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In News- Dhrupad

Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

In News- Dhrupad:

Dhrupad is the most ancient style of Hindustani classical music that has survived until today in its original form.

  • The nature of Dhrupad music is spiritual. It does not seek to entertain, but to induce feelings of peace and spirituality in the listener.
  • It is primarily a form of worship, in which offerings are made to the divine through sound or Nada.
  • Dhrupad was initially sung only in the temples, the singer facing the Lord. From this early chanting, Dhrupad evolved into a sophisticated classical form of music.


  • It lays emphasis on maintaining purity of the Raga.
  • The language of Dhrupad changed from Sanskrit to Brij Bhasha sometime between the 12th and the 16th century.


It is a form of devotional music that traces its origin to the ancient text of SamVeda. The SAM VEDA was chanted with the help of melody and rhythm called Samgana. Gradually this developed into other vocal style called ‘Chhanda’ and ‘Prabandha’ with introduction of verse and meter. The fusion of these two elements led to the emergence of Dhrupad.

Dhrupad during mediaeval times:

In medieval India, Dhrupad had mainly thrived under the patronage of Mughal and Rajput kings. Later it declined with the shift of interest in Khayal.


Performance of Dhrupad is done in two parts viz. the Alap and Bandish. In the Alap, the singer uses syllables from Sanskrit Mantra which add texture to the notes. The Raga is slowly and methodically developed in a meditative mode.


Prelims Link:

  1. Classification of Indian Classical music.
  2. What is Dhrupad?
  3. Its evolution.
  4. Key features.
  5. Differences between Dhrupad and Khayal.

Mains Link:

Write a note on Indian Classical Music and its evolution.

Sources: the Hindu.