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Global Multidimensional Poverty Index

Topics Covered: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources, issues relating to poverty and hunger.

Global Multidimensional Poverty Index:

Why in News?

NITI Aayog is in the last stage for preparation of Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) parameter dashboard and a State Reform Action Plan (SRAP).

  • In this regard, the Niti Aayog will leverage the monitoring mechanism of the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index.
  • NITI Aayog is the Nodal agency for the MPI.

Part of the “Global Indices to Drive Reforms and Growth (GIRG)” exercise:

Global MPI is part of Government of India’s decision to monitor the performance of the country in 29 select Global Indices.

  • The objective of the “Global Indices to Drive Reforms and Growth (GIRG)” exercise is to fulfil the need to measure and monitor India’s performance on various important social and economic parameters.
  • This will enable the utilisation of these Indices as tools for self-improvement, bring about reforms in policies, while improving last-mile implementation of government schemes.


What is MPI?

Global MPI is an international measure of multidimensional poverty.

It covers 107 developing countries.

  • It was first developed in 2010 by Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) for UNDP’s Human Development Reports.

When is it released?

The Global MPI is released at the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on Sustainable Development of the United Nations in July, every year.

How are the countries ranked?

Global MPI is computed by scoring each surveyed household on 10 parameters based on –nutrition, child mortality, years of schooling, school attendance, cooking fuel, sanitation, drinking water, electricity, housing and household assets.

Performance of India and its neighbours in MPI 2020:

  • India is 62nd among 107 countries with an MPI score of 0.123 and 27.91% headcount ratio, based on the NFHS 4 (2015/16) data.
  • Neighbouring countries like Sri Lanka (25th), Bhutan (68th), Nepal (65th), Bangladesh (58th), China (30th), Myanmar (69th) and Pakistan (73rd) are also ranked in this index.


Prelims Link:

  1. What is MPI?
  2. Who releases it?
  3. How are the countries ranked?
  4. Nodal agency for the MPI in India.
  5. What is the “Global Indices to Drive Reforms and Growth (GIRG)” exercise? Who is conducting it?
  6. Performance of India in MPI 2020.

Mains Link:

Write a brief note on the MPI (Multidimensional Poverty Index).

Sources: PIB.