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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 14 September 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Social empowerment

1. ” What the world still wants is a sacrificial Sita, not the demanding Draupadi, who called out her husband’s cowardice and avarice in subjecting her to a public stripping. “Critically examine the statement in the context of Indian women. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article explains in what way Rhea and her family have been sacrificed at the altar of lynch mob journalism.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer must talk about the position of women today in our Indian society and evaluate if it is still of the sacrificial Sita or of the demanding Draupadi.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining first the meaning of the statement in question.

Body:

The answer to such questions can be written or approached in multiple ways.

The question aims to assess the position of Indian women in our society , one must trace the same from past to present and with suitable examples highlight how women in the country though have come a long way ahead are still expected to pass the test of society at the altar of parochial mindset.

Give examples that you think can suitably justify the question context and suggest some narrations.  

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting what more needs to be done to change the mindset of our society and treat women at par with men in our society.

Intorduction:

        This century we have seen the Indian woman get empowered.  The circumstances now favor the women and the Indian woman has emerged onto the forefront of the society. Once out of her shell, now the world is for her taking. Colleges and universities abound with meritorious female scholars. Women work neck to neck with their male colleagues in corporates. She can now establish her career before her parents start nagging her to settle down. But all this is not in absolute terms. Every step towards empowerment comes with vices of it own.

Body:

The changing role of women: New wine in an old bottle:.

  • It is undeniable that women empowerment has a crucial direct impact on the economic growth and simultaneous national development.. But with many organizations leading the change in the past decade, India’s corporate world is inclusive of women holding significant positions in top-notch organizations.In 2015, SEBI (Stock Exchange Board of India) made it compulsory for companies to have at least 1 woman as their board member.
  • While the country’s top women leaders are heads of major corporations: Schauna Chauhan, CEO of Parle Agro, Aisha Sequiera, Country head and head of investment banking at Morgan Stanley, and Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, CMD of Biocon, a globally recognized biopharmaceutical enterprise.
  • The Indian Navy announced selection of two women officers as Observers in the helicopter stream, making them first women airborne combatants who would be operating from warships.
  • Ten women officers have been commissioned into the fighter stream of the Indian Air Force (IAF) since the stream was opened up for women in 2016
  • With rigorous implementation of schemes like Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana etc, the discourse towards women empowerment has intensified.

Selective empowerment:

  • There are still unwritten rules that a woman of today is expected to not overstep in any circumstances which are guided by ‘soft patriarchy’.
    • She may work but her work uniform is dictated to her.
    • She may debate with men and challenge entrenched gender roles but she has to preserve her femininity and take due care of her appearance.
    • She can continue with her job after marriage but not on a compromise of her maternal duties.
  • This liberation which we have seen so far is not of a complete kind. A falling patriarch reluctantly concedes it in parts.
  • This mistaken reading of female empowerment goes far in depicting how deeply invaded a woman has been by the patriarchial mindset.
  • Power is not exercised in just one way but, throughout history, different leadership styles have all shared the imprint of masculinity. Dominant notions of authority, decision-making skills and leadership qualities are all confined within a rhetoric that is defined mainly by men.
  • A 2017 NITI Aayog report shows that just 20% of the research and administrative staff in a select group of institutions, including the IITs, IISERs and NITs, are women. Only a miniscule of them are at top level decision making cum management level.
  • According to the ICRW, Indian linguistic ethnicity, caste and class have a profound effect on how Indian men develop their sense of masculinity. In a society already prone to rankings and hierarchies, many Indian men perceive masculinity in terms of “acting tough, freely exercising his privilege to lay down the rules in personal relationships, and, above all, controlling women.
  • Female officers in the Indian Administrative Services are always expected to take softer approach.  There is always an invisible perception among people which judges a women officer’s competency and availability on field round the clock. A female officer has to make it very clear that she has no problem in controlling any law and order situation, and she can be called anytime if there is an emergency.
  • A women is always expected to know her roles, boundaries, job in a societal sphere. Her ambitions are always secondary to her brothers or husbands ambitions. Though she is free to pursue her dreams but the wellbeing of house is her sole responsibility.
  • On one hand she can contribute to finances of the home or has the freedom to go out and socialize but it would be an offence for to smoke or consume alcohol – because a ‘good woman’ does not do that.
  • She is taking part in empowering activities like education, job, electoral politics but her gender role at home is specified and unchanging.
  • The historic world conference on women in Beijing, which marked the major progress in the struggle to end multiple types of discrimination against women throughout the world and defined a clear mission to promote women’s right. The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Actions serve as an important action plan for women’s right, gender equality and female empowerment all over the globe.
  • The progress that we have made is far from uniform. In some countries, women have reached very high-level positions while, in others, there are few spaces for them to work or to participate in civic affairs and they do suffer a lot of discrimination

Way forward:

  • We must be particularly attentive to the harsh realities of places where, due to cultural and even religious reasons, women experience multiple forms of discrimination, oppression and violence and we just cannot tolerate this situation and must condemn them without hesitation.
  • We must reserve our utmost fervent solidarity for women, who find themselves in situations of subjugation and, in some cases, slavery. We must always say it loud and clear that human rights are universal and gender equality as an expression of those rights is universal as well so women’s rights are human rights.
  • No philosophical, political, religious or other reasons can justify the violation of these fundamental ideals and this is the type of globalization that we have to value to the utmost.
  • Politically correct statements about this matter are not enough. We need for women to stop being marginalized by structures of power and to stop being just minorities with little decision-making powers because, on the contrary, in many societies, women are the same in numbers or in leaders.

Conclusion:

We must make empowerment a reality. Truly working so that women can become the protagonist of their own emancipation. All societies need to encourage this process as part of our efforts to leave behind the archaic customs, sexist prejudices, and confinement to roles established for women by patriarchy. All of these things have stunted the progress of humanity and it can be done.

 

Topic : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. What do you understand by Tandava and Laasya dance? Explain (250 words )

Reference: Indian Art and culture by Nitin Singhania

Why the question:

The question is very much straightforward and aims to deliberate upon the dance forms of Tandava and Laasya.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the two Indian dance forms – Tandava and Laasya.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by talking about Indian classical dance forms; Excavations, inscriptions, chronicles, genealogies of kings and artists, literary sources, sculpture and painting of different periods provide extensive evidence on dance in India.

Body:

In the answer body discuss in detail the origin, features and region from which the two dance forms originated and are popular in.

Explain the key features of each of them.

Discuss how they are different from other dance forms.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance to Indian art and culture.

Introduction:

Dance has always been a source of physical expression around the world. It is also a means of staying fit. India is blessed to have several styles, classical and folk, originating from various regions. This blessing is magnified many times over, given not just the quantum of styles but also the scientific genesis, structure and detailed delineation of practically every nuance and instruction.

Indian classical dance forms incorporate both tandava (vigorous/ masculine) and lasya (soft/ feminine), offering a balance of cosmic energies — male/female, yin/yang — in their exposition. The tandava aspect is characterised by sharp, forceful movements that aim to capture the essence of the underlying bhava (sentiment). The lasya elements are represented by movements that are soft, fluid, and seem to merge into one another in a graceful blur with no sharp edges.

Body:

Tandava dance:

                Tandava is the divine dance performed by Lord Shiva. It is considered to be the source of the cosmic cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution. The word Tandava comes from Tandu, the attendant of Lord Shiva, who at Lord Shiva’s orders, instructed Bharat muni, the author of Natya Shastra, the usage of Angaharas and Karanas, which together constitute this cosmic dance.

Tandava the masculine form of dance is attributed to Lord Shiva which is forceful and full of vigour often manifesting anger and fear while lasya anga attributed to Godess Parvathi is the feminine form where the movements are gentle and graceful often depicting love and affection.

The deep significance underlying this dance form is the personification of Lord Shiva as Nataraja or Nritya Murti. His dance is supposed to represent the five manifestations of eternal energy- Srishti (creation), Sthiti (preservation), Samhara (destruction), Tirobhava (illusion) and Anugraha (emancipation)

There are two major different forms of Tandava – the Rudra Tandava and the Ananda Tandava.

  • Rudra Tandava – Shiva, the God of constructive destruction, transforms into his most vicious form while performing this Tandava. The Rudra Tandava often symbolises the destruction of the cosmos. It also signifies the release of the suppressed anger that germinates within. Most people usually take ‘destruction’ in the literal sense, but it has a more profound meaning. Shiva, the destroyer, annihilates the evil that seeks refuge within you, to make you worthy of attaining salvation, and relieve you from the cycle of birth and death. And the destruction caused by Shiva is constructive because it paves the way for the arrival of the new in the physical world. The world that we live in is bound by time and space, and we are subject to the cause and the natural effect.
  • Ananda Tandava is the dance of bliss where the intrinsic nature of Shiva emerges as Shivam where he is in his purest form – Satchidananda. A cause and its effect do not bind this experience of pleasure. This feeling of ecstasy germinates deep within and is untouched by the mundane world. The Ananda Tandava by Shiva denotes the purest aspect of his being.

Lasya dance:

‘Lasya’ means a tender or graceful dance. The main root of the word is ‘las’, ‘lasati’, ‘iti Lasya’. This means the one that is radiant, shining and feminine, that is lasya. In Indian music, rhythm is given unmatched importance. Rhythm or tala is made of two parts – ‘ta’ meaning tandava and ‘la’ meaning lasya.

This means that tala is parented by Lord Shiva-Parvati themselves. It is believed that Tandava is the dance performed by Lord Shiva while Lasya is the dance performed Goddess Parvati. When Lord Shiva performed the Tandav, he felt that it lacked lusciousness and delicateness. He thus asked Goddess Parvati to perform a dance. To this, Goddess Parvati performed a very captivatingly beautiful dance that full of delicateness and beauty. It is believed that Lord Shiva was extremely impressed with Goddess Parvati’s dance and gave it the name of ‘Lasya’

Lasya is known to be mainly of four types:

  • Srinkhala: The term means chain and this admits of tenanga such as Geyapada, Sthitapatya, Asina, Pushpagandika, Pracchedaka, Trigudhaka, Saindhavaka, Dwimudhaka, Uttamottaka and Uktapratyukta. This form is danced in a chain form in drutakala.
  • Lata: It consists of Rasakas. It consists of three types such as Danda, Mandala and Natyarasaka. Also known as latabandha. The partners holding together dance in a medium tempo.
  • Pindi: This is a kind of Lasya having many sub divisions. Some texts also term it as Gulma. A group of dancers, mostly four, together in a vilambita laya.
  • Bhedyaka: In this, dancers form a group, each dancing on her own role in drutakala. Like Srinkhalika, Bhedyaka has also got ten lasyangas.

Lasyangas:

There also exists desi lasyanga with two more sub divisions. This is also performed by women. The two sub- divisions of the desi lasya are Churita and Yauvata. In Churita, both hero and heroine perform an episode of dramatic acting in the middle of an act in an erotic way whereas in Yauvata, the dancers dance very delicately with fascinating and charming movements. The prominent desi lasyangas are Chali, Calibheda, Urongana, Dhasaka, Nati, Tukam, Rekha and dyotita.

Tandava and Lasya aspect of natya depicts the personification of the feminine and masculine form of dance. Lasyangas were employed mainly for depicting the soft and gentle expressions and is meant to be danced by females.

Conclusion:

                The concepts of Tandava and Lasya represented Shiva and Parvati have been the source of inspiration for most dancers across classical dance forms and across generations as it encompasses the entire cycle of cosmic evolution and stands for the dual personification of the Absolute.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. Discuss the possible role that the newly proposed Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) in banks would play to ensure uniform approach with regard to compliance and risk management culture across the banking industry in India. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Reserve Bank of India has issued guidelines for appointment of Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) in banks to ensure uniform approach with regard to compliance and risk management culture across the banking industry. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the possible role that the newly proposed Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) in banks would play to ensure uniform approach with regard to compliance and risk management culture across the banking industry in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Chief Compliance Officer, one of the most important members of the management team, is primarily responsible for overseeing compliance within an organization, and ensuring compliance with laws, regulatory requirements, policies and procedures.

Body:

Discuss the roles and responsibilities of the CCO as discussed by the RBI.

The CCO should be appointed for a fixed tenure of not less than three years. The audit committee of the board (ACB) and managing director and CEO of the bank should factor this requirement while appointing CCO. CCO should be a senior executive of the bank, preferably in the rank of a general manager or an equivalent position (not below two levels from the CEO). The CCO could also be recruited from market.

The CCO may be transferred or removed before completion of the tenure only in exceptional circumstances with the explicit prior approval of the board after following a well-defined and transparent internal administrative procedure

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such as office in the banking regulation sector.

Introduction:

                As part of robust compliance system, banks are required, inter-alia, to have an effective compliance culture, independent corporate compliance function and a strong compliance risk management programme at bank and group level. Such an independent compliance function is noq required to be headed by a designated Chief Compliance Officer (CCO) selected through a suitable process with an appropriate ‘fit and proper’ evaluation/selection criteria to manage compliance risk effectively.

Body:

About Chief Compliance Officer (CCO):

  • Tenor for appointment of CCO – The CCO shall be appointed for a minimum fixed tenure of not less than 3 years. The Audit Committee of the Board (ACB) / Managing Director (MD) & CEO should factor this requirement while appointing CCO.
  • Transfer / Removal of CCO – The CCO may be transferred / removed before completion of the tenure only in exceptional circumstances with the explicit prior approval of the Board after following a well-defined and transparent internal administrative procedure.
  • Rank – The CCO shall be a senior executive of the bank, preferably in the rank of a General Manager or an equivalent position (not below two levels from the CEO). The CCO could also be recruited from market.
  • Age – Not more than 55 years.
  • Experience – The CCO shall have an overall experience of at least 15 years in the banking or financial services, out of which minimum 5 years shall be in the Audit / Finance / Compliance / Legal / Risk Management functions.
  • Skills – The CCO shall have good understanding of industry and risk management, knowledge of regulations, legal framework and sensitivity to supervisors’ expectations.
  • Stature – The CCO shall have the ability to independently exercise judgement. He should have the freedom and sufficient authority to interact with regulators/supervisors directly and ensure compliance.
  • Selection Process – Selection of the candidate for the post of the CCO shall be done on the basis of a well-defined selection process and recommendations made by the senior executive level selection committee constituted by the Board for the purpose. The selection committee shall recommend the names of candidates suitable for the post of the CCO as per the rank in order of merit and Board shall take final decision in the appointment of CCO.

Role of CCO:

  • To apprise the Board and senior management on regulations, rules and standards and any further developments.
  • To provide clarification on any compliance related issues.
  • To conduct assessment of the compliance risk (at least once a year) and to develop a risk-oriented activity plan for compliance assessment. The activity plan should be submitted to the ACB for approval and be made available to the internal audit.
  • To report promptly to the Board / ACB / MD & CEO about any major changes / observations relating to the compliance risk.
  • To periodically report on compliance failures/breaches to the Board/ACB and circulating to te concerned functional heads.
  • To monitor and periodically test compliance by performing sufficient and representative compliance testing. The results of the compliance testing should be placed to Board/ACB/MD & CEO.
  • To examine sustenance of compliance as an integral part of compliance testing and annual compliance assessment exercise.
  • To ensure compliance of Supervisory observations made by RBI and/or any other directions in both letter and spirit in a time bound and sustainable manner.

Conclusion:

In the current dynamic environment, the horizons of compliance have changed significantly and have become much broader in scope. The role of a CCO is of a ‘conscience keeper’ in the organisation. It has also transformed the role from being a rule book manager to a growth enabler of the business. If it is implemented in letter and spirit would lead to ensure uniform approach with regard to compliance and risk management culture across the banking industry in India.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics,  nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

4. Present the perspective of Nano-Fertilizers for Sustainable Crop Production under Changing Climate in the country. (250 words)

Reference:  intechopen.compib.gov.in

Why the question:

Union Minister for Chemicals and Fertilizers Shri D.V. Sadananda Gowda  said, by 2023 India will be self-reliant in the production of fertilizers as  under “Atma Nirbhar  Bharat” programme new fertilizer manufacturing units are being setup  with  an investment of Rs 40,000 crore in the country to reduce dependency on import.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the perspective of Nano-Fertilizers for Sustainable Crop Production under Changing Climate in the country.

Directive:

Present – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining about nano-fertilisers in general and their definition in specific.

Body:

Nanotechnology, which utilizes nanomaterial’s of less than 100 nm size, may offer an unprecedented opportunity to develop concentrated sources of plant nutrients having higher-absorption rate, utilization efficacy, and minimum losses. Nano fertilizers are being prepared by encapsulating plant nutrients into nanomaterials, employing thin coating of nanomaterials on plant nutrients, and delivering in the form of nano-sized emulsions. Nano-pores and stomatal openings in plant leaves facilitate nanomaterial uptake and their penetration deep inside leaves leading to higher nutrient use efficiency (NUE). Nanofertilizers have higher transport and delivery of nutrients through plasmodesmata, which are nanosized (50–60 nm) channels between cells.

Discuss how they may lead to higher crop production and sustainable agro systems amidst changing climates of the world.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance and way forward.

Introduction:

                Nanotechnology is a promising field of research which has the potential to offer sustainable remedies to pressing challenges confronted to modern intensive agriculture. Nanotechnology employs nanomaterials which typically have the size of 1–100 nm and this small size imparts unique characteristics and benefits to nanomaterials. In addition to numerous other benefits, large surface area offers opportunity for better and effective interaction of nanoparticles to target sites. Nanofertilizers hold potential to fulfill plant nutrition requirements along with imparting sustainability to crop production systems and that too without compromising the crops yield.

Body:

Nano Fertilizers:

  • Modern intensive farming systems utilize organic and mineral manures in order to supply essential plant nutrients, but this approach has resulted in serious deterioration of ecosystems and environment.
  • Loss of nitrogen as nitrous oxide and nitrates leaching has resulted in eutrophication and manifesting the impacts of global warming and climate change. Phosphate fertilizers have even lesser nutrient use efficacy (NUE) that has been reported to be below 20%.
  • Nanofertilizers have the potential to enhance NUE owing to higher nutrients uptake caused by smaller surface area of nanomaterials which increases nutrient-surface interaction. Along with boosting crops yield on sustainable basis, nanofertilizers hold potential to put a halt to environmental pollution caused by fertilizers.
  • Slow release fertilizers (chemical compounds having slight solubility in water or other solvents and get broken down gradually and slowly by soil microbial population) coated with nanoparticles significantly reduced nitrate leaching and de-nitrification.
  • Moreover, controlled releasing fertilizers (have higher solubility in contrast to slow release fertilizers but are coated with materials which significantly reduce the exposure of active ingredient with the solvent resulting in controlled liberation of nutrients through diffusion) coated with nanomaterials for reducing surface area my provide excellent of source of supplying plant nutrients in times to come.
  • Different fertilizers inputs have been reported to be resized into smaller fractions through mechanical means or by employing specific chemical methods, which may increase nutrients uptake and reduce losses as well as nutrient toxicity. Nano-sized particles have been prepared from urea, ammonia, peat and other synthetic fertilizers as well as plant wastes.
  • Plant nutrients can be encapsulated within the nanomaterials of varying nature and chemical composition. Nutrient particles may be coated with a thin layer of nanomaterials such as polymer film. Nutrients may also be delivered in the form of emulsions and particles having dimension in the range of nanoparticles.

Nanofertilizers advantages over conventional mineral fertilizers:

  • Mineral nutrients if applied to crops in the form of nanofertilizers hold potential to offer numerous benefits for making the crop production more sustainable and eco-friendly [21]. Some of salient advantages are;
  • Nanofertilizers feed the crop plants gradually in a controlled manner in contradiction to rapid and spontaneous release of nutrients from chemical fertilizers.
  • Nanofertilizers are more efficacious in terms of nutrients absorption and utilization owing to considerably lesser losses in the form of leaching and volatilization.
  • Nanoparticles record significantly higher uptake owing to free passage from nano sized pores and by molecular transporters as well as root exudates. Nanoparticles also utilize various ion channels which lead to higher nutrient uptake by crop plants. Within the plant, nanoparticles may pass through plasmodesmata that results in effective delivery on nutrient to sink sites.
  • Due to considerably small losses of nanofertilizers, these can be applied in smaller amounts in comparison to synthetic fertilizers which are being applied in greater quantities keeping in view their major chunk that gets lost owing to leaching and emission.
  • Nanofertilizers offer the biggest benefit in terms of small losses which lead to lower risk of environmental pollution.
  • Comparatively higher solubility and diffusion impart superiority to nanofertilizers over conventional synthetic fertilizers.
  • Smart nanofertilizers such as polymer coated fertilizers avoid premature contact with soil and water owing to thin coating encapsulation of nanoparticles such as leading to negligible loss of nutrients. On the other hand, these become available as soon as plants are in position to internalize the released nutrients.

Limitations of nano fertilizers:

  • Despite offering numerous benefits pertaining to sustainable crop production, nanofertilizers have some limitations regarding research gaps, absence of rigorous monitoring and lack of legislation which are currently hampering the rapid development and adoption of nanoparticles as a source of plant nutrients [47]. A few of the limitations and drawbacks associated to nanofertilizers use for sustainable crop production are enlisted below.
  • Nano fertilizers related legislation and associated risk management continue to remain the prime limitation in advocating and promoting nano fertilizers for sustainable crop production.
  • Another limiting factor is the production and availability of nano fertilizers in required quantities and this is the foremost limitation in wider scale adoption of nano fertilizers as a source of plant nutrients.
  • The higher cost of nano fertilizers constitutes another hurdle in the way of promulgating them for crop production under varying pedo-climatic conditions across the globe.
  • Another major limitation pertaining to nanofertilizers is the lack of recognized formulation and standardization which may lead to contrasting effects of the same nanomaterials under various pedoclimatic conditions.
  • There are many products being claimed to be nano but in fact are submicron and micron in size. This dilemma is feared to remain persistent until and unless uniform size of nanoparticles (1–100 nm) gets implemented.

Way forward:

  • Nanofertilizers applied alone and in conjunction with organic materials have the potential to reduce environmental pollution owing to significant less losses and higher absorption rate. In addition, nanomaterials were recorded to improve germination rate, plant height, root development and number of roots, leaf chlorophyll and fruits antioxidant contents.
  • Moreover, controlled and slow released fertilizers having coating of nanoparticles, boost nutrient use efficiency and absorption of photosynthetically active radiation along with considerably lower wastage of nutrients.
  • The future of nanofertilizers for sustainable crop production and time period needed for their general adaptation as a source of plant nutrients depend on varied factors such as effective legislation, production of novel nanofertilizers products as per requirement and associated risk management.
  • There is a dire need for standardization of nanomaterials formulations and subsequently conducting rigorous field and greenhouse studies for performance evaluation. For sustainable crop production, smart nanofertilizers having the potential to release nutrients as per plants requirement in temporal and spatial dimensions must be formulated.

Conclusion:

Researchers and regulators need to shoulder the responsibility by providing further insights in order to take full advantage of the nanofertilizers for sustainable crop production under changing climate with the risk of causing environmental pollution.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

5. Discuss the major provisions of the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) and the need for such legislation. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The licenses of 13 non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have been suspended so far this year under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 2010. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the major provisions of the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA) and the need for such legislation.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Over the last few years, the licenses of 20,664 NGOs or associations registered under the FCRA have been cancelled for violations such as mis-utilisation of foreign contribution, non-submission of mandatory annual returns and diversion of foreign funds for other purposes.

Body:

The government has also cracked down on foreign donors such as the U.S.-based Compassion International, Ford Foundation etc. and has placed them on a ‘watch list’ or in the ‘prior permission’.

what is the FCRA? –

The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act was first enacted in 1976 and it was further amended in 2010. The FCRA regulates foreign donations and ensures that such contributions do not adversely affect internal security.

Ambit of the FCRA –

The FCRA is applicable to all associations, groups and NGOs which intend to receive foreign donations. It is mandatory for such organizations to register themselves under the FCRA category.

Discuss then the need for such legislation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

                The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 2010 has been enacted by the Parliament to consolidate the law to regulate the acceptance and utilization of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by certain individuals or associations or companies and to prohibit acceptance and utilization of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activities detrimental to national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

Body:

Need for FCRA:

  • The objective of Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010 is primarily to regulate the acceptance and utilization of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by specified persons and to prohibit acceptance and utilization of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activity detrimental to national interest.
  • The intent of the Act is to prevent use of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activity detrimental to the national interest.
  • It has a very wide scope and is applicable to a natural person, body corporate, all other types of Indian entities (whether incorporated or not) as well as NRIs and overseas branches/subsidiaries of Indian companies and other entities formed or registered in India. It is implemented by the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.

Major provisions of the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA):

  • Under the Act, organisations require to register themselves every five years.
  • As per the amended FCRA rules, all NGOs registered or granted prior permission under FCRA are now required to upload details of foreign contributions received and utilized by them every three months on their website or the FCRA website.
  • NGOs now need to file their annual returns online, with the hard copy version dispensed with. The annual returns must be placed quarterly on the NGO’s website or the FCRA website maintained by the home ministry.

Eligible entities for Foreign Contribution:

  • A person having a definite cultural, economic, educational, religious or social programme can accept foreign contribution after getting registration or prior permission from the Central Government.

Entities not eligible for Foreign Contribution:

  • Election candidate
  • Member of any legislature (MP and MLAs)
  • Political party or office bearer thereof
  • Organization of a political nature
  • Correspondent, columnist, cartoonist, editor, owner, printer or publishers of a registered Newspaper.
  • Judge, government servant or employee of any corporation or any other body controlled on owned by the Government.
  • Association or company engaged in the production or broadcast of audio news, audio visual news or current affairs programmes through any electronic mode
  • Any other individuals or associations who have been specifically prohibited by the Central Government.

Eligibility criteria for grant of registration:

  • The Association must be registered (under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 or Indian Trusts Act 1882 or section 8 of Companies Act, 2013 etc.) normally be in existence for at least 3 years.
  • Has undertaken reasonable activity in its field for the benefit of the society.
  • Has spent at least Rs.10,00,000/- (Rs. ten lakh) over the last three years on its activities.

Public interests:

The FCRA regulates the receipt of funding from sources outside of India to NGOs working in India. It prohibits receipt of foreign contribution “for any activities detrimental to the national interest”.

  • The Act specifies that NGOs require the government’s permission to receive funding from abroad.
  • The government can refuse permission if it believes that the donation to the NGO will adversely affect “public interest” or the “economic interest of the state”.

This condition is manifestly overbroad. There is no clear guidance on what constitutes “public interest”.

Definition of foreign contribution:

It defines the term ‘foreign contribution’ to include currency, article other than gift for personal use and securities received from foreign source. While foreign hospitality refers to any offer from a foreign source to provide foreign travel, boarding, lodging, transportation or medical treatment cost.

Suspension or cancellation of license:

  • The MHA on inspection of accounts and on receiving any adverse input against the functioning of an association can suspend the FCRA registration initially for 180 days. Until a decision is taken, the association cannot receive any fresh donation and cannot utilise more than 25% of the amount available in the designated bank account without permission of the MHA.
  • The MHA can cancel the registration of an organisation which will not be eligible for registration or grant of ‘prior permission’ for three years from the date of cancellation.

Conclusion:

                A regulatory mechanism to keep a watch on the financial activities of NGOs and voluntary organizations is the need of the hour. Citizens today are keen to play an active role in processes that shape their lives and it is important that their participation in democracy go beyond the ritual of voting and should include promotion of social justice, gender equity, inclusion etc.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

6. What is human dignity? Why maintenance of it has been incorporated in all religious texts as well as in our Constitution? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, integrity and aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is premised on the importance of human dignity.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the need and importance of human dignity and explain why maintenance of it has been incorporated in all religious texts as well as in our Constitution.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what human dignity is.

Body:

‘Human Dignity’ forms the basic foundation for the establishment of human values. It states that every human being should be acknowledged as an inherently valuable member of the human community and as a unique expression of life, with an integrated bodily and spiritual nature.

In all the religious texts maintenance of human dignity has been mentioned as it forms the basis of human identity.

The principle is foundational for the maintenance of distributive justice, principles like the common good, the right to life and the right to health care as mentioned in the Indian constitution.

Without dignity none of the protections of the various legal human rights mechanisms can have real meaning, which is why the concept has held, and continues to hold, a central place in the all human rights framework whether religion texts or constitution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

                At its most basic, the concept of human dignity is the belief that all people hold a special value that’s tied solely to their humanity. It has nothing to do with their class, race, gender, religion, abilities, or any other factor other than them being human.

The term “dignity” has evolved over the years. Originally, the Latin, English, and French words for “dignity” did not have anything to do with a person’s inherent value. It aligned much closer with someone’s “merit.” If someone was “dignified,” it meant they had a high status. They belonged to royalty or the church, or, at the very least, they had money. For this reason, “human dignity” does not appear in the US Declaration of Independence or the Constitution. The phrase as we understand it today wasn’t recognized until 1948. The United Nations ratified the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Body:

The original meaning of the word “dignity” established that someone deserved respect because of their status. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that concept was turned on its head. Article 1 states: “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.” Suddenly, dignity wasn’t something that people earned because of their class, race, or another advantage. It is something all humans are born with. Simply by being human, all people deserve respect. Human rights naturally spring from that dignity.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, adopted in 1966, continued this understanding. The preamble reads that “…these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person.” This belief goes hand in hand with the universality of human rights. In the past, only people made dignified by their status were given respect and rights. By redefining dignity as something inherent to everyone, it also establishes universal rights.

Human dignity: the religious framework

The concept of human dignity isn’t limited to human rights. In fact, for centuries, religions around the world have recognized a form of human dignity as we now understand it. Most religions teach that humans are essentially equal for one reason or another. In Christianity, Islam, and Judaism, it’s because humans were created in the image of God, becoming children of God.

Dignity is something that a divine being gives to people. In Catholic social teaching, the phrase “Human Dignity” is used specifically to support the church’s belief that every human life is sacred. This defines the denomination’s dedication to social issues like ending the death penalty.

In Hinduism and Buddhism, respectively, dignity is inherent because humans are manifestations of the Divine or on a universal journey to happiness. In the Shvetasvatara Upanishad, an ancient Sanskrit text, it reads “We are all begotten of the immortal,” or “We are children of immortality.” Buddhism begins with the understanding that humans are “rare” because they can make choices that lead to enlightenment. Our dignity arises from this responsibility and ability, uniting all humans in their quest.

When everyone is equal, they are all equally deserving of basic respect and rights, at least in theory. Countless people have had their dignity disrespected over the years by religious institutions and others using religion as justification.

Human dignity and Indian constitution:

The Preamble and Article 38 of the Constitution envision social justice as the arch to ensure life to be meaningful and livable with human dignity. Jurisprudence is the eye of law giving an insight into the environment of which it is the expression. It relates the law to the spirit of the time and makes it richer.

Justice, according to law, comprehends social urge and commitment. The Constitution commands justice, liberty, equality and fraternity as supreme values to usher in the egalitarian social, economic and political democracy. Social justice, equality and dignity of person are cornerstones of social democracy. The concept of social justice which the Constitution of India engrafted, consists of diverse principles essential for the orderly growth and development of personality of every citizen.

The right to life enshrined in Art.21 cannot be restricted to mere animal existence. It means something much more than just physical survival. The right to life includes the right to live with human dignity and all that goes along with it, namely, the bare necessaries of life such as adequate nutrition, clothing and shelter over the head and facilities for reading, writing and expressing oneself in diverse forms, freely moving about and mixing and commingling with fellow human beings.

Why recognizing human dignity is so important?

Why is human dignity so important when it comes to human rights? Human dignity justifies human rights. When people are divided and given a value based on characteristics like class, gender, religion, and so on, it creates unequal societies where discrimination runs rampant. People assigned a higher value get preferential treatment. Anyone who doesn’t fit into the privileged category is abandoned or oppressed. We’ve seen what happens in places where human dignity isn’t seen as inherent and human rights aren’t universal. While the privileged few in these societies flourish, society as a whole suffers significantly. Inevitably, violence erupts. If a new group takes power and also fails to recognize human dignity, the cycle of destruction continues, only with different participants.

Conclusion:

Recognizing human dignity and the universality of human rights isn’t just so individuals can be protected and respected. It’s for the good of the entire world. If everyone’s rights were respected and everyone got equal opportunities to thrive, the world would be a much happier, more peaceful place.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. How does lack of goodness breed a delinquent society marked by crisis of faith and trust? What are the consequences of crisis of faith and trust in a society? Why does it become much more difficult to govern such a society? (250 words)

Reference: researchgate.net

Why the question:

The question talks about in what way goodness great breeds’ law-abiding society and lack of faith and trust often lead to a delinquent society.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the significance of faith and trust to preserve the goodness of the society.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining importance of trust and faith in a society.

Body:

Community is a combination of two elements:

  • A web of affect laden relationships among a group of individuals, relationships that often crisscross and reinforce one another-rather than merely one-on-one or chainlike individual relationships based on goodness of act;
  • Measure of commitment to a set of shared values, norms, and meanings to a particular culture.

The lack of goodness in individual act lead to crisis of faith and trust. Explain how that further leads to a delinquent society. Give examples to justify better.

Conclusion:

The society is not just governed by laws, rules and regulations but by the will of the people, norms that society places on individual. Thus following of goodness in behaviour is must..

Introduction:

There are just a few elemental forces that hold our world together. The one that’s the glue of society is called trust. Its presence cements relationships by allowing people to live and work together, feel safe and belong to a group.

Faith isn’t just a notion that some people hold onto in tough times; faith is an important element to all human life on earth. Life is precious, but it can also be remarkably difficult at times. Faith is what helps to get us through, illuminating the pathway in times of darkness, helping to give us strength in times of weakness. Without faith, we are nothing.

Both faith and trust are very fundamental factors in the society.

Body:

Consequences of crisis of faith and trust in a society:

Trust is hard to define, but we do know when it’s lost. When that happens, we withdraw our energy and level of engagement. We go on an internal strike, not wanting to be sympathetic to the person who we feel has hurt us or treated us wrongly. We may not show it outwardly, but we are less likely to tell the formerly trusted person that we are upset, to share what is important to us or to follow through on commitments.

Low and declining political trust have been a prime concern of scholars, politicians, and opinion leaders across the globe for more than four decades. As high levels of political trust are widely assumed to be a necessary precondition for democratic rule, a decline is argued to fundamentally challenge the quality of representative democracy. Decreasing political trust has been associated theoretically with increasing electoral volatility, the rise of challenger parties, political stagnation, the breakdown and reform of political institutions, and ultimately with undermining the stability of democratic rule itself.

Trust in a leader allows organizations and communities to flourish, while the absence of trust can cause fragmentation, conflict and even war.

A lack of trust, corrupted democracy, as well as doubts about the chance of a prosperous future with an affordable cost of living, and the possibility of ever closing the inequality gap. These are the results of unresponsive governments, bad public services, corrupted systems, social and income inequity and an unfair economy. This will continue and grow if social inclusion is not transformed.

If the level of trust is low in a relationship or organization, people limit their involvement and what they are willing to do or share. They might think to themselves, “This is all you deserve,” or, “This is as all I am willing to give.” In contrast, when the trust level is high, people reward it by giving more. But, more often than not, people feel that their distrust is not safe to share. So a leader or loved one may be slow to discover that they have lost a person’s trust.

It can be plausibly argued that much of the economic backwardness in the world can be explained by the lack of mutual confidence. Indeed, much economic research has demonstrated a powerful relationship between the level of trust in a community and its aggregate economic performance. Without mutual trust, economic activity is severely constrained

Trust in government is an essential element of growth and performance. Public commitment and cooperation are a prerequisite for strengthening domestic tax mobilization, successful implementation of policies and programs, acceptance of judicial and legislative decisions, and achieving sustainable development.

Difficulty in governing:

  • Distrust leads to failure in governance, i.e., public policies are enforced without transparency and citizen engagement.
  • Poor faith and trust leads lack of citizen engagement and lack of proper regulation.
  • The root cause of mistrust results to unaccountable and unresponsive government leading to vicious cycle.
  • Bureaucratic corruption, excessive red-tape, inefficient and ineffective delivery of public resources, wastage of public resources, poor leadership, lack of reform mind-sets, and lack of integrity in government all result from lack of trust and faith in the government.

Conclusion:

The dynamics of trust and faith are delicate in important relationships, and the loss of trust can be costly — not only psychologically, but also financially and in terms or work and livelihood and as nation and a society. What’s helpful to remember is that trust is an ongoing exchange between people and is not static. Trust can be earned. It can be lost. And it can be regained.


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