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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 8 September 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. While, the First World War had many far-reaching impacts on the Western Europe and USA, but affected India too. Elaborate on the impact of First World War on India. (250 words)

Reference: World history by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper-I, world history.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the effect of World War 1 on India in detail.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain how the First World War had many far-reaching impacts on the Western Europe and USA.

Body:

India being the biggest colony of Britain was pulled-off into British war efforts. The war had many effects on India; explain the effects ranging from social, political and economic etc.

Discuss each aspect in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude that defeat of Ottoman Empire and abolishment of caliphate caused widespread anger among Muslim population. For supporting Britain in war, Indian nationalists were expecting some freedom for India after its end, however, this didn’t happen and the mood in India became more militant. Far-reaching effect of the World War I, however, was the rise of Mahatma Gandhi who transformed the very nature of the Indian national movement.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions.

2. Critically examine the legitimacy of Indian Judiciary often being questioned recently and the challenges facing it with examples. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article talks in detail the recent happenings at the judiciary and brings to us the question of judicial legitimacy in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

One must examine critically the legitimacy of Indian Judiciary which is often being questioned recently and the challenges facing it with examples.

Directive:

Critically examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we have to look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by discussing the recent two significant developments in connection with the Indian judiciary.

Body:

Start by explaining in what way the decision of the Supreme Court of India in the matter of Prashant Bhushan’s contempt case, and the second, the retirement of Justice Arun Mishra. These events, in their own way, magnify the chinks in the armor of the Supreme Court.

Explain that the jurisprudential contribution of this decision to the law of contempt will be studied for years to come, surely, but maybe not for the reasons that the Court intended. Hopefully, a wiser judicial and legislative community will realize one day how utterly self-defeating this law is for a healthy democracy, and eventually change the law around.

Then explain the case of Justice Arun Mishra; explain that role of the office of the Chief Justice of India (CJI) in facilitating the creation of an executive court cannot be ignored.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of upholding judicial legitimacy and need to preserve the integrity of Judiciary in the country.

 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

3. Should the official language be equidistant to all in a multilingual society? Analyse in the context of official language of India and present your opinion with suitable justifications.(250 words)

Reference: THe Hindu 

Why the question:

The author of the article brings to us the discussion of what should be the official language of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the context of the official language in India in detail and explain if the official language be equidistant to all in a multilingual society.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what you understand by a multilingual society.

Body:

Discuss the need and importance of official language for a country.

Take hints from the article and explain the need to understand the language policy adopted by various developed countries. Discuss the case of India with respect to official language from past to present.

Discuss that even teaching in the mother tongue or the teaching of two languages is filled with challenges, does India take into account the challenges in teaching three languages

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

 Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

4. What are the different procedures of Environment Impact Assessment? Discuss the role of health impact analysis and public participation in impact analysis. (250 words)

Reference: cbd.int

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of EIA.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the different procedures of Environment Impact Assessment and elaborate upon the role of health impact analysis and public participation in impact analysis.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define EIA.

Body:

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a statutory procedure in which the environmental impacts of a project are determined. The assessment is the responsibility of the party implementing the project.

Discuss the procedure in detail, explain what are the major steps involved.

Then talk about Health Impact Assessment (HIA) ; it provides a framework and procedure for estimating the impact of a proposed programme or policy action on a selected environmental health issue for a defined population. HIA is typically a prospective assessment of a programme or intervention before implementation, although it may be carried out concurrently or retrospectively. HIA gathers opinions and concerns regarding the proposed policy: and uses knowledge of health determinants as to the expected impacts of the proposed policy or intervention, and describes the expected health impacts using both quantitative and qualitative methods as appropriate. There is no one definitive methodology for EHIA/HIA, although several toolkits are being (and have been) developed.

Then talk about its relevance.  Also discuss the importance of Public participation.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic :  role of media

5. “News today has become big commercial entity like never before” Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the dismal picture of how news today has become a commercial entity.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically examine the statement in the current times.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The toxic triangle of viewership, ratings and revenue is the catalyst driving most debates and that paradigm must be continuously stigmatized along with use of a relentless societal scissor to cut this Gordian knot.

Body:

Discuss in detail the issues plaguing the media these days in the country. Talk about the ‘backfire effect’.

Explain the various issues concerning the media.

Suggest solutions -a mix of legislative moves, judicial monitoring and industry self-regulation is needed

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic :Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.

6. Real freedom is of the mind and spirit; it can never come to us from the outside.’ Analyze the essence of this statement with reference to the working experience of Indian bureaucracy. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics Integrity and Aptitude by G Subbarao and P N  Chowdhary

Why the question:

The question is based on the fact that real freedom is premised on the mind and spirit of an individual and never from outside.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the importance of real freedom and how it is always based on mind and spirit.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Freedom as ‘inner freedom’ emphasizes on the inner aspect of life. The closest equivalent would be ‘freedom-hood’ meaning ‘freedom of one’s consciousness state’, the conscious inner struggle for inner freedom for which all human beings strive for understanding knowledge of one’s connectedness with the world and other beings in the world i.e. ‘enlightenment’.

Body:

Freedom is said to exist when an individual is not subject to external controls or coercion and is able to make independent decisions and act in an autonomous way. Freedom is also about expanding the ability of people to freely express themselves and develop their potential. Freedom in this sense is the condition in which people can develop their creativity and capabilities.

Then move onto explain what the obstacles are – But the Politico-administrative relations have placed obstacles on the working of the Indian Bureaucracy. Also the nexus between politicians-criminals is affecting the freedom of bureaucrats to implement the programmes and policies in a more creative and efficient manner.

In the present era bureaucrats have been given sovereign power in their hands. But this power is robbed by hosts of self-seekers. The ideal form of freedom is curtailed on every side.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

 

Topic : Case study

7. Due to the contemporary developments in the information technology and convergence, the accesses of adults and children to media including variety of entertainment have increased. The children have impressionable minds and the quality of entertainment would have a bearing on them even when they grow adults. One moderately rich family has two children who have given mobile phones to their children with internet connection so that they can complement their studies with huge amount of information and aids available on the internet. Father encourage children to ‘grow with the   technology of their times’ and rather than ‘forcing discipline’ on them. However, there is also misuse of information technology. The students are engaging in many undesirable activities outside the school, especially their exposure to many computer games (Blue Whale Challenge, Dead Space 2, Mortal Kombat, Medal of Honour, Call of Duty Black OPS, New Vegas etc.), which are known to be fatal and addictive, impinging on their education and value systems.

In this context, what steps parents can take to stop such new and pervasive kind of menace due to the unrestricted use of the computers and mobile phones? Also discuss importance of “forced discipline” in this case. (250 words)

Why the question:

The question is a case study based on the effect of growing technology on children.

Key Demand of the question:

Analyse the case study in detail and explain the steps that Parents need to take to avoid and stop the menace of gaming and other technology related issues on children.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that – In the contemporary world, we suffer from information explosion and are consumed by the influence of technology where the rational mind takes over the emotional mind.

Body:

Discuss the nuances of the case – As in the above case overuse of mobile phones are having detrimental effect on children. As children have low maturity level and have impressionable brains thus vulnerable to distractions.

Thus for disciplining children, parents have to take both carrot and stick approach as well as educating and creating awareness about the side effects of mobile phones.

“Carrots” are privileges that have to be earned or incentives that will motivate them to do complete their task. These rewards are such as watching television, playing a computer game, or going outside to play with their friends.

“Sticks” on the other hand, are punishment or disciplinary actions for work not done or when a child disobeys his or her parents. This punishment does not mean caning the child.

It is about emplacing the fear that will keep them away from the distractions. Apart from that parents should make sure that child has access to age appropriate online sites which do not promote unethical behaviour or violence.

They should also observe child’s behaviour closely to get to know about any unusual changes like moodiness, less or no communication, lack of interest in studies and falling grades.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of discipline and sometimes forced discipline.


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