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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 15 September 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

1. What is the importance of Local Self Governments in a Democracy such as India? Why do you think did the makers of the Constitution not give adequate importance to this subject in the original constitutional document? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Polity by Lakshmikant

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper I, part Indian polity.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the importance of Local Self Governments in a Democracy such as India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

India has the distinction of being a unique federal country. Ordinarily, federalism involves a two tier system – central/union government at the first level and the state/provincial government at the second level. But the Indian constitution provides for a three-tier federal structure as below: – Union Government at the top State Government in the Middle Local Government i.e. Panchayats and Municipalities at Grass Root. The third tier was constitutionalized in 1993 by the 73rd and 74th constitutional amendment act of 1992 respectively.

Body:

In the answer body discuss the importance of local governance in India.

Explain then why adequate importance to this subject was not given at the inception of the constitution.

With the appointment of various committees and experiences of planning over the years, governments recognized the importance of local self-government in the post-independence era. The Constitution was amended to embody the principles of local self-government, in order to promote social and economic development in a holistic manner.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2. For “POSHAN Maah” to contribute towards the holistic nourishment of children and a malnutrition free India by 2030, India needs to address the multi-dimensional determinants of malnutrition on an urgent basis. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article brings to us the point that challenge to nurture India has become bigger with the outbreak of COVID-19.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need to have a multi-dimensional approach towards addressing malnutrition in the country amidst situations like Covid-19.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Home Minister Amit Shah have launched a campaign declaring the month of September as “POSHAN Maah 2020”. By inviting citizens to send nutritional recipes, the campaign aims to create awareness about the POSHAN Abhiyan through community mobilisation.

Body:

The answer has to capture how far can such initiative help solve India’s massive malnutrition problem.

Give some statistics to set the background of the question like – Globally, there were 673 million undernourished people, of which 189.2 million (28 per cent) were in India in 2017-19, as per the combined report of FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (FAO, et.al. 2020) on “The state of Food Security and Nutrition in the World”. Additionally, India accounts for 28 per cent (40.3 million) of the world have stunted children (low height-for-age) under five years of age, and 43 per cent (20.1 million) of the world’s wasted children (low weight-for-height) in 2019.

Discuss the multidimensional factors that contribute to malnutrition and highlight the need to identify and address them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to the problem and suggest a right approach.

 

Topic: GS-2: India and its neighborhood- relations.

GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. Analyze the economic opportunities which have opened up for India post the Chinese app ban in India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the recent decision of the Indian government to ban the Chinese apps.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyze the economic opportunities which have opened up for India post the Chinese app ban in India.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The current India-China border standoff has expanded watchful Indian eyes into cyberspace; but the Chinese put up blinding shields on their own Internet territory more than a decade ago. The Chinese government began erecting censorship barriers and banned several popular Western websites and applications years ago.

Body:

Explain that the decision to ban such apps in India is not only a geopolitical move but also a strategic trade maneuver that can have significant economic impact.

Banning these Chinese websites and applications to the Indian public effectively allows our home-grown IT talent to focus on the newly arrived Internet user. Big tech firms from Silicon Valley and China in both hardware and software have been in a tussle over the Indian consumer, but India’s focus remains on exporting IT services while paying little attention to servicing our own nation’s tech market.

Take hints from the article and explain the nuances associated.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

 

Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Amidst rising number of cancer cases in the country, discuss the necessary steps to be taken to help reduce India’s cancer burden. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article discusses the necessary steps to be taken to help reduce India’s cancer burden.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the steps necessary to be taken to reduce the cancer burden in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

As per the data provided by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR)-National Centre for Disease Informatics and Research (NCDIR) National Cancer Registry Programme Report of August 2020, there are an estimated 13.9 lakh cancer cases in India.

Body:

India has witnessed a steady rise in cancer cases over the years. India’s cancer burden has increased by 2.6 times between 1990 to 2016.

A study tracing the growing burden of cancer in India states that most of the increases in cancer incidences are attributable to its epidemiological transition and improvement in the use of cancer diagnostics.

Discuss the various factors responsible for it.

Suggest steps that need to be taken.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

5. What are the challenges of governance with regard to the implementation of various programmes, aimed at the vulnerable section of the society? Do you think that the ethical values need to be revisited? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the need to have ethical values inculcated in implementing governance related schemes so as to ensure vulnerable sections of the society benefit from them.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the challenges of governance with regard to implementation of welfare programs. Bring out if there are any ethical values that need to be revisited.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Write in brief about welfare programmes for vulnerable sections.

Body:

Various welfare programs aimed at welfare of vulnerable sections have been launched e.g.: PMAGY, ICDS etc. But situation at the ground level hasn’t improved much due to the following governance related challenges: One at organisation level like Lack of empathy and sensitivity amongst government servants. Falling commitment towards public service values etc. At citizen level – Patriarchal mindset, lack of awareness etc.

Discuss with specific examples of welfare schemes like the housing schemes, schemes of Swachh Bharat mission etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. “Our values don’t recognise same-sex marriage”, how far is the statement justified in the Indian context? Critically analyse from ethical viewpoints. (250 words )

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Solicitor General of India Tushar Mehta also submitted that the judgment of the constitutional bench of the Supreme Court “merely decriminalizes homosexuality or lesbians. Nothing more, nothing less”.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the statement in the context of Indian Society and evaluate if recognition to same sex marriage should be given or it is against our societal values.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with brief background of the question.

Body:

Just over two years after the Supreme Court decriminalized consensual homosexual relations, the Centre on Monday opposed a petition seeking the registration of same-sex marriages under The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, submitting that “our law, legal system, society, our values” do not recognise such unions.

Present the points for and against the subject. Substantiate with suitable justifications, emphasize on the ethical issues involved and how they need to be resolved.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable opinion.

 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. The bureaucracy in India is facing a number of serious challenges from diminishing human capital to political interference that, if left unaddressed, will lead to further institutional decline. Discuss. How can these challenges be addressed? (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G SubbaRao and P N Chowdhary

Why the question:

The context is of the declining institution of Bureaucracy and the factors responsible for it.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the factors responsible for such an institutional decline, how these challenges can be addressed.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that Indian bureaucracy is mired by several obstacles, which can lead to its institutional decline and have far reaching consequences, if left unaddressed.

Body:

The body of the answer must explore on the following dimensions in detail –

  • State the challenges that the bureaucracy in India faces.
  • Mention the consequences if these challenges remain unaddressed.
  • Discuss the reforms that are required to address the challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and highlight the efforts of the government in this direction, suggest way forward.


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