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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 7 October 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

1. Account for the correlation between life expectancy and important economic and social factors in the country, discuss the recent changes witnessed in the life expectancy. (250 words)

Reference: Deccan Herald

Why the question:

The editorial captures the strides of life expectancy in India and presents a detailed picture of the recent changes in the trends from past to present.

Key Demand of the question:

One must account for the correlation between life expectancy and important economic and social factors in the country while discussing the change dynamics.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define first what you understand by Life expectancy.

Body:

Start by explaining what factors affect life expectancy in a country?

One can then talk about Preston curve; relationship between life expectancy and income – It indicates that individuals born in richer countries, on average, can expect to live longer than those born in poor countries. However, the link between income and life expectancy flattens out.

Then account for case of India in detail, take hints from the article and explain the recent changes witnessed in the life expectancy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the concerns associated and improvise on the social and economic factors leading to better life expectancy in the country.

 

Topic: Parliament and State legislatures—structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

2. Do you think time is ripe for the Parliament to reconsider if the disqualification petitions under Anti defection law should to entrusted upon Speaker? Examine in the backdrop of recent incidences. (250 words)

Reference: Indian polity by Lakshmikant , barandbench.com

Why the question:

Recently in a judgment that raises important questions and also provides some clarity to anti-defection laws, the Supreme Court urged Parliament to have a rethink on whether a Speaker ought to decide on disqualification petitions filed under the Tenth Schedule to the Constitution of India.

Key Demand of the question:

Debate on the fact whether disqualification petitions under Anti defection law should to entrusted upon Speaker.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start your answer with brief description of anti-defection law in the country.

Body:

Talk about 10th schedule. The Tenth Schedule provides the circumstances under which a Member of Parliament or a State Legislative Assembly can be disqualified for defecting to another party. Disqualification petitions under the Tenth Schedule are decided by the Speaker of the concerned House.

Such questions are best explained with recent examples witnessed across the Indian States with respect to powers of the Speaker and anti-defection law.

Suggest your opinion by justifying with suitable cases.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. In the backdrop of the recently announced National Education Policy (NEP), Discuss critically the design principles for the transformation of the educational sector in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The editorial explains how after 34 years, India rekindled the conversation on its National Education Policy (NEP) in 2020 and the nuances of transformation of the educational sector in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss critically the design principles for the transformation of the educational sector in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss briefly the background of the question.

Body:

Start by emphasizing on five principles to transform education in the country –

  • Autonomy
  • Learning
  • Trans disciplinanarity
  • Technology – Innovation
  • Values, mindset and culture

Discuss each of the above 5 principles and the efforts taken in its direction while also explaining its impact on the transformative changes that they may bring in the Indian education sector with suitable examples.

Explain the efforts of the government in this direction, various policies that have been in existence and in what way they have undergone transformation based on the above principles.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.  

4. Discuss the intensity of Hepatitis problem in India, what are the measures taken by the government to eliminate the different strains prevalent in the country? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Two Americans and a Briton have won the 2020 Nobel Prize for Medicine. The three share the award for discovering and proving that a blood-borne virus could cause Hepatitis C.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the intensity of Hepatitis problem in India, and explain what measures are being taken by the government to eliminate the different strains prevalent in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by talking about the Hepatitis and its prevalence in the country.

Body:

Discuss first the intensity of the problem; Viral hepatitis B and C affect 325 million people worldwide, leading to about 1.4 million deaths a year. It is the second major killer infectious disease after tuberculosis, and 9 times more people are infected with hepatitis than HIV.  In India, around 4 crore people suffering from Hepatitis B and 0.6-1.2 crore people suffering from Hepatitis C.

Then move on to explain Indian Government measures to eliminate Hepatitis Virus like as a measure to eliminate Hepatitis by 2030, in 2018, National Viral Hepatitis Control Programme (NVHCP) was launched as part of National Health Mission etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by appreciating such a discovery and the possible contributions it can make in making the country Hepatitis free.

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.

5. Deliberate on using Artificial Intelligence as a social empowerment tool in the field of healthcare, agriculture, education, pandemic preparedness, and smart mobility in the country. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

Prime Minister inaugurated the RAISE 2020, a global AI summit being organized by Ministry of Electronics and information Technology, thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the applications of Artificial Intelligence as a social empowerment tool in the field of healthcare, agriculture, education, pandemic preparedness, and smart mobility in the country.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what AI is; AI is a branch of computer science that deals with creating computers or machines as intelligent as human beings.

Body:

Start by discussing benefits of AI. AI can increase access and affordability of quality healthcare. In agriculture, it can contribute towards enhancing farmers’ income, increase farm productivity and reduce wastage. It can also improve access and quality of education.

It can help build efficient infrastructure for the increasing urban population.

Develop smarter and safer modes of transportation to address traffic and congestion problems. AI could create jobs in the country that would be higher than the number of jobs becoming redundant due to innovation in technology.

Increase efficiency and enhance governance across the government.

Discuss the challenges associated and suggest solutions to overcome them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic : Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

6. In recent months, there have been multiple incidents of COVID deaths in the government hospitals due to the lack of ICU availability and ventilators. Despite the existence of laws, rules and vigilance mechanisms why do such tragedies occur? Analyse and suggest remedies for improving the probity in hospital administration. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of probity in administration.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the case with emphasis on need for probity in hospital administration.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Probity means being honest and trustworthy and acting with integrity.

Body:

Explain first that Honesty and integrity are central to probity and define how any professional person should act: being upstanding and law-abiding, and respectful of the trust placed in you by others. This is vital in healthcare as trust is the fulcrum on which the doctor–patient relationship is balanced.

Then move onto explain that the COVID-19 pandemic has brought numerous challenges to hospitals and hospital administrators: equipment shortages for both patients and health care workers; steep declines in revenue; and attendant staffing concerns.

Suggest what needs to be done to ensure probity in hospital administration in such situations.

Conclusion:

Conclude with possible solutions to uphold principles of probity.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. What factors affect the formation of a person’s attitude towards social problems? In our society, contrasting attitudes are prevalent in many social problems. What contrasting attitudes do you notice about the caste system in our society? How do you explain the existence of these contrasting attitudes? (250 words)

Reference: Previous year papers GS-IV 2014

Why the question:

The question is based on the topic of attitude and factors contributing to its formation.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the factors affect the formation of a person’s attitude towards social problems; discuss contrasting attitudes that are prevalent in many social problems with special reference to caste system.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by hinting about formation of attitude in a person.

Body:

A person’s attitude towards other persons or things is determined by various factors such as personality, values, stereotypes, experience, emotional state, intelligence, social background, education, gender etc.

Explain that one’s upbringing, beliefs and practices of their family and close ones, widely prevalent practices in society etc. all affect the formation of a person’s attitude towards social problems. At times, if we witness first hand someone’s societal problems or know someone who has gone through such problems, it helps us relate, sympathize, and develop a deeper understanding of the nature of the social problem.

Our society does exhibit contrasting attitudes towards the complex caste system in india. We do not completely conform to the old ways of strictly adhering to caste identities, but neither are we completely free of caste identities. Though in a majority of activities, caste is of no consequence, it does rear its ugly head at times. Given examples and justify.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to address and transform such attitudes.


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