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InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.

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Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Birsa Munda.

2. 2018 report on “Vital statistics of India based on the Civil Registration System”.


GS Paper 2:

1. The Chief Minister: Appointment, Power, Function and Position.

2. ‘Accused can get bail if probe is not over in time’.

3. Govt. rolls out ₹1.19 lakh crore stimulus.

4. The Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.

5. Mega trade bloc RCEP takes off.

6. UAE to widen ‘golden’ visa’s eligibility criteria.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Puerto Rico.

2. Tristan da Cunha.


GS Paper  : 1


Topics Covered: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

Birsa Munda:


Birth anniversary of Birsa Munda was observed on November 15th.

  • In recognition of his impact on the national movement, the state of Jharkhand was created on his birth anniversary in 2000.

Who was he?

Bisra Munda was a folk hero and a tribal freedom fighter hailing from the Munda tribe. He was a spearhead behind the Millenarian movement that arose in the Bihar and Jharkhand belt in the 19th century under the British colonisation. He is also known as ‘Dharti Abba’ or the Earth Father.


Bisra wanted to reform the tribal society and so, he urged them to let go of beliefs in witchcraft and instead, stressed on the importance of prayer, staying away from alcohol, having faith in God and observing a code of conduct. Based on these, he started the faith of ‘Birsait’.



Bisra started a movement called ‘Ulgulan’, or ‘The Great Tumult’. His struggle against the exploitation and discrimination against tribals led to a big hit against the British government in the form of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act being passed in 1908. The act restricted the passing on of land from the tribal people to non-tribals.


Prelims Link:

  1. Where was Birsa Munda born?
  2. What is Ulgulan?
  3. Overview of the Chotanagpur Tenancy Act, 1908.

Mains Link:

Write a note on Birsa Munda and his key contributions to India’s freedom struggle.

Sources: PIB.


Topics Covered: Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

2018 report on “Vital statistics of India based on the Civil Registration System”:


The report was published recently by the Registrar-General of India. It throws light on Sex Ratios of various states in the country.

  • Sex ratio at birth is the number of females born per 1,000 males.

Key Findings:

  • State with best Sex Ratio: Arunachal Pradesh (1084).
  • Worst: Manipur (757).
  • Arunachal Pradesh is followed by Nagaland (965) Mizoram (964), Kerala (963) and Karnataka (957).
  • Delhi recorded a sex ratio of 929, Haryana 914 and Jammu and Kashmir 952.
  • The number of registered births increased to 2.33 crore in 2018 from 2.21 crore registered births the previous year.
  • The level of registration of births has increased to 89.3% in 2018 from 81.3% in 2009.


What has the Government done in this regard?

It is implementing many schemes. These include:

  1. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao.
  2. Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana (SSY).
  3. Girl Child Protection Scheme.
  4. Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandhana Yojana (PMMVY).
  5. Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK).

What are the challenges while implementing the schemes and laws for women empowerment?

  • There are no sufficient resources to undertake inspection and monitoring.
  • Insufficient qualified staff.
  • The poor performance of advisory committees at various levels.
  • Insufficient understanding of laws and procedures.
  • Lack of awareness.
  • Limited infrastructure to support the implementation of these schemes

What can be the way forward?

  • Stringent implementation of the laws that ban foeticide;
  • Providing favourable schemes for those parents who have no sons;
  • Free and compulsory education for girls;
  • Women should be provided with job reservations;
  • Supporting infrastructure and training should be ensured for the implementation of the related laws;
  • The education system must focus on providing awareness about the women empowerment and the evils of dowry and female foeticide.
  • Women, from early childhood, must be empowered and socialised so that they consider themselves to be on par with men.
  • The government should focus on changing society’s mindset to address this issue.


Prelims Link:

  1. How is Sex Ratio defined?
  2. Report on “Vital statistics of India based on the Civil Registration System” is released by?
  3. Key findings in the latest edition.

Mains Link:

Analyse the trends of sex ratio in India and its impact on socio-economic development of the country.

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper  : 2


Topics Covered: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.

The Chief Minister: Appointment, Power, Function and Position:


Janata Dal (United) president Nitish Kumar has been elected leader of the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) legislature party in Bihar. He will now take oath as Chief Minister of the State for the fourth consecutive term.


The Chief Minister is appointed by the governor.

  • 164 of the Constitution provides that there shall be a Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister at its hand to aid and advise the governor.

Who can be a Chief Minister?

After general election to the State Legislative Assembly, the party or coalition group which secures majority in this House, elects its leader and communicates his name to the Governor. The Governor then formally appoints him as the Chief Minister and asks him to form his Council of Ministers.

  • When no party gets a clear majority in the State Legislative Assembly, the Governor normally asks the leader of the single largest party to form the government.


Theoretically, the Chief Minister holds office during the pleasure of the Governor. However, in actual practice the Chief Minister remains in office so long as he continues to be the leader of the majority in the State Legislative Assembly.

  • The Governor can dismiss him in case he loses his majority support.
  • The State Legislative Assembly can also remove him by passing a vote of no-confidence against him.

Powers and Functions of the Chief Minister:

  • To Aid and Advice the Governor.
  • The Chief Minister is at the Head of the Council of Ministers.
  • He is the Leader of the House.
  • He has to communicate to the Governor all the decisions of the council of ministers relating to the administration of the states.
  • All the policies are announced by him on the floor of the house.
  • He recommends dissolution of legislative assembly to the Governor.
  • He advises the Governor regarding summoning, proroguing the sessions of State Legislative Assembly from time to time.


Prelims Link:

  1. Who can be a Chief Minister?
  2. Role of Governor in appointing a Chief Minister.
  3. Council of Ministers.
  4. Powers.
  5. Functions.
  6. Tenure.

Mains Link:

Discuss the roles and functions of a Chief Minister.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

‘Accused can get bail if probe is not over in time’:


In a judgement, the Supreme Court has held that an accused, irrespective of the merits of the case against him, should be granted “default” or “complusive” bail if the investigating agency does not complete the probe within a prescribed time limit.

Provisions in this regard:

An accused has an “indefeasible right” to default bail under Section 167(2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure if the probe agency failed to complete the investigation on time.

Under Section 167, an accused can be detained in custody for a maximum of 90 days for a crime punishable with death, life imprisonment or a sentence of over 10 years. It is 60 days of detention if the probe relates to any other offence.

  • Also, Magistrates have to mandatorily inform the accused, especially those from the poor sections, of their statutory right to apply for default bail.


Why there is ever increasing of undertrials in prisons?

  1. Overburdened judiciary is a major reason for the delay in justice.
  2. Police and prison officials often fail to fulfill their roles, leading to long delays in trials.
  3. Most of the undertrials come from disadvantaged social groups — several surveys have shown that 50-55% of the undertrials are from minority communities and Dalits.
  4. Lack of resources constricts their ability to seek out lawyers and hostile police and prison authorities are rarely of help — despite a 1980 Supreme Court ruling that Article 21 of the Constitution entitles prisoners to a fair and speedy trial as part of their fundamental right to life and liberty.


Prelims Link:

  1. Section 167 of the Code of Criminal Procedure.
  2. Articles 20 and 22 of the Indian Constitution.
  3. Overview of Article 21.

Mains Link:

A large number of the poor, the Dalits and people from the minority communities are languishing in jail as undertrials because of a property-based bail system and a poor legal aid mechanism. How can speedy dispensation of justice be ensured to these undertrials? Comment.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Govt. rolls out ₹1.19 lakh crore stimulus:


The Government has announced a fresh set of relief and stimulus measures for the economy worth ₹1.19 lakh crore. This is being called as “Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan 3.0.”

Key Components of the Package:


Significance of these measures:

Such measures in the last seven months reinforce the ‘fiscal conservatism’ ideology of the government — rather than large cash transfers, the growth philosophy centres around creating an ecosystem that aids domestic demand, incentivises companies to generate jobs and boost production, and simultaneously extends benefits to those in severe distress, be it firms or individuals.

Need for these measures:

Recently, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) said the country had entered into a technical recession in the first half of 2020-21.

However, the RBI also predicts a strong return to proper growth for the economy. Even ratings agency Moody’s Investor Service had revised its GDP projections for India upwards.

What is a technical recession?

It refers to the sequential decline in GDP for the past two quarters. This presents economic contraction since the GDP measures the value of all goods and services produced in a country during a specific period of time, in other words, the total expenditure in the economy.

Was India’s technical recession unexpected?

  • Given the nature of the problem the pandemic as soon as the lockdown was announced in March, most economists expected the Indian economy to go into recession.
  • In fact, most estimates expect the economy to contract for at least one more quarter that is October to December.

How long do recessions last?

  • Typically, recessions last for a few quarters. If they continue for years, they are referred to as “depressions”. But a depression is quite rare; the last one was during the 1930s in the US.
  • In the current scenario, the key determinant for any economy to come out of recession is to control the spread of Covid-19.


Prelims Link:

  1. Measures and schemes announced.
  2. What is a technical recession?
  3. Differences between recession and depression.

Mains Link:

What is ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan’? Discuss the significance of self-reliance and self-efficiency in the times of crisis like the COVID pandemic.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006:


Review petition of over 1,000 tribals from Mysore District, Karnataka for recognition of their claims over forest land under the Scheduled Tribes and Other Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, has been rejected by the local authorities.

Why the petitions were rejected?

They had failed to furnish evidence to substantiate the claims of their stay inside the forest.

  • Expressing concerns over such decisions, experts have said that in a country where maintaining records of evidence and documents were a recent phenomena, expecting tribals to provide records to substantiate claims that they lived inside the forest before their eviction in 1972 was ridiculous and was in contravention of the concept of natural justice.

What’s the issue?

The review of their claims followed a Karnataka government directive, which was warranted as a consequence to a Supreme Court order on a case questioning the validity of the FRA.

  • The Supreme Court in 2019 ordered the eviction of nearly a million people across India, whose claims under the forest rights acts had been rejected.
  • But the court stayed its earlier order and directed all State governments to file a review petition and submit a report.

What could have been done?

In such cases the authorities should first recognise the rights and subsequently provide alternative solutions by way of rehabilitation instead of rejecting the claims.

About the Forest Rights Act:

The Act passed in 2006 grants legal recognition to the rights of traditional forest dwelling communities.

Rights under the Act:

Title rights – i.e. ownership – to land that is being farmed by tribals or forest dwellers as on 13 December 2005, subject to a maximum of 4 hectares; ownership is only for land that is actually being cultivated by the concerned family as on that date, meaning that no new lands are granted.

Use rights – to minor forest produce (also including ownership), to grazing areas, to pastoralist routes, etc.

Relief and development rights – to rehabilitation in case of illegal eviction or forced displacement;[15] and to basic amenities, subject to restrictions for forest protection.

Forest management rights – to protect forests and wildlife.

Eligibility criteria:

According to Section 2(c) of Forest Rights Act (FRA), to qualify as Forest Dwelling Scheduled Tribe (FDST) and be eligible for recognition of rights under FRA, three conditions must be satisfied by the applicant/s, who could be “members or community”:

  1. Must be a Scheduled Tribe in the area where the right is claimed; and
  2. Primarily resided in forest or forests land prior to 13-12-2005; and
  3. Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs.

And to qualify as Other Traditional Forest Dweller (OTFD) and be eligible for recognition of rights under FRA, two conditions need to be fulfilled:

  1. Primarily resided in forest or forests land for three generations (75 years) prior to 13-12-2005.
  2. Depend on the forest or forests land for bonafide livelihood needs.

Critical Wildlife Habitats:

They are defined under the Forest Rights Act, 2006, as the “areas of national parks and sanctuaries where it has been specifically and clearly established, case by case, on the basis of scientific and objective criteria, that such areas are required to be kept as inviolate for the purposes of wildlife conservation…”


Prelims Link:

  1. Who can include or exclude areas under 5th
  2. What are scheduled areas?
  3. Forest Rights Act- key provisions.
  4. Rights under this Act.
  5. Eligibility Criteria.
  6. Role of Gram Sabha in recognizing these rights
  7. What are Critical Wildlife Habitats?

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

Mega trade bloc RCEP takes off:


The initialising ceremony of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) was held recently among member-countries on the sidelines of the 37th ASEAN Summit.

About RCEP:

  • The mega trade bloc comprises 15 countries led by China (10 ASEAN members and Australia, China, Japan, South Korea and New Zealand).
  • The group is expected to represent at least 30% of the global GDP and will emerge as the largest free trade agreement in the world.
  • The mega trade bloc is expected to boost commerce among the member-countries spread across the Asia-Pacific region.

Aims and Objectives of RCEP:

  • To lower tariffs, open up trade in services and promote investment to help emerging economies catch up with the rest of the world.
  • To help reduce costs and time for companies by allowing them to export a product anywhere within the bloc without meeting separate requirements for each country.
  • It also touches on intellectual property, but will not cover environmental protections and labour rights.

Why does it matter?

It mainly matters because it sets new trade rules for the region — and has China’s backing but does not include the United States.

  • Observers say it solidifies China’s broader geopolitical ambitions in the region.

Why no India?

India withdrew last year over concerns about cheap Chinese goods entering the country, though it can join at a later date if it so chooses.

  • It raised alarm about market access issues, fearing its domestic producers could be hard hit if the country was flooded with cheap Chinese goods.
  • Textiles, dairy, and agriculture were flagged as three vulnerable industries.


Prelims Link:

  1. RCEP- composition and objectives.
  2. India’s free trader agreements with ASEAN countries.
  3. Geographical location of asean countries.
  4. Aims and objectives of RCEP.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

UAE to widen ‘golden’ visa’s eligibility criteria:


The United Arab Emirates will extend its “golden” visa system to certain professionals, specialised degree-holders and others.


After first announcing a long-term visa plan in 2018, the UAE in 2019 started granting 5- and 10-year renewable visas to certain foreign investors, entrepreneurs, chief executives, scientists and outstanding students.

About the ‘Golden Card’ Permanent Residency Scheme:

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) had launched this Scheme to woo wealthy individuals and exceptional talents from all over the world.

The “Golden Card” visa includes categories:

  1. General investors who will be granted a 10 year permanent residency visas .
  2. Real Estate Investors, who can get a visa for 5 year visa.
  3. Entrepreneurs and Talented Professionals like doctors, researchers and innovators can get 10 years visa.
  4. ‘Outstanding students’. These will also be permitted 5 years permanent residency visas.

Sources: the Hindu.


Facts for Prelims:

Puerto Rico:


For the third time in ten years, the United States territory of Puerto Rico has voted in favour of statehood.

Key Points:

  • Puerto Rico is a Spanish-speaking island located in the Caribbean Sea.
  • Since its discovery by the explorer Christopher Columbus in 1493, Puerto Rico was a part of the Spanish Empire for over 4 centuries until 1898, when it was annexed by the United States.
  • In 1917, Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship, but the island itself was never made a full state, and continues to remain a “US territory”, along with Guam, North Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and the US Virgin Islands.


Tristan da Cunha:

  • Tristan da Cunha is inhabited by less than 300 humans.
  • It is a small chain of islands over 6,000 miles from London in the South Atlantic and the water around the islands are considered to be the richest in the world.
  • It is an UK Overseas Territory.
  • It was recently declared the largest fully protected marine reserves in the Atlantic Ocean at 687,000 square kilometres.



Articles to be covered tomorrow:

  1. Trump is not conceding defeat; what’s next?
  2. ̥India, U.S. keen on training peace missions.

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