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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 2 October 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, Social empowerment

1. Gender imbalance is one of the primary concerns that the science policy 2020 must focus to root out. Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The article explains how the new science and technology policy that is expected in December will place significant weight on the hiring of women in STEM positions and support policy for them at institutes and research organisations.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need to address the gender imbalance in the science policy and suggest measures to address it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the background of the question.

Body:

Present the scenario of science policy in the country.  Start by explaining what the key concerns in the policy are.

Explain how new science and technology policy will place significant weight on the hiring of women in STEM positions and support policy for them at institutes and research organisations. The move is aimed at improving women’s representation in STEM employment. Despite having one of the best showings globally on women’s representation in undergraduate science education, just 13.9% of the total of 280,000 researchers holding STEM jobs in India is women, a 2019 analysis by Unesco shows. Contrast this with China, where women account for nearly 40% of the total pool of researchers.

Suggest what measures should be taken to ensure good balance in the policy.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to ensure gender balance in the policy.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : India and its neighborhood- relations. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Is the continental grand strategy facing an existential crisis today? Account for the need for India to shift its focus from continental strategies to the maritime sphere. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The editorial talks about the need for India to shift its focus from continental strategies to the maritime sphere as its continental grand strategy is facing an existential crisis today.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for India to shift its focus towards maritime strategies from the current continental ones.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by presenting the state of India’s continental strategy from past till present.

Body:

India is a country that is traditionally obsessed with a continental approach to war and peace. However, India might have reached a dead-end in terms of its grand strategic plans in the continental space.

Explain that excessive focus on the continental sphere since Independence has not yielded great returns in terms of secure borders, healthy relations with its neighbours or deterrence stability. India must shift its almost exclusive focus from the continental sphere to the maritime sphere. While India seems stuck between Pakistan and China from a continental perspective, the country is located right at the centre of the Indo-Pacific geopolitical imagination, in the midst of the oceanic space spanning from the shores of Africa to that of the Americas.

Then move onto explain why should India focus on its Maritime Strategy.

Conclusion:

Conclude that it is high time New Delhi shifted its almost exclusive focus from the continental space to the maritime space, stitching together a maritime grand strategy

 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Analyse critically the option of prioritizing single language in multi-lingual India? Also suggest measures to preserve India’s linguistic diversity. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article explain the factor of prioritizing single language in multi-lingual India and its pros and cons and highlights the need to preserve India’s linguistic diversity.

Key Demand of the question:

One must critically analyse the option of prioritizing single language in multi-lingual India and advice upon preserving India’s linguistic diversity.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with the historical debates in the constitutional assembly about the one-language concept.

Body:

The issue of adopting a national language could not be resolved when the Constituent Assembly began drafting India’s Constitution. While the representatives of the Hindi-speaking provinces argued for adopting Hindi as the sole national language, members from the southern part of the country opposed this.

Talk about the coming of Official Languages Act 1963.

Now present critical points that how prioritizing one particular language may hamper the linguistic diversity of the country. When a refined language loses its status in literary and daily interactions, the way of life associated with it also vanishes.

If other well-evolved or endangered and indigenous languages are not protected and promoted, our future generations may fail to understand their real roots and culture.

While discussing Hindi and its use, there is a need to focus on the merit of other Indian languages.

Suggest measures to address the scenario.

Conclusion:

Conclude that instead of focusing on one national language, emphasis must be on learning a language beyond one’s mother tongue and getting to know a different way of life.

 

 Topic: GS-1: Role of women and women’s organization

GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. “Increasing gender sensitivity is crucial to enhancing women’s safety”, Explain in the context of Indian societal setup. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the dismal picture of Hathras rape case and explains the dire need to increase gender sensitivity in the country to ensure safety of the women.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the dire need to enhance and ensure gender sensitivity in the country for enhancing women safety.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what you understand by Gender safety.

Body:

Being sensitive is, very simply put, being appreciative of others’ feelings. In that context, gender sensitivity is about being considerate of the opposite gender’s feelings.

Explain why is women’s safety important? Discuss the contextual case of Indian society in particular.

Gender sensitivity is a very sensitive issue and it prevails in many countries including India.Despite all progress in art, literature, governance and science & technology, we have not been able to remove the gender discrimination. Men still dominate over women. Gender inequality fuels violence against women and results in power imbalances.

According to latest statistics, Afghanistan, Congo, India, Pakistan & Somalia are the five countries that are dangerous for women in the issues of health, discrimination, and cultural, sexual violence and trafficking.

Discuss the need and the stakeholders that need to make effort in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude that each female is a gift of God. For their sustainable livelihood, International community, the government and the private sectors, non-governmental associations, advocacy groups, the private sector, the academic community and others are extremely important for taking efforts to end violence against women and lead a violence free incredible India.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: GS-1:  urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

GS-3: Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, And Railways etc.

5. Discuss how urbanisation can boost India’s economy and improve quality of life. Explain with special reference to the current situations of the Pandemic. (250 words)

Reference: Economic Times 

Why the question:

The article presents to us an insight on cranking up on India’s economic engine via a robust master plan for its urbanisation.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail how urbanisation can boost India’s economy and improve quality of life in the present times.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start with the definition of Urbanisation.

Body:

Explain that population and economic growth has fostered urbanization in the country and the number of urban towns and cities has drastically increased. This growth is expected to continue in the years to come and India has to step up its game in order to catch up with this kind of change. Investments have to be made in order to better serve the country.

Present the current case of Pandemic and explain how it has distorted the economy of the country.

Suggest in what way urbanisation can address the problems of economy, population and the society in multiple dimensions.

Justify from your viewpoint the trends supporting urbanisation in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. What is meant by climate smart agriculture? How do you see smart agriculture helping combat climate change? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: http://www.fao.org

Why the question:

Question is premised on the concept of climate smart agriculture.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of climate smart agriculture and its applications specifically with the context of combating climate change.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define first what you understand by climate smart agriculture.

Body:

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an integrated approach to managing landscapes—cropland, livestock, forests and fisheries–that address the interlinked challenges of food security and climate change.

Explain the current problems – A growing global population and changing diets are driving up the demand for food. Production is struggling to keep up as crop yields level off in many parts of the world, ocean health declines, and natural resources—including soils, water and biodiversity—are stretched dangerously thin. A 2020 report found that nearly 690 million people–or 8.9 percent of the global population– are hungry, up by nearly 60 million in five years. The food security challenge will only become more difficult, as the world will need to produce about 70 percent more food by 2050 to feed an estimated 9 billion people.

The challenge is intensified by agriculture’s extreme vulnerability to climate change. Climate change’s negative impacts are already being felt, in the form of reduced yields and more frequent extreme weather events, affecting crops and livestock alike.

Discuss its role in combating climate change with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. Trust in government is increasingly an issue of concern everywhere. Analyse the statement. Also suggest some measures so that public institutions can be more trust- worthy for citizens. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question talks about the factor of trust and its importance in Governance.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the importance of trust in the government and in what way lack of it can be an issue and threat to democracy.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define trust and its importance.

Body:

The relevance of measures of trust is not in doubt. Measures of interpersonal trust – particularly generalized trust – are of fundamental importance to assessing the well-being of societies, to measuring social capital, and to understanding the drivers of other social and economic outcomes.

Discuss in what way trust can be measured in the society or of the public in the government.

Explain its importance; discuss the stakeholders who are responsible in ensuring trust of the people in the government. Give suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.


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