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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 17 September 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

1. Explaining the concept of regionalism, elaborate on the different forms that regionalism has taken in India. (250 words)

Reference: Insights on India

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of regionalism.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concept of regionalism and elaborate on the different forms that regionalism has taken in India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give a brief explanation on the concept of regionalism.

Body:

Regionalism can be defined as a phenomenon in which people’s political loyalties become focused upon a region. In other words, it implies people’s love of a particular region in preference to the country and in certain cases in preference to the state of which the region is a part.

Explain that Regionalism in India is rooted in India’s diversity of languages, cultures, tribes, economic interests etc. It is also encouraged by the geographical concentration of these identity makers in particular regions, and fuelled by a sense of regional deprivation. Indian federalism has been a means of accommodating these regional sentiments such as by formation of new states such as Telangana.

Move on to discuss various forms of regionalism existing in India. Explain why regionalism is often seen to be opposed to national integration.

Conclusion:

Conclude that however, regionalism is not always opposed to national integration. It may also lead to higher intergroup solidarity and induce competition for betterment when certain genuine demands, especially developmental are conceded.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2. Elaborate upon the major provisions of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 and suggest further measures for their empowerment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is based on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to explain the major provisions of the rights of persons with disabilities act 2016 and also suggest suitable measures to ensure their rights.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Rights of Persons with Disabilities (RPWD) Act, 2016 was passed by the Indian Parliament to fulfill its obligation to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), which India ratified in 2007.

Body:

In the answer body discuss the salient provisions:

  • The RPWD Act, 2016, has increased the list of scheduled disabilities to 21 conditions.
  • The Act provides that the appropriate government shall ensure that the PWD enjoys the right to equality, life with dignity, and respect for his or her own integrity equally with others.
  • It is stipulated in Section 3 that no PWD shall be discriminated against on the ground of disability unless it is shown that the impugned act or omission is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim and no person shall be deprived of his personal liberty only on the ground of disability.
  • The Government is to take steps to utilize the capacity of the PWD by providing an appropriate environment. The Act provides for access to inclusive education, vocational training, and self-employment of disabled persons.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suggestions to improvise.

 

Topic : GS-1: Social empowerment,,

GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Industry must use its position to work with all stakeholders in championing and “empowering the greater 50%”. For it is only where women work that economies grow rapidly and countries prosper. Do you agree? Comment. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the correlation between boosting women’s entrepreneurship and economic leadership.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the need to recognise and engage Women leadership more actively to ensure rapid economic growth and sustainable growth of countries.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Women’s representation in leadership positions has been on a rise in recent years, but not enough to close the economic opportunity gap.

Body:

Discuss the disparity function that is evidently seen in the case of India. The disparity is particularly striking in India. It ranks 112 out of 153 countries on the overall Global Gender Gap Index. The Covid-19 pandemic seems to have applied brakes in several areas where workplaces were becoming more diverse as well as areas where access to resources across gender had become more equitable. The pandemic has hit the most vulnerable the hardest, making these disparities worse. Oxfam India has estimated the economic loss from women losing their jobs during this pandemic at nearly $216 billion.

Explain why there is a need to transform challenges into opportunities and accelerate the shift towards both greater inclusion of women in the workforce and women-led entrepreneurship. Give suitable examples.

Quote the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : GS-2: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Explaining the importance of skill development for India, highlight the challenges related to it. What steps have been taken by the government in this regard? (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

The article highlights the distress that India witnessed amidst this pandemic with respect to jobs and economy.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the importance of skill development in India and bring out the challenges associated to it. Also, highlight the efforts of the government in this direction.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by highlighting the current situation of skill development in India.

Body:

India is facing a paradoxical situation where on the one hand, young men and women entering the labour market are looking for employment, while on the other hand, industries are complaining about unavailability of appropriately skilled manpower. This makes skill development in India imperative to impart marketable skills to labour force.

Explain the importance of skill development for India.

Discuss the challenges related to skill development.

Mention the steps taken by the government in this regard.

Conclusion:

Conclude that as India seeks to become a leading global economy, it needs to equip its workforce with employable skills and knowledge matching international standards to make India a developed economy.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. ” Conservation of soil biodiversity, soil organic carbon through sustainable farming practices should be deemed essential to improve agricultural land health and productivity” Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Down to Earth 

Why the question:

The article brings to us special highlights of the correlation between enhanced food security and soil biodiversity in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the significance of conservation of soil biodiversity soil organic carbon through sustainable farming practices and how their essential to improve agricultural land health and productivity.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with some key facts that justify the question statement and bring to us the ground picture of agricultural systems currently in the country.             

Body:

Explain that Soil needs to be considered as an ecological system and a finite resource. Conservation of soil biodiversity and soil organic carbon (SOC) through sustainable farming practices should be deemed essential to improve upon agricultural land health and productivity.

Improved soil biodiversity is closely correlated with an increase in carbon stored in soil, for it sequesters organic carbon and is a natural carbon sink. It is, therefore, imperative in reducing GHG emissions.

The global carbon (C) cycle includes a significant C stock in terrestrial soils, including agricultural soils. Global land and soil degradation is strongly linked to the depletion of this stock.

Establish the link between conservation of soil with food security. Discuss the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

It is hoped that future policy will support the farming and conservation community to work together in feeding the world whilst at the same time promoting sustainable, viable and applicable agro ecological practices towards sequestering carbon and conserving the rich diversity of life on the planet.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Discuss the differences and similarities between values and virtues. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the differences and similarities between values and virtues.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by values and virtues.

Body:

Values are the principles and fundamental convictions which act as general guides to behavior, the standards by which particular actions are judged as good or desirable. A value is something related to a particular culture that is known as culturally accepted norms.

Individual cultures emphasize values their members share extensively. Public values are defined as those values that provide normative consensus about:

(1)  The rights, benefits, and prerogatives to which citizens should (and should not) be entitled;

(2) The obligations of citizens to society, the state, and one another; and

 (3) The principles upon which governments and policies must be based.

Explain in detail how each of them is shaped by a variety of factors that influence them.

Conclusion:

Conclude that thus values and virtues are distinctly different in terms of what they reflect: values reflect what is accepted by cultures while virtues reflect characteristics of a human being in terms of his/her morals.

 

Topic : Case Study

7. You are a doctor in a government hospital. One of your lady friends got married in very rich and influential family. However, with passage of time you came to know that the family is very conservative as she visited you to seek your help in determining sex of the child at fetus stage. As her in-laws want a boy child to act as inheritor of the family. They have also ordered to abort the child if it is girl. Later her in-laws insisted hard and connected the doctor with the health minister on mobile phone. The minister said the doctor to help them in all possible manners without saying anything about the issue at hand. Thus reporting about the issue to police is waste.

Answer the following questions:

(a) What are the ethical dilemmas in the above case?

(b) Do you think that your moral obligation also demands to help your friend? (250 words)

Why the question:

Case study based.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is based on the ethical issue concerning the determination of sex of the fetus.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss about the context of the question first.

Body:

Sex ratio, an important social indicator measuring extent of prevailing equity between males and females in a society, is defined as number of females per 1000 males. Changes in sex ratio reflect underlying socio-economic and cultural patterns of a society. The family is well educated and affluent and then also they are moving for this test in lieu for male child. Also in the above case doctor is being persuaded or ordered to go for sex selective test by the Health Minister.

The ethical dilemma will be whether to follow the medical and moral duty of saving a fetus or saving the friend in need from the pressure of her in-laws by accepting their demands or follow the orders of the seniors.

Discuss the case involved – ethical dilemma and how as an ethical doctor you would do your duty.

Conclusion:

Conclude by justifying your stand.


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