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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 13 October 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

1. Discuss the issues of fiscal independence specific to urban local bodies. Also, make some suggestions to improve local finance and account in what way extant fiscal illusion is a great deterrent to mobilisation. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The author presents to us the financial difficulties that the urban local bodies are facing in the current times.

Key Demand of the question:

One must bring out the issues of fiscal independence specific to urban local bodies. Also, make some suggestions to improve local finance and account in what way extant fiscal illusion is a great deterrent to mobilisation.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the urban local bodies, their mandate, functioning with special emphasis on their fiscal factor.

Body:

It is quarter century since the creation of municipalities under 74th Constitutional Amendment Act. It is imperative at this juncture to assess the progress of municipal governance in India.

Discuss the concerns associated with special focus on fiscal mobilisation.

Suggest what needs to be done to overcome the issue of the extant fiscal issues.

Explain that the stable source of revenue for the local government bodies whether from their own sources or in the form of grants should lie at the heart of efforts to empower them.

Conclusion:

The present model of urban governance vesting power in a singular municipality should be relooked. Urban governance reforms should focus on political empowerment of local government that promotes local democratic accountability.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. “The NEP has highlighted India’s digital divide and aspires to bridge it in a time bound manner”, do you agree? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: rstv.nic.in

Why the question:

The question is based on the Vice President M Venkaiah Naidu’s article on New Education Policy 2020.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain in what way the NEP 2020 has highlighted India’s digital divide and aspires to bridge it in a time bound manner.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the coming of NEP 2020 and highlight how it is different from previous education policies.

Body:

Explain that the policy places a welcome emphasis on a holistic, learner-centred, flexible system that seeks to transform India into a vibrant knowledge society. It rightfully balances the rootedness and pride in India as well as acceptance of the best ideas and practices of learning from across the globe. Its vision is truly global and at the same time Indian.

Discuss in what way it exposed the existing digital divide especially in the context of education.

Highlight in what way the policy can bridge this digital divide.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic:  Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. Why was the monetary policy committee formed? Discuss its composition and mandate while highlighting its significance. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently monetary policy review was in news, after the reconstitution of the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC).

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the coming of MPC, its mandate, composition and significance.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) is a committee constituted by the Reserve Bank of India and led by the Governor of RBI. Monetary Policy Committee was formed with the mission of fixing the benchmark policy interest rate (repo rate) to restrain inflation within the particular target level.

Body:

The question is straightforward and there isn’t much to deliberate.

One must discuss the backdrop in which the MPC was constituted, its mandate and composition.

The Monetary Policy Committee is responsible for fixing the benchmark interest rate in India. The meetings of the Monetary Policy Committee are held at least 4 times a year and it publishes its decisions after each such meeting. Suggest its functioning.

Hint at challenges or concerns if any associated with its functioning and suggest remedies for the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

 

Topic : Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

4. Antibiotic Resistance needs to be addressed in totality by all sectors, including healthcare, veterinary and agricultural domains. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: India Times 

Why the question:

According to experts, the usage of sanitizers and soaps during COVID-19 may reduce Anti-Microbial Resistance.

Key Demand of the question:

As the scope of this Anti-Microbial resistance problems is wider (I.e. it can transmit from animals to humans), it needs to be addressed by all sectors, including healthcare, veterinary and agricultural domains.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what AMR is.

Body:

Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in response to the use of these medicines. It means bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a broader term, encompassing resistance to drugs to treat infections caused by other microbes as well, such as parasites, viruses, and fungi.

Discuss the grave concerns posed by AMR, account for the causative factors.

Explain in what way the issue needs a multi-pronged approach, one can present some case studies to substantiate the same.

Conclusion:

One can conclude with the efforts of the government in various sectors to address the issue.

 

Topic : Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Biotechnology And issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.

5. The new space reforms seek to shift the Space related activities in the country from “Supply Based Model” to a “Demand Based Model”. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

The article talks about the privatisation of the space domain and its benefits.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way the new space reforms seek to shift the Space related activities in the country from “Supply Based Model” to a “Demand Based Model”.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the importance of Space as a key sector and need for increased focus towards privatisation.

Body:

Briefly talk about the existing system of operation of Space technology in the country.

Explain the recent space reforms that have been undertaken by the government.

Discuss in detail the shift in Space related activities in the country from “Supply Based Model” to a “Demand Based Model”.

Highlight the advantages of such a move; discuss the associated concerns and challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude on a positive note that such a move is a welcome step.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

6. What do you understand by impartiality? why is it one of the most important value for civil servants?  Discuss with relevant examples. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics integrity and aptitude by lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of Impartiality and relevance to civil services.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what Impartiality is; explain its importance to civil servants with suitable examples.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define Impartiality; Impartiality refers to equal interest and equal lack of interest without hatred or passion. For a public servant, it means that decisions should be based on objective criteria, rather than on the basis of bias, prejudice or personal interest.

Body:

Discuss in what all contexts the civil servants need to practice impartiality, discuss the different types of Impartiality.

Explain the importance of Impartiality as an attribute for a civil servant; in upholding the constitutional values, in practicing good work culture, in handling tough and challenging situations, in tackling corruption etc.

One can present a case study to substantiate the above advantages of practicing impartiality to civil servants.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

7. Write a short note on the following terms:

i) Work Ethos

ii) Conscience

iii) Principle of natural Justice.  (250 words)

Reference: Ethics integrity and aptitude by lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is straightforward and one has to elucidate on the above mentioned terms in detail.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss each term in detail, its significance and relevance.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define each of the terms mentioned in the question one by one.

Body:

Work ethos is a belief that hard work and diligence have a moral benefit and an inherent ability, virtue or value to strengthen character and individual abilities. It is a set of values centered on importance of work and manifested by determination or desire to work hard.

Conscience is a cognitive process that elicits emotion and rational associations based on an individual’s moral philosophy or value system.

Principles of natural justice are those rules which have been laid down by the Courts as being the minimum protection of the rights of the individual against the arbitrary procedure that may be adopted by a judicial, quasi-judicial and administrative authority while making an order affecting those rights.

State the importance of each of the above values and list their advantages.

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance.


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