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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 16 September 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. “Without PILs, corruption, nepotism and bias in executive actions will remain unchallenged.” In the context of the statement discuss the significance of PIL in the country. (250 words)

Reference: The Wire 

Why the question:

The article explains the fact that the Supreme Court’s greatest gift is the PIL and it is here to stay, whatever critics may say.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the significance of PIL to the country and judiciary in specific.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Narrate briefly the coming of PIL into picture; its origin and background.

Body:

The Constitution of India promises to secure to all its citizens, justice – social, economic and political; liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; equality of status and opportunity; and to promote among them all, fraternity, assuring the dignity of the individual. These are the fundamental goals of our constitution.

Explain that the Supreme Court has done a great service to the nation in rendering a large number of judgments in differing situations to enforce the fundamental rights of citizens, individually or collectively. The width and breadth of the writs, orders and directions granted have served public interests beyond imagination.

Millions and millions of Indians have benefitted by the intervention of the Supreme Court. Besides, millions more have benefitted under the orders of high courts across the country exercising jurisdiction in PILs.

Give examples to substantiate.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

 

Topic: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

2. What are parliamentary committees? How do they ensure legislatures and executive’s efficiency and accountability? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article highlights the need to rethink the tenurial prescription for reconstitution of Department-related Standing Committees.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward, discuss what parliamentary committees are and explain in what way they ensure legislatures and executive’s efficiency and accountability.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

It is a permanent and regular committee which is constituted from time to time according to the provisions of an Act of Parliament or Rules of Procedure and Conduct of Business. Parliamentary committees draw their authority from Article 105 (on privileges of Parliament members) and Article 118 (on Parliament’s authority to make rules for regulating its procedure and conduct of business).

Body:

In the answer body explain in what way these committees play important role in ensuring legislature and executive efficiency and accountability in following ways – The deliberations and scrutiny by committees ensure that Parliament is able to fulfill some of its constitutional obligations in a politically charged environment. They also help in obtaining public feedback and building political consensus on contentious issues. They help develop expertise in subjects, and enable consultation with independent experts and stakeholders. The committees perform their functions without the cloud of political positioning and populist opinion etc. They increase the efficiency and expertise of Parliament. Their reports allow for informed debate in Parliament.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Parliamentary committees increase the efficiency, expertise of Parliament and act as check and balance which must be constituted at the earliest.

 

Topic : GS-2: India and its neighborhood- relations. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

GS-3: basics of cyber security

3. Critically analyse the nature of the cyber security threat from China being faced by India in the recent times. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

An elaborate operation by a Shenzen-based technology company with links to the government in Beijing and the Chinese Communist Party, to keep tabs on a very large number of individuals and entities in India has been in news recently.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse critically the nature of the cyber security threat from China being faced by India in the recent times.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the background of the question.

Body:

The company, Zhenhua Data Information Technology Co. Limited, calls itself a pioneer in using big data for “hybrid warfare” and the “great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation”. China’s authoritarian government, ruling party, military, and many private companies frequently operate as a giant, coordinated operation, of which countries around the world are targets.

Discuss the recent cyber powers that China has attained. Explain how they pose deeper threats on countries like India.

Conclusion:

Discuss what should India do, suggest ways and means of preparedness that India should be ready with.

 


General Studies – 2


 

 Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

4. Present a stock of the past, present and future of engineering in India. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express

Why the question:

On the birth anniversary of the father of Indian engineering, Sir M Visvesvaraya, it is important to appreciate and take stock of the past, present and future of engineering in India.

Key Demand of the question:

Present a stock of the past, present and future of engineering in India.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly narrate the background of the question.

Body:

Explain that Society flourishes because of the planners and developers who provide it with missions and visions. Engineers are the architects of the nations, the real builders of socio-economic infrastructure. Engineering holds strategic importance in India’s economic development. The government, through its various initiatives, is committed to providing a platform to enhance engineering advancements in India. A few of the critical initiatives are Make in India, Start-up India, the Smart Cities Mission, and Skill India, which are visionary for job-creation and entrepreneurship through multi-skilled development programmes for all socio-economic groups.

Discuss importance of engineering, trace on a timeline evolution of the same in Indian context.

Conclusion:

Conclude by highlighting the importance and inevitability of engineering in the growth and development of the country.

 

 Topic : Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.  Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

5. Bring out the key challenges faced by textiles and apparel industry in India. Highlight some measures taken by the government to address them. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

The US restrictions on some textile imports from Xinjiang in China is likely to augur well for the Indian textile exporters, according to a report.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the key challenges faced by textiles and apparel industry in India while highlighting measures taken by the govt. in the same direction.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Indian textile industry is the second largest manufacturer and exporter in the world. It contributes 12.65 per cent to the manufacturing sector and 2.3 per cent to the GDP. However, the sector has just 5  percent share in the global textiles exports.

Body:

Give brief statistics relevant to the textiles sector in introduction.

Enlist the global and domestic challenges the sector faces; Challenges plaguing the textiles sector and apparel industry:

External challenges: Increased Competition: Indian garments face stiff competition due to higher tariffs, from countries like Bangladesh and Vietnam which enjoy zero/preferential duty access to key markets.

China factor: In recent years, China has lowered its imports of Indian yarn because of reduced production due to curbs placed by US.

Domestic challenges:

Higher costs: The central government in an attempt to safeguard cotton farmers has raised the MSP of cotton by 25%. It has forced millers to buy cotton at a much higher rate.

Technological gaps: While the ginning and spinning sectors are on par with international standards, marginal technological gap exists in weaving, processing and embroidery and larger gaps in knitting, technical textile and garmenting segments.

Domination of SMEs: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) constitute 80% of the textile industry. They face issue of fragmented production, lack of access to technology and finances. They are not able to match to cost and scale of production of bigger mills in other countries.

Discuss the measures taken by the government to address these challenges.

Conclusion:

Suggest a way forward.

 

Topic : Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

6. “Artificial intelligence is going to change every industry, but we have to understand its limits”. In light of this, discuss the benefits and challenges associated with AI in Indian context. (250 words)

Reference: sas.com

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of AI and the revolution it possibly will bring in the coming days.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the benefits and challenges associated with AI in Indian context.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by AI.

Body:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the ability of machines to learn and reason through analogy, analyze, interpret information, recognize speech, visual perception and take decisions. In other words, AI is application of human intelligence by the machines.

Discuss in detail the challenges and benefits of AI specific to Indian context.

Benefits ranging from- contribution to economy, access to affordable healthcare, education, agriculture, benefit in infrastructure and transportation sector, manufacturing sector etc.

List down the challenges such as – lack of AI expertise, lack of adequate data, lack of funding and deadline, unemployment etc.

Suggest solutions and explain what needs to be done to overcome the above mentioned challenges.

Conclusion:

To truly harness AI’s transformative potential, India must address its lack of expertise in AI research and come up with multi-pronged strategy to innovate and achieve in this direction.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.  Media and ethics.

7. Honest engagement with media ethics seems to be deteriorating in the present times. Discuss the ethical issues that plague Indian journalism. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is amidst the recent trends of degenerating ethics that Indian Media has undergone.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the ethical issues that plague Indian journalism.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can first start by explaining the essential ethical aspects expected in journalism. While various codes may have some differences, most share common elements including the principles of truthfulness, accuracy, objectivity, impartiality, fairness, and public accountability, as these apply to the acquisition of newsworthy information and its subsequent dissemination to the public.

Body:

India’s gargantuan news market has 82,222 newspapers; Delhi alone has 16 English dailies in circulation. It has close to 800 television news channels, an industry that has almost trebled in the last decade.

Discuss first briefly the issues plaguing the media – paid news, Opaque private treaties, Blatant blackmail, Widening legal regulatory gap, Flawed measurements of audience reach and readership etc.

Then explain in detail the associated ethical issues. Present examples to justify the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.


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