areas in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what transferable development rights are.

Body:

Transferable Development Rights or TDR is an economic tool that has been successfully tried and tested internationally in various forms. It enables cost savings and meets the infrastructural needs without compromising on the location, time and rights of the property owners.

In India, this tool was first used in Mumbai and later in Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Pune, and others, with varied purposes and responses. Hyderabad adopted this tool in a user-friendly way. First, let us understand what this tool is and what it means to urban dwellers.

Discuss how it is a win-win deal, where property owners get timely and market-based returns from their property, and urban local bodies get space to provide facilities without huge expenditure for a larger public good.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward and its importance.

 

Topic GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. “In order to place India’s existing Paris commitments in perspective, it is worthwhile to step back and compare them with the commitments of other countries”, do you agree?  Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The opinion presents to us the viewpoint as to how India must not let global pressure force it off the growth path.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way in order to place India’s existing Paris commitments in perspective, it is worthwhile to step back and compare them with the commitments of other countries.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the context of the question briefly.

Body:

In order to place India’s existing Paris commitments in perspective, it is worthwhile to step back and compare them with the commitments of other countries, based on an independent scientific analysis carried out by the Climate Action Tracker, which has assessed the promised climate commitments across developed and developing countries.

India is one of the only six countries (amongst the 33 that were assessed), and the only G-20 country, whose climate commitments at Paris are on a path compatible to limit warming well below 2°C. Furthermore, it seems that India is well on its way to achieving its carbon intensity reduction and non-fossil-fuel electricity growth capacity commitments well before the 2030 target year.

Compare the efforts of our country with that of others and suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude that at the level of international negotiations, India must initiate a narrative, discussion and dialogue which focuses on each country taking on commitments that move their carbon trajectory towards the Paris agreement goal of limiting global warming to well below 2°C.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance.

6.  Define emotional intelligence and explain its major components. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is straightforward and is based on the concept of emotional intelligence and its components.

Key Demand of the question:

Define emotional intelligence and explain its major components.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of emotional intelligence.

Body:

Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as knowing and understanding one’s own emotions and other’s emotions and regulating one’s emotions to behave in a socially desirable manner. In simple way, it is about intelligent management of emotions for effective behaviour.

Explain in detail the four components of EI; self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, social skill management.

Give examples to justify the importance of these components in detail.

Conclusion:

According to research done by Daniel Goleman, 80% of success at work depends on EI while 20% on IQ. The civil servants should have high EI along with aptitude and skills to tackle the difficult situations they face in day-to-day administration.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Discuss why people continuously try to make life safe and secure? Does this endeavor make them selfish and force them for wrongful conduct? Present your opinion. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on ‘human nature’ and the urge of people to continuously try to make life safe and secure.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss how the urge of people to continuously try make life safe and secure forces them into wrongful conduct.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Human nature is difficult to understand though many philosophers have tried to understand and explain why human behaves in certain manner.

Body:

In the answer body first explain reasons why people continuously try to make life safe and secure.

Give views by various philosophers; According to Thomas Hobbes human beings always try to secure their lives and their interests. This is animal nature of human. Every animal tries to make its life safe and secure from threats of surrounding environment. In similar way, human being also tries to protect self. In pursuance of these efforts, they may act in selfish manner or wrongful conduct.

Aristotle viewed human nature from positive perspective. He says that human is political, social and benign animal. It is broader view of human behaviour. In general, people tend to behave in moral manner. They tend to uphold human values such as trust, love, compassion, respect etc.

Give examples and present your viewpoints.

Conclusion:

Though people try to secure their life, they try to make that through moral conduct. Therefore, endeavor of making life safe and secure do not always make people selfish or adopt wrongful conduct.


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