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INSIGHTS DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS + PIB SUMMARY- 30 September 2020

InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.

current affairs, current events, current gk, insights ias current affairs, upsc ias current affairs

 

Table of Contents:

GS Paper 1:

1. Bhagat Singh.

2. NSO time-use survey.

 

GS Paper 2:

1. Second national sero-survey.

2. Maharashtra modifies Forest Rights Act.

3. Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH).

 

GS Paper 3:

1. Namami Gange Programme.

 

Facts for Prelims:

1. Global Counter Terrorism Council.

2. Ganga Avalokan.

3. India-Denmark agree to elevate relations to a Green Strategic Partnership.

4. Mumbai maps its biodiversity.

5. Amnesty International.

 


GS Paper  : 1


 

Topics Covered: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.

Bhagat Singh:


Context:

113th birth anniversary celebrated on 28th September, 2020.

About Bhagat Singh:

Born in September, 1907.

Gandhi’s influence: Initially, he supported Mahatma Gandhi and the Non-Cooperation Movement. However, when Gandhi withdrew the movement in the wake of the Chauri Chaura incident, Bhagat Singh turned to revolutionary nationalism.

Associations he was associated with:

  • In 1924 in Kanpur, he became a member of the Hindustan Republican Association, started by Sachindranath Sanyal a year earlier.
  • In 1925, Bhagat Singh returned to Lahore and within the next year he and his colleagues started a militant youth organisation called the Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
  • In 1928, he was associated with the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) along with Sukhdev, Chandrashekhar Azad and others.
  • Bhagat Singh and Sukhdev also organized the Lahore Students Union for open, legal work among the students.

Revolutionary activities he was involved in:

  • Lahore Conspiracy case.
  • 1929 Central Assembly Bombing Case.

Bhagat Singh Execution:

Bhagat Singh was arrested and charged in the Saunders murder case, along with Rajguru, Sukhdev and others. The trio was ordered to be hanged on 24 March 1931 but the sentence was carried out a day earlier at the Lahore Jail.

  • 23rd March is observed as ‘Martyrs’ Day’ or ‘Shaheed Diwas’ or ‘Sarvodaya Day’ in honour of Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev.

Political ideology:

His azaadi freedom was not limited to the expelling of the British; instead he desired azaadi from poverty, azaadi from untouchability, azaadi from communal strife, and azaadi from every form of discrimination and exploitation.

Bhagat_singh

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

About:

  • HRA
  • HSRA
  • Naujawan Bharat Sabha.
  • Kakori Conspiracy case.
  • Lahore Conspiracy case.

Mains Link:

A revolutionary and a socialist, the contribution of Bhagat Singh to the Independence Movement of India is immense. Discuss.

Sources: PIB.

 

Topics Covered: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

NSO time-use survey:


Context:

The National Statistical Office (NSO), which is a wing of Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, has conducted the first Time Use Survey (TUS) in India during January to December 2019.

About the Survey:

  • The primary objective is to measure participation of men and women in paid and unpaid activities.
  • It is an important source of information on the time spent in unpaid caregiving activities, volunteer work, unpaid domestic service producing activities of the household members.
  • It also provides information on time spent on learning, socializing, leisure activities, self-care activities, etc., by the household members.

Average time spent:

  • Average Indian woman spends 243 minutes, a little over four hours, on these , which is almost ten times the 25 minutes the average man does.
  • An average Indian woman spends 19.5% of her time engaged in either unpaid domestic work or unpaid care-giving services.
  • Men spend just 2.5% of a 24-hour period on these activities. In every other group of activities – from employment and learning to socializing, leisure, and self-care activities like sleeping and eating – men spend a higher share of their daily time than women.
  • There seems to be an inverse relationship between age and the amount of time spent by women on household chores, but a direct one between age and the time spent by men on these.
  • While women above the age of 60 see a sharp fall in their domestic work burden, men tend to devote a greater time to domestic work when they cross 60.

Other Key findings:

  • Total percentage of employed population: As much as 2 per cent of persons who were of the age of six years or above were engaged in employment and related activities in the country in 2019.
  • Proportion of males and females: 57.3 per cent males were engaged in employment and related activities while the proportion was 18.4 per cent for females in the country.
  • Women in rural areas: In rural areas, the proportion of women engaged in employment and related activities was higher at 19.2 per cent compared to 16.7 per cent in cities.
  • Gainful employment: Proportion of males above the age of six years engaged in gainful employment or related activities was higher in cities at 59.8 compared 56.1 per cent in rural areas.
  • Unpaid domestic services: 53.2 per cent of participants in the survey were engaged in unpaid domestic services for household members. The proportion of females in the category was higher at 81.2 per cent compared to 26.1 per cent for males. This figure for both men and women is higher in rural areas.
  • People engaged in production of goods for own final use: 1 per cent in the country. The proportion of such males was 14.3 per cent while it was 20 per cent for women in the country.

spend_time

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. About NSO.
  2. About the National Statistical Commission.
  3. Key findings of the NSO time-use survey.

Mains Link:

As per NSO survey, there seems to be an inverse relationship between age and the amount of time spent by women on household chores, but a direct one between age and the time spent by men on these. Discuss why.

Sources: PIB.

 


GS Paper  : 2


 

Topics Covered: Issued related to health.

Second national sero-survey:


Context:

Results of the second national sero-survey have been released by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).

What are Sero-surveys?

They are conducted by drawing blood samples and checking for a specific class of antibodies called IgG that appear within two weeks of an infection. Because it is yet unclear how long antibodies detectably persist in the body, their presence only indicates past exposure to — and not presence of — the virus.

Findings of the latest survey:

  • Around 7% of India’s adult population may have been exposed to the novel coronavirus till the last fortnight of August.This is roughly a 10-fold jump in numbers from the first sero-survey conducted by the Council across 70 districts in 21 States that sought to estimate the likely number of infected until early May.
  • During the first survey, it emerged that there were 82-130 infections for every confirmed COVID-19 positive case. That number has now dropped to 26-32 infections.
  • However, the numbers also suggest that the country still has an overwhelming majority of its population yet to be exposed to the virus and therefore, is far from any peak or herd immunity levels.
  • The country wide prevalence of the virus was similar to that seen in the United States, which was around 9.3%. Brazil and Spain had a prevalence of 2.8% and 4.6%.

covid_19_1

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. What is RT PCR?
  2. What is ELISA based test?
  3. What are antigens and antibodies?
  4. Differences between IgG and IgM antibodies.
  5. What is ICMR?

Mains Link:

Discuss how Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) Based test is carried out to detect the presence of SARS- COV2 in individuals.

Sources: the Hindu.

 

Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Maharashtra modifies Forest Rights Act:


Context:

Maharashtra Governor has issued a notification modifying the Forest Rights Act (FRA), 2006.

  • The notification has been issued by the Governor using his powers under sub paragraph (1) of paragraph 5 of the Schedule V of the Constitution.

What are the modifications?

The changes will enable tribals and other traditional forest dwelling families to build houses in the neighbourhood forest areas.

 Significance:

  • The decision is likely to provide a major relief to Scheduled Tribes and other traditional forest-dwelling families residing in the scheduled areas of the State.
  • The move aims to prevent the migration of forest-dwelling families outside their native villages and provide them housing areas by extending the village site into forest land in their neighbourhood.

What is 5th schedule?

The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the administration and control of Scheduled Areas as well as of Scheduled Tribes residing in any State other than the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram.

Special Provisions for Fifth Schedule Areas:

  • The Governor of each State having Scheduled Areas (SA) shall annually, or whenever so required by the President, make a report to the President regarding the administration of Scheduled Areas in that State.
  • The Union Government shall have executive powers to give directions to the States as to the administration of the Scheduled Areas.
  • Para 4 of the Fifth Schedule provides for establishment of a Tribes Advisory Council (TAC) in any State having Scheduled Areas.
  • Composition: Consisting of not more than twenty members of whom, three-fourths shall be the representatives of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of the State. If the number of representatives of the STs in the Legislative Assembly of the State is less than the number of seats in the TAC to be filled by such representatives, the remaining seats shall be filled by other members of those Tribes.
  • Functions: The TAC shall advise on such matters pertaining to the welfare and the advancement of the STs in the State as may be referred to them by the Governor.

The Governor may make rules prescribing or regulating:

  • The number of members of the Council, the mode of their appointment and the appointment of the Chairman of the Council and of the officers and servants thereof, the conduct of its meetings and its procedure in general.
  • The Governor may, by public notification, direct that any particular Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall or shall not apply to a SA or any part thereof in the State, subject to such exceptions and modifications, as specified.
  • The Governor may make regulations for the peace and good government of any area in the State which is for the time being a SA. Such regulations may prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled tribes in such area; regulate the allotment of land to members of the STs in such area.
  • In making such regulations, the Governor may repeal or amend any Act of Parliament or of Legislature of the State or any existing law after obtaining assent of the President.

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Difference between 5th and 6th schedule of Indian Constitution.
  2. Powers of governor under 5th schedule
  3. Who can include or exclude areas under 5th schedule
  4. What are scheduled areas?
  5. Forest Rights Act- key provisions.
  6. TAC- composition and functions.

forest_right_act

Sources: the Hindu.

 

Topics Covered:  Important International institutions, agencies and fora, their structure, mandate.

Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health (PMNCH):


Context:

Indian Health Minister recently participated in PMNCH ‘Accountability Breakfast’ through Video Conference.

The event was co-hosted by the White Ribbon Alliance (WRA) and Every Woman Every Child (EWEC).

  • Theme this year was the effort to protect hard earned gains in the field of Reproductive, Maternal and Child Health from the COVID pandemic.

About the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (The Partnership, PMNCH):

Launched in 2005, PMNCH is an alliance of more than 1000 organizations in 77 countries from the sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health communities, as well as health influencing sectors.

  • The vision and goals of the new Partnership were outlined in “The Delhi Declaration” – a landmark statement developed by participants of “Lives in the Balance: The Partnership Meeting for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health”, held in New Delhi, India, 7-9 April 2005.

Governance:

The Partnership is governed by a Board, and administered by a Secretariat hosted at the World Health Organization in Geneva, Switzerland.

 Roles and functions:

  • The Partnership provides a platform for organizations to align objectives, strategies and resources, and agree on interventions to improve maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.

Sources: PIB.

 


GS Paper  : 3


 

Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.

Namami Gange Programme:


Context:

PM Modi inaugurated 6 mega projects in Uttarakhand under Namami Gange.

  • The six sewage treatment plants or STPs were inaugurated at Haridwar, Rishikesh, Muni-ki-Reti and Badrinath via video conference.

About Namami Gange Programme:

It an Integrated Conservation Mission, approved as a ‘Flagship Programme’ in June 2014.

  • It seeks to accomplish the twin objectives of effective abatement of pollution and conservation and rejuvenation of National River Ganga.
  • It is being operated under Ministry of Jal Shakti.

Implementation:

The program is being implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), and its state counterpart organizations i.e., State Program ManagementGroups (SPMGs).

  • NMCG is the implementation wing of National Ganga Council (set in 2016; which replaced the National Ganga River Basin Authority (NRGBA).

National Ganga Council (NGC) was Created in October 2016 under the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection and Management) Authorities Order, 2016. It is Headed by Prime Minister.

Funding:

It has a Rs. 20,000-crore, centrally-funded, non-lapsable corpus and consists of nearly 288 projects.

Main Pillars of the Namami Gange Programme are:

  1. Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure
  2. River-Surface Cleaning
  3. Afforestation
  4. Industrial Effluent Monitoring
  5. River-Front Development
  6. Bio-Diversity
  7. Public Awareness
  8. Ganga Gram

InstaLinks:

Prelims Link:

  1. Composition of NGC.
  2. About NGRBA.
  3. What is NMCG?
  4. Components of Namami Gange Programme.
  5. World Bank group.

Sources: PIB.

 


Facts for Prelims


Global Counter Terrorism Council:

It is a registered non-profit International Think Tank initiated by public spirited individuals to awaken further issues of national interest and global conscience about terrorism as a threat to humanity, human security etc.

  • Members belong to different faculties & background like senior bureaucrats, academicians, officers from the armed forces & paramilitary services, distinguished diplomats, leading researchers, media analysts, parliamentarians, professionals, corporate heads, human rights groups.
  • They provide support and regularly contribute with the aim to deliberate on the root causes of Global Terrorism and to present effective solutions to the problems faced by society and the government.

Why in News?

International Energy Security Conference 2020 was recently organised by Global Counter-Terrorism Council (GCTC).

Ganga Avalokan:

  • It is the first museum on the river located at Chandi ghat in Haridwar.
  • It was inaugurated recently.
  • It is aimed at showcasing the culture, biodiversity and rejuvenation activities done in the river,

Sri Lanka bans cattle slaughter:

Sri Lankan government has approved the proposal to ban cattle slaughter in the island nation. However, it decided to import beef for the benefit of those who consume it.

Background:

  • According to 2012 census, the over 20 million population in Sri Lanka comprised of 70.10% Buddhists, 12.58% Hindus, 9.66% Muslims, 7.62% Christians and 0.03% others.

India-Denmark agree to elevate relations to a Green Strategic Partnership:

  • India and Denmark recently elevated their relations to a “green strategic partnership”.

The Green Strategic Partnership is a mutually beneficial arrangement to advance political cooperation, expand economic relations and green growth, create jobs and strengthen cooperation on addressing global challenges and opportunities; with focus on an ambitious implementation of the Paris Agreement and the UN Sustainable Development Goals.

Mumbai maps its biodiversity:

In a first-of-its-kind attempt to visually empower Mumbai’s citizens with the resources they share the city with, a biodiversity map of the city to showcase the wildlife hotspots, mangrove forests, urban green spaces and over 90 species that can be spotted in the city has been illustrated.

  • Rohan Chakravarty, popularly known for his work under the title of Green Humour, is the man behind the map.
  • The map will serve as a reminder to Mumbaikars that they must act to protect Mumbai’s biodiversity, which has been under threat due to unsustainable development.
  • This is part of a campaign Biodiversity by the Bay, initiated by the Ministry of Mumbai’s Magic, a citizen’s collective comprising Mumbaikars who wish to bring the issue of protecting biodiversity to the forefront.

mumbai

About Amnesty international:

Why in News?

Amnesty International halts India operations following the freezing of its bank accounts by the Enforcement Directorate.

  • The government case against Amnesty India broadly rests on two investigations, one alleging discrepancies under the Foreign Exchange Management Act, and another case that was registered by the CBI alleging violations under the FCRA.

Amnesty International is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights.

  • The stated objective of the organisation is “to conduct research and generate action to prevent and end grave abuses of human rights, and to demand justice for those whose rights have been violated.”
  • The organisation was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace Prize for its “campaign against torture,” and the United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights in 1978.
  • In the field of international human rights organisations, Amnesty has the second longest history, after the International Federation for Human Rights and broadest name recognition.

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