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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 30 September 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Social Empowerment

1. Discuss in detail features of Caste System in India, also, identify various reasons for strengthening of caste based identity in today’s times. (250 words)

Reference: bbc.com

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to explain in detail the features of caste system in India and also explain the causative factors that have strengthened caste based identity in current times.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly state the background and roots of caste system in the country.

Body:

Explain some of the several theories that explain prevalence/coming of caste system in India like The traditional theory says that four varnas originated from different parts of Brahma’s body {Brahmin-mouth; Kshatrita-arms; Vaishyas- Stomach and Shudra-feet}; and all other castes were born due to their intermixing. The occupational theory says that castes evolved from the occupations of people which were not hereditary in the beginning.

Then move on to explain the key features such as – it has resulted in segmental division of the Indian society, they create a hierarchy on the basis of their social precedence and many others.

Discuss in short the functions and maladies of the caste system. Explain in what way caste identities are further strengthened in today’s times.

Conclusion:

Conclude with need to accept and believe in humanity as a bigger religion than creating differences and gaps through such caste identities.

 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Explain how earthquake waves are used as an indirect source for understanding the structure of the interior of the earth. (250 words)

Reference: Class XI NCERT – Fundamentals of World Physical Geography

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

One must explain in detail how earthquake waves are used as an indirect source for understanding the structure of the interior of the earth.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Understanding the structure of the earth’s interior (crust, mantle, core) and various forces (heat, seismic waves) emanating from it is essential to understand the evolution of the earth’s surface, its current shape and its future.

Body:

The knowledge about interior of the earth is obtained through direct sources and indirect sources. Direct sources include rock materials from mining areas and molten magma from volcanic eruptions and earthquakes.

Seismic waves produced during an earthquake are recorded by a seismograph when these waves reach the surface of the earth. Then explain in detail how earthquakes form key sources in understanding the Earth’s interiors.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and relevance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : GS-2:  Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

 GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

3. Why is it important to reduce food loss and waste? Explain in the backdrop of international day of awareness on food loss and waste reduction that was celebrated recently. (250 words)

Reference: www.fao.org

Why the question:

With a view to promote and implement global efforts to resolve the issue of food wastage, the United Nations General Assembly in 2019 designated 29 September as International Day of Awareness of Food Loss and Waste. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to emphasize and explain why reducing food losses and waste is essential in today’s times. Discuss the factors responsible to it and explain what needs to be done.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain with key statistics the food waste and loss being generated across the world.

Body:

Explain why is it important to reduce food loss and waste?

Reducing food losses and waste is essential in a world where the number of people affected by hunger has been slowly on the rise since 2014, and tons and tons of edible food are lost and/or wasted every day.

Globally, around 14 percent of food produced is lost between harvest and retail. Significant quantities are also wasted in retail and at the consumption level.

Food loss and waste also puts unnecessary pressure on the natural resource base and on the environment, depleting the natural resource base and generating greenhouse gases etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic : Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

4. “The story of the pulses revolution is another chapter about accomplishments by the Indian farmers.” In this context discuss the Pulse revolution witnessed by Indian agriculture and what are the learnings out of it. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The article narrates to us the journey of how India moved from scarcity to sufficiency in pulse production.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the pulses revolution witnessed by Indian agriculture and highlight the key learnings out of it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by giving key numbers/statistics related to pulse production in the country. Present some comparison of past to present.

Body:

Explain that India used to import pulses in large quantities. With MSP & procurement schemes for pulses, domestic production shot up, putting us on the path to Atmanirbharta.

India moved from a situation of acute scarcity of pulses in 2015-16, when the country witnessed unprecedented shortage and inflation due to successive droughts, to providing free pulses to most of the citizens in the country.

Explain how the transformation took place and in what way self-sufficiency was achieved.

Take hints from the article and explain.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting the need to replicate the same kind of self-sufficiency in other fields of agriculture.

 

 Topic : GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

GS-3: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Discuss the Status of Groundwater Depletion in the country and account for the associated problems and suggest measures on the lines of ground water extraction norms that have been notified recently. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why the question:

The question aims to ascertain the Status of Groundwater Depletion in the country and discuss the factors responsible for the depletion.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the Status of Groundwater Depletion in the country and account for the associated problems and suggest measures to overcome the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

India is the world’s largest user of groundwater, withdrawing about 250 cubic kilometers per year, more than twice that of the US.

Body:

Firstly discuss the issue at hand. With around one-sixth of assessed ground water units in the country facing over-exploitation, the Centre Govt has issued revised guidelines for groundwater use. The new guidelines prohibits new industry and mining projects in over-exploited zones and makes it mandatory for existing industries, commercial units and big housing societies to take no objection certificate’ (NOC).

With map of India one can provide a spatial aspect of ground water depletion in the country.

Suggest measures to address the issue.  Also throw light on the recently proposed Groundwater Extraction Norms.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethical issues in international relations

6. Discuss any four Ethical concerns that are often witnessed in International relations. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications.

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of ethical concerns associated with international relations.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail any four key ethical concerns in IR according to you.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the reasons and possibility of ethical concerns in IR.

Body:

Such answers are best explained with examples, Terrorism and use of state sponsored terrorists and militia, climate change, trade, growth and poverty, Disarmament, Organized crime and human trafficking, Tax havens, Competition for capital among developing and resources among developed, Human rights, Responsibility to protect others, like genocide, ethnic cleansing, issue of Global commons, Strengthening/weakening international institutions, etc. all these can be your four selected themes.

Pick any four and explain in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with ways to resolve and overcome such ethical concerns.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Is society ever justified in regulating so-called victimless crimes like drug use, not wearing a helmet or a seatbelt? Give your opinion from an ethical perspective and justify. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

In the current context of ongoing incidences of drug abuse the question hints at the ethical perspectives involved in it.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse if the societal regulation of victimless crimes like drug use, not wearing a helmet or a seat belt is justified.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the context of the question.

Body:

Ethical issues abound in contemporary society. Ethical issues involve questions of the ethical rightness or wrongness of public policy or personal behavior.  Actions or policies that affect other people always have an ethical dimension, but while some people restrict ethical issues to actions that can help or harm others (social ethics) others include personal and self-regarding conduct (personal ethics).

Many of today’s most pressing issues of social ethics are complex and multifaceted and require clear and careful thought. To reach careful conclusions, these public policy issues require people to engage in complicated ethical reasoning, but the ethical reasoning involving personal issues can be just as complex and multifaceted.

Discuss the approach and solutions according to you and suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and a fair and balanced approach.


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