Topics Covered: Conservation related issues.
Global Initiative to reduce Land Degradation and Coral Reef program:
Launched at the recently held Environment Ministerial Meeting (EMM) of the G20 countries which took place under the Presidency of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
About the Initiative:
It aims to strengthen the implementation of existing frameworks to prevent, halt, and reverse land degradation within G20 member states and globally, taking into account possible implications on the achievement of other SDGs and adhering to the principle of doing no harm.
What is Land Degradation?
It is the reduction or loss of biological or economic productivity of the land resulting from land uses or from a process or combination of processes, including human activities and climatic variations.
What is Desertification?
It is the degradation of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas. Desertification does not refer to the expansion of existing deserts. It occurs because dryland ecosystems, which cover over one-third of the world‘s land area, are extremely vulnerable to overexploitation and inappropriate land use.
The major causes for land degradation include:
- Land clearance, such as clearcutting and deforestation
- Agricultural depletion of soil nutrients through poor farming practices
- Livestock including overgrazing and over drafting
- Inappropriate irrigation and over drafting
- Urban sprawl and commercial development
- Vehicle off-roading
- Quarrying of stone, sand, ore and minerals
Steps taken by India:
- Desert Development Programme.
- Integrated Watershed Management Programme which is now subsumed under Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchai Yojana.
- National agriculture policy 2000.
- National Mission on Green India which is a part of National Action Plan on Climate Change.
- National Afforestation Programme.
- Soil Conservation in the Catchment of River Valley Projects and Flood Prone Rivers.
- National Watershed Development Project for Rain fed Areas.
- Fodder and Feed Development Scheme – a component of Grassland Development including Grass Reserves
- Command Area Development and Management Programme.
- National water policy 2012
- National forest Policy 1988
- Outcomes of G20 Environment Ministers’ meet 2020.
- About UNCCD.
- What is REDD?
- What is REDD+?
- What is National Afforestation Programme?
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