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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 2 November 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Present a sketch of major Sufi orders in India. What was their goal?  Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Medieval Indian History NCERT by R S Sharma

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of major Sufi orders that prevailed in India and their goals.

Key Demand of the question:

Account in detail for major Sufi orders in India and present their goals.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what you understand by Sufi orders. Sufism has a history in India evolving for over 1,000 years.

Body:

There are three Sufi orders:

  1. Silsilahs – The Sufis Formed Many orders – silshilas. By the thirteenth century, there were 12 silsilahs.
  2. Khanqas – The Sufi saints live in khanqas. Devotees of religions came to these khanqas to seek the blessings of Saints.
  3. Sama – Music and dances session, called Sama.

Provide first for their early history. The core concept of Sufi Movement is Darikh-i-Duniya / Wahad-ul-wahjud, meaning “Universal Brotherhood”. It outwardly rejected the religion and emphasized love and devotion to God and compassion towards all fellow human beings.

Explain how they tried to transform Islam and promote secular fabric of India.

Discuss their key goals.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance.

 

Topic: communalism, regionalism & secularism.

2. Communal attacks, the cancer of communalism affect the body of the Indian Nation. Comment. (250 words)

Reference Times of India

Why the question:

The question is premised on the effect of communalism and ill impact on the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss and present in what way communal attacks and communalistic ideas affect the nation.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the definition of communalism.

Body:

Start by discussing the cause and consequences of communalism in India.

List down the reasons contributing to Communalism. Give examples from past to present.

Explain with examples the impact of communalism on Indian society.

Suggest efforts of the government in this direction to control and curtail the impact of communalism.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done; role of government, citizens and other stakeholders.

 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

3. Discuss the pros and cons of Daylight savings time.  (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the positive and negative implications of the concept of daylight savings times.

Key Demand of the question:

One must elaborate about the pros and cons of DST.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what DST is.

Body:

DST is the practice of resetting clocks ahead by an hour in spring, and behind by an hour in autumn (or fall). It is in use during the period from spring to autumn (or fall), when Europe and the United States get an extra hour of daylight in the evening.

Discuss briefly the origin of the concept and its inception.

Suggest the positives such as; Saves energy, Longer Daylight Hours Promote Safety. Longer daylight hours make driving safer, lowers accident rates

Negatives range – It can also cause sleep loss, health problems, workplace accidents, reduced productivity, and problems for farmers.

Briefly discuss what is the change with respect to Indian time?

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion as to whether DST is good or bad and holds utility in present modern days.

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic : Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Disaster and disaster management.

4. Critically examine the role of science and technology in effective disaster management in the country. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains that the southwest monsoon 2020 has officially drawn to an end with the India Meteorological Department (IMD) declaring a withdrawal of the associated winds and rainfall pattern from India.

Key Demand of the question:

Examine the role of science and technology in effective disaster management in the country.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss briefly some facts that suggest the proneness of the country to Disasters.

Body:

In the answer body start by explaining in what way Disaster management entails or leverages science and technology.

Highlight the role of weather forecasting tools, earthquake identifying ICT tools, flood warning systems etc.

Explain how effective use of sci and tech can lead to better disaster management in the country.

Present case studies to substantiate better.  

Conclusion:

Conclude by reasserting the importance of science and technology in effective disaster management.

 

 Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Effective management of water resources will significantly reduce human despairs. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

The article talks about the Jal Shakti ministry reviewing implementation of Jal Jeevan mission in West Bengal. Thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way effective management of water resources will significantly reduce human despairs.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the present conditions of water resources in the country and across the world, present stats to substantiate the same.

Body:

Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. It is important because it is needed for life to exist. Many uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Virtually all of these human uses require fresh water.

Then move on to discuss the human miseries associated with water resources.

Then present points as to how effective water management can reduce human misery – Sustainable use of water, holistic management of ground and surface water, efficient crop planning and crop rotation in agriculture and many others.

Discuss examples and justify.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the water crisis in the 21st century is much more related to management than to a real crisis of scarcity and stress, thus addressing it on time is the need of the hour.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Explain about the sources and foundation of Jain Ethics. (250 words)

Reference: opensiuc.lib.siu.edu

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Jain Ethics.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the sources and foundation of Jain Ethics.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain what constitutes Jain ethics.

Body:

Jain ethical code prescribes two dharmas or rules of conduct. One for those who wish to become ascetic and another for the śrāvaka (householders). Five fundamental vows are prescribed for both votaries. These vows are observed by śrāvakas (householders) partially and are termed as anuvratas (small vows). Ascetics observe these fives vows more strictly and therefore observe complete abstinence. These five vows are:

  • Ahiṃsā (Non-violence)
  • Satya (Truth)
  • Asteya (Non-stealing)
  • Brahmacharya (Chastity)
  • Aparigraha (Non-possession)

Discuss the importance of Jain ethics in detail and their application.

Part of the answer must explain the source of ethics in Jainism.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such ethical guidelines and teachings.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Explain Kant’s views on moral obligation. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Kantian ethics.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the Kant’s views on moral obligation.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Kant says about morality.

Body:

Kant’s theory is an example of a deontological moral theory–according to these theories, the rightness or wrongness of actions does not depend on their consequences but on whether they fulfill our duty. Kant believed that there was a supreme principle of morality, and he referred to it as The Categorical Imperative.

Give examples to justify his views on moral obligations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.


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