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Critically analyse the essence, determinants and consequences of human action with reference to J. S. Mill act utilitarianism Charvaka and Karmayoga.

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships.

7. Critically analyse the essence, determinants and consequences of human action with reference to J. S. Mill act utilitarianism Charvaka and Karmayoga. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question aims to analyse the essence, determinants and consequences of human actions.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse the essence, determinants and consequences of human action with reference to J. S. Mill act utilitarianism Charvaka and Karmayoga.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that in the determinants and consequences of ethics in human action ‘Human action’ is the starting point of ethics. One of the very first points of consideration in judging the morality or immorality of any act of a person is that it must be a conscious human act, before it can have any moral quality whatsoever.

Body:

Discuss in detail what you understand by essence, determinants and consequences of human action in general.

Explain then each of the three concepts – J. S. Mill act utilitarianism, Charvaka and Karmayoga.

Mill can be characterized as an act utilitarian in regard to the theory of objective rightness, but as a rule utilitarian in regard to the theory of moral obligation. He defines morality as a system of rules that is protected by sanctions.

Charvaka holds direct perception, empiricism, and conditional inference as proper sources of knowledge, embraces philosophical skepticism and rejects ritualism and supernaturalism.

Karma yoga, also called Karma marga, is one of the three spiritual paths in Hinduism, one based on the “yoga of action”. To a karma yogi, right action is a form of prayer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such philosophies.