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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 October 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Write a note on Kailasanatha Temple and Dashavatar Cave architecture of Rashtrakutas.(250 words)

Reference: Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of Art and culture of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain the architecture of Rashtrakutas with specific references to Kailasanatha Temple and Dashavatar Cave.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief introduction on the architectural abilities of Rashtrakutas.

Body:

First talk about the Kailasanatha temple; is the largest of the rock-cut Hindu temples at the Ellora Caves, Maharashtra, India. A megalith carved from a rock cliff face, it is considered one of the most remarkable cave temples in the world because of its size, architecture. As per the historical records, it was built by the 8th century Rashtrakuta King Krishna I between the year 756 and 773 AD.

Cave 15 of the Ellora is known as Dashavatara Cave, belongs to the period of Rashtrakuta king, Dantidurga. This cave mainly depicts Lord Shiva & Lord Vishnu in various forms. This two-storeyed structure has a large courtyard in which stands a monolithic Nandi mandapa. River goddesses flank the entrance.

Use pictorial depictions to show the architectural styles and their importance.

Conclusion:

Conclude by appreciating such architectural marvels.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

2. Explain the role of Panchayat Raj in changing the traditional power structure in Rural India. (250 words)

Reference: shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in

Why the question:

The article explains the impact of Panchayat Raj system on the traditional rural power structure in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the role of Panchayat Raj in changing the traditional power structure in Rural India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the background of traditional power structure that existed in Rural India before the coming of Panchayat Raj system.

Body:

First explain what type of power structure existed in Rural India.

Then move onto explain the coming of Panchayat Raj system.

Discuss the functions of Gram Panchayat; As part of the infrastructure of the democratic system in India, Panchayat plays a very important role in the village. The Gram Panchayat plays major role in village administration. In the village, it exercises the functions like sanitation, public health, street lighting, maintenance of burning and burial grounds, keeping records of birth and deaths, establishment of the centres for child welfare, propagation of family planning, promotion of agriculture and animal husbandry, construction of public building and tanks, organization of co-operative societies, hearing and settling of minor disputes etc.

List down the positives that the system brought into the Rural India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

 

Topic: Issues relating to poverty and hunger. Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. “three out of four rural Indians cannot afford a balanced, nutritious diet.”, In this context analyse the Nutrition challenges facing India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explains that the India’s low global rank in tackling nutritional deficits calls for a revamped PDS.

Key Demand of the question:

One must analyse in detail the Nutrition challenges facing India.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with alarming facts like – This year’s Global Hunger Index (GHI) places India in the company of Sudan — rank 94 among 107 countries — with the unedifying assessment of the national situation as “serious”.

Body:

The recent findings of the International Food Policy Research Institute scholars show that three out of four rural Indians cannot afford a balanced, nutritious diet. The NFHS-4 of 2015-16 found that under-five stunting from chronic undernourishment stood at 38%, and wasting as a result of acute lack of nutrition, at 21%.

The above observations are evidence of the nutrition challenge that India faces.

Explain the concerns first and the causes – The existing deprivation has been aggravated by the pandemic, with food inflation putting pressure on depleted incomes or meager pensions and savings. The right to food leaves a large section of Indians hungry, stunted and wasted. There is a need to overcome the false equation between energy calories and nourishing diets etc.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

There is the need for a radical transformation in the delivery of adequate nutrition especially to women and children to address the issue of hunger, wasting and stunting among children. Strengthening the PDS, with a focus on women’s health, would lead to healthier pregnancies, and stronger supplemental nutrition under the ICDS scheme would give children a better chance at all-round development.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. What is fiscal consolidation? What steps has the government taken in recent times in India to practice it? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: India Times 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the recent efforts by the government that are being made to ensure fiscal consolidation under the current challenging circumstances.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the concept of Fiscal consolidation and discuss the steps that the government has taken in recent times in to practice it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the concept of Fiscal Consolidation.

Body:

Fiscal consolidation is the policy of making sure that govt keeps its receipts aligned with its expenditure and keeps overall deficit in control.

Discuss the importance of fiscal consolidation through the past experiences in the country.

Explain that with FRBM Act, the government has initiated an institutional mechanism of implementing fiscal consolidation. Elaborate on other measures or steps taken by the government in this direction like reducing fiscal deficit to less than 3.5% of GDP, keeping debt to GDP ratio around 60% and others.

Discuss apart from these what areas can be focused varying from GST reforms to administrative reforms to control wasteful expenditure.

Conclusion:

Conclude that all of these will help in better channelization of resources that India has and it will solve the issues of development, poverty alleviation, and reduction in inequality with more healthy results than current policy regime.

 

Topic GS-1: urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Discuss the importance of making Indian Cities River sensitive to ensure effective management riverine ecosystems in the country. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The author explains in what ways mix of engineering and planning-related approaches, initiatives to make people empathize with riverine ecosystems could restore the health of these water bodies.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the importance of making Indian Cities River sensitive to ensure effective management riverine ecosystems in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Firstly, talk about the relationship that riverine ecosystems share with cities.

Body:

Highlight the key concerns associated with water bodies that fall under city limits. For example 63 per cent of sewage flows into our rivers untreated every day.

Then talk about urban river management; explain how it is all about arriving at transformative solutions that are not restricted to merely the river zone. Several of these may, in fact, need to cover the entire city. To make this happen, a mix of both engineering and planning-related approaches are required.

Discuss the importance of understanding cities as inter-related “operational units” that will help realize the vision of an overall river basin management plan.

Take hints from the article and present viewpoints with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Elucidate the human values and their types with special reference to Patanjali’s classification of virtues. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of classification of human values and their types.

Key Demand of the question:

One must elaborate upon the human values and their types with special reference to Patanjali’s classification of virtues.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what Values are.

Body:

Values can be defined as those things that are valued by someone. In other words, values are what is considered ‘important ‘by an individual or an organization. Examples include courage, honesty, freedom, innovation etc.

Then move onto discuss the types of values.

Elaborate that Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra I. 33 makes complete sense that helps us inculcate four primary virtues i.e. Maitri= Friendship; Karuna= Compassion; Mudita= Joy; Upekshanam=Indifference. These virtues are fundamental for our own favorable disposition or mental peace.

Give examples to explain the importance of values in general.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Explain tolerance and compassion in Indian context. How effectively can tolerance and compassion be used by the respective authority in the process of decision making in public administration? (250 words)

Reference: Ethics ,Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of tolerance and compassion. And discuss their importance to decision making in public administration.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the concepts of tolerance and compassion in Indian context and its importance to decision making in public administration.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what tolerance and compassion are. Empathy involves giving due importance and value to understanding of one’s thoughts, feelings and concerns for others even when they are not explicitly expressed, and acting on it.

Body:

Explain why a civil servant /public servant should possess these virtues to justify the administration job better. Explain that Public servants must have the ability​ ​to​ ​understand​ ​someone​ ​else’s​ ​experience​ ​of​ ​humanity and​ ​use​ ​that​ ​understanding​ ​to​ ​guide​ ​their decisions and actions. Among many others, empathy and tolerance are foundational values that affect the decision making to a large extent.

Suggest methods for administrators to inculcate and practice these key values while making decisions in public administration.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.


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