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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 28 August 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Development processes and the development industry —the role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders.

1. Discuss the importance of involving civil society in prelegislative Scrutiny and mention the steps that can be taken by the government to increase public engagement in it. (250 words)

Reference: PRS INDIA

Why the question:

The question is premised on the point of involving civil society in the prelegislative scrutiny of the government.

Key Demand of the question:

One must elaborate in detail the concept of prelegislative scrutiny, the importance of involving civil society in it and also steps that can be taken by the government to increase public engagement in it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by suggesting the importance of citizen’s participation in public policy making.

Body:

The need to build linkages between citizens and the policy-making process arises from the necessity to have greater transparency and equality of access for all stakeholders that form the bedrock of a democratic framework. Pre-legislative scrutiny calls for a process to garner public feedback at an early stage of framing a law or statute.

Then move onto suggest means to ensure the participation of the citizenry in pre-legislative scrutiny of policies.

Conclusion:

Hint at the past policies of the government in this direction and suggest what more needs to be done in this direction and conclude.

Introduction:

Citizen’s participation is a process which provides private individuals an opportunity to influence public decisions and to be a component of the democratic decision-making process. There is a need to build linkages between citizens and the policy making process, especially by strengthening scrutiny before a Bill is introduced in Parliament. Currently, there is no process established to ensure pre-legislative scrutiny by the citizenry.

Body:

Importance of involving civil society in prelegislative scrutiny:

  • The main aim of public participation is to encourage the public to have meaningful input into the decision-making process.
  • Public participation thus provides the opportunity for communication between agencies making decisions and the public.
  • This communication can be an early warning system for public concerns, a means through which accurate and timely information can be disseminated, and can contribute to sustainable decision-making.
  • These benefits apply when public participation is a two-way process—where both the agency and the public can learn and gain benefit.
  • Effective public participation allows the public’s values to be identified and incorporated into decisions that ultimately affect them

Benefits of public participation:

  • Improved understanding of client expectations and user group needs
  • Improved agency understanding of conservation issues
  • Improved agency understanding of the role and contribution of the community
  • Greater continuity in knowledge
  • Ability to build community support for a project and to improve stakeholder relationships
  • Improved public understanding of the agency’s responsibilities
  • Improved staff and community technical knowledge
  • Improved agency credibility within the community
  • Improved quality of decision-making by agencies
  • Enhancement of social capital and flow-on social and economic benefits
  • Enhanced and informed political process
  • Greater compliance through increased ownership of a solution
  • Greater community advocacy for biodiversity protection
  • Greater access to community skills and knowledge
  • Improved community understanding of conservation issues and responsibility for conservation outcomes

There are several instances, in the last few years itself, wherein civil society groups have played an active role in the development of pre-legislative scrutiny in India.

  • Public consultation with cross-section of stakeholders when drafting a Bill: The Right to Information Act is seen as a landmark legislation when highlighting the role of civil society actors in the drafting of a Bill. It also serves as a prime example for how it the movement mobilised widespread public opinion for the Bill, bringing together different sections of the citizenry.
  • Public feedback on draft Bills: In several cases, after a Bill has been drafted the concerned ministry or public body publishes the Bill, inviting public comments. The Right to Education Bill, the National Identification Authority Bill and the Draft Direct Taxes Code Bill 2009 are recent cases in point. These announcements are made through advertisements published in newspapers and other media. For instance, the government has recently proposed to amend the rules of the RTI and has invited public feedback on the rules by December 27.
  • Engaging with legislators: It is important to expand engagement with lawmakers after the Bill has been introduced in Parliament, as they will determine what the law will finally contain. This is done by approaching individual legislators or members of the committee which is likely to examine the legislation. Standing Committees invite feedback on the Bill through newspaper advertisements.  For instance, the Standing Committee examining the Civil Nuclear Liability Bill heard testimonies from journalists, civil society groups, think-tank’s, public bodies and government departments.

Measures to enhance public engagement in the pre-legislative process:

  • Making all Bills available in the public domain for a stipulated period before introducing them in the legislature. This includes, publishing these Bills in forms (language, medium etc) that are accessible to the general public.
  • Making a report or Green paper on the legislative priorities addressed by the Bill available for citizens.
  • Forming adhoc committees to scrutinise the Bill before it is piloted in the House.
  • Having Standing Committees examine the Bill before introducing it in the House.
  • Providing a financial memorandum for each Bill, which specifies the budgetary allocation for the process/bodies created by the Bill.
  • Creating online fora for discussion. For the sections of the stakeholders who have limited access to the internet, efforts are made to proactively consult them through other media.
  • Expanding the purview of citizens’ right to petition their representatives with legislative proposals.

Conclusion:

There is a need for greater transparency in the policymaking process and equality of access for all stakeholders in engaging with the process. India is the largest democracy in the world and Indian citizens are enthusiastic to be a part of governance. In a democratic system, citizen participation is one of the key components of the decision making process. People’s participation can make a country’s development inclusive and targeted. Thus, efforts must be made to increase People’s participation in a democracy.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

2. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 proposes to have foundational literacy and numeracy a target of early schooling, critically analyse the move if it further embattles the already stressed childhood? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu

Why the question:

The author presents to us a critical analysis of the feature of NEP 2020 that proposed to have foundational literacy and numeracy a target of early schooling.

Key Demand of the question:

Critically analyse the move of the government in the NEP 2020 and present your viewpoints.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly start by giving the context of the question.

Body:

Start by explaining the significant shift NEP proposes is in the re-organisation of elementary education.

Discuss the arguments with respect to sharp division among perspectives on what constitutes reading; more specifically: how is reading learnt. Take hints from the article ad explain what the drawbacks of such a move are.

Debate on what needs to be done, suggest solutions to address.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable way forward.

Introduction:

According to UNICEF, early childhood is defined as the period from conception through eight years of age. Early childhood care and education (ECCE) is more than preparation for primary school. It aims at the holistic development of a child’s social, emotional, cognitive and physical needs in order to build a solid and broad foundation for lifelong learning and wellbeing. Target 4.2 of SDG 4 aims that by 2030, to ensure that all girls and boys have access to quality early childhood development, care and pre-primary education.

Body:

Significance of ECCE:

  • Early childhood is a time of remarkable growth with brain development at its peak.
  • Over 85% of a child’s cumulative brain development occurs prior to the age of 6, indicating the critical importance of appropriate care and stimulation of the brain in a child’s early years for healthy brain development and growth.
  • It is, therefore of the utmost importance that every child has access to quality early childhood care and education (ECCE).
  • The overall aim of ECCE will be to attain optimal outcomes in the domains of physical and motor development, cognitive development, socio-emotional-ethical development, cultural/artistic development, and the development of communication and early language, literacy, and numeracy.
  • It also includes a focus on developing social capacities, sensitivity, good behaviour, courtesy, ethics, personal and public cleanliness, teamwork and cooperation.
  • These years lay the foundations for her/ his learning and holistic development.
  • Children will be better prepared for primary school and will reach better education outcomes.
  • Quality ECCE also helps reduce repetition and drop-out rates.
  • Positive outcomes are even more pronounced among children from vulnerable groups.
  • It helps promote human resource development, gender equality and social cohesion, and to reduce the costs for later remedial programmes.
  • An overview of 56 studies across 23 countries found impacts on health, education, cognitive ability, and emotional development.

NEP 2020 and ECCE:

  • ECCE would be the greatest and most powerful equaliser.
  • Universal provisioning   of   quality   early   childhood   development, care   and   education must be thus being achieved by 2030, to ensure that all children entering Grade 1 are school ready
  • The Policy projecting an expansion of the Right to Education Act to cover the three years of preschool before Class 1.
  • It suggests a new integrated curricular framework for 3 to 8-year olds with a flexible system based on play, activity and discovery, and beginning exposure to three languages from age 3 onwards.
  • The policy aims to provide High-quality early childhood care and education for all children between the ages of three and six by 2025.
  • This will be done within schools and anganwadis, which will take care of the overall well-being of the child.
  • These institutions will also provide similar support to families for children younger than three years of age—within their homes.
  • This policy will result in a massive positive multiplier effect on society.

Challenges:

  • One of the major issues of ECCE is the unavailability of trained teachers.
  • Anganwadis are currently quite deficient in supplies and infrastructure for education.
  • As a result, they tend to contain more children in the 2-4-year age range and fewer in the educationally critical 4-6-year age range.
  • Anganwadis also have few teachers trained in or specially dedicated to early childhood education.
  • Private pre-schools often consist of formal teaching and rote memorisation with limited play-based learning.
  • A 2017 study by the Ambedkar University showed that “a significant proportion of children in India who completed pre-primary education, public or private, did not have the needed school readiness competencies when they joined primary school.

Way forward:

  • For universal access to Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), the Anganwadi Centres will be strengthened with high quality infrastructure, play equipment and well-trained Anganwadi workers/teachers.
  • Every Anganwadi must have a well-ventilated, well-designed, child-friendly and   well-constructed   building   with   an enriched   learning   Funds for this programme will be provided by the Central and State governments.
  • ECCE teacher training should be added as a skill gap in the list of National Skill Development Corporation to ensure that easy investment is available to produce efficient ECCE teachers.
  • Universal access to quality early childhood education is perhaps the best investment that India can make for our children’s and our nation’s future.
  • ECCE can also be introduced in Ashrams shalas in tribal-dominated areas in a phased manner.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Food processing and related industries in India- scope’ and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

3. Elaborate upon the initiatives that can ensure sustainable growth of the dairy sector in the country as well as boost incomes of dairy farmers. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The article highlights the policies and programmes that have contributed in bringing up the dairy industry up.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and one must elaborate upon the initiatives that can ensure sustainable growth of the dairy sector in the country as well as boost incomes of dairy farmers.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by presenting key facts of the Dairy industry in the country. The government aims to “facilitate” doubling of India’s annual milk processing capacity from 53.5 million tonnes (mt) to 108 mt by 2025.

Body:

Over the span of three decades, India has transformed from a country of acute milk shortage to the world’s leading milk producer, with estimated production of milk in 2018-19 at 187 million tonnes.

Milk production in India has been growing at over 4% annually and its share in milk production in the world has also been increased.

Then move onto discuss the major initiatives of the government – National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD), Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS), National Dairy Plan-I (NDP-I), Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF), Supporting Dairy Cooperatives and Farmer Producer Organizations engaged in dairy activities (SDCFPO) etc.

Explain in what way it benefits the poor and marginal dairy farmers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The huge increase in milk supply through concerted efforts on a cooperative level is known as the White Revolution. Forty-eight years after Operation Flood – that made India the world’s largest milk producer – India continues to be on the lookout for the next breakthrough in agricultural produce and productivity. White Revolution 2.0 has effectuated dairy firms’ marketing strategy for milk and milk products, resuscitating the outlook of product-market mix.

The Union Cabinet recently approved 4,458 crore scheme for the dairy sector. The move will benefit as many as 95 lakh milk producers. The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs, has also given its approval for upward revision of interest subvention to 2.5% per annum under the scheme Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund with the revised outlay of Rs 11,184 Cr.

Body:

Milk production in India:

  • India emerged as the largest milk producer and consumer in 2019.
  • Niti Aayog estimates that the country is expected to increase its milk production to 330 million metric tonnes (mt) in 2033–34 from the current level of 176 mt.
  • Currently India has 17% of world output of dairy products, surpassing USA in 1998 as world’s largest producer of dairy. All this was achieved by operation Flood which was launched in 1970’s.
  • According to market research company IMARC, the milk and dairy products industry reached Rs7.9 lakh crore in 2017.
  • In 2016, the milk sector alone was valued at Rs3 lakh crore and is projected to scale Rs7.3 lakh crore by 2021.
  • The per capita milk availability in India has gone up from 126 gm per day in 1960 to 359 gm per day in 2015.

Government initiatives for the diary sector:

  • National Programme for Bovine Breeding
  • Rashtriya Gokul Mission
  • National Bovine Genetic Centre
  • Quality Mark
  • National Kamdhenu Bredding Centres
  • E-Pashuhaat portal
  • National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD)
  • Dairy Entrepreneurship Development Scheme (DEDS)
  • National Dairy Plan-I (NDP-I)
  • Dairy Processing and Infrastructure Development Fund (DIDF)
  • Supporting Dairy Cooperatives and Farmer Producer Organizations engaged in dairy activities (SDCFPO)

Challenges faced:

  • Indian cattle and buffaloes have among the lowest productivity.
  • Similarly, there is a shortage of organized dairy farms and there is a need of high degree of investment to take dairy industry to global standards.
  • Improving productivity of farm animals is one of the major challenges
  • Crossbreeding of indigenous species with exotic stocks to enhance genetic potential of different species has been successful only to a limited extent.
  • The sector will also come under significant adjustment pressure to the emerging market forces. Though globalization will create avenues for increased participation in international trade, stringent food safety and quality norms would be required.
  • Access to markets is critical to speed up commercialization. Lack of access to markets may act as a disincentive to farmers to adopt improved technologies and quality inputs.

Measures needed:

  • Increase in the market share depends on how dairy firms’ capabilities and their resources are utilised given the opportunities and threats emanating from emerging markets economies.
  • Contract/corporate dairying and emerging global dairy trade are required to rope in dairy supply chains stakeholders in order to expand their outreach and “on-the-go” product positioning into the target segment.
  • Digital technology-enabled dairy firms need to identify their compatible partners and competitors for co-creation through product-process innovation via relationship/value-based marketing.
  • Freshness in milk, and convenience to store milk or milk products can be a technology innovation brought in by large dairy firms in association start-ups.
  • Education and Training at Panchayat level for small and medium size farmers
  • Subsidizing cattle production and encouraging cattle markets
  • Facility of logistics for produced milk
  • Improved Veterinary facility specially in artificial insemination of cattle
  • Encouraging private sector firm to procure dairy produced at rural level
  • Low interest loans for small and medium scale farmers for cattle purchase
  • Encouraging rural women to take up animal husbandry
  • Insurance of cattle against diseases like Anthrax, Foot and Mouth, Peste des Ruminantes, etc.
  • Nurture dairy entrepreneurs through effective training of youth at the village level coupled with dedicated leadership and professional management of farmers’ institutions.
  • Agricultural practices, sanitation, quality of drinking water & fodder, type and quality of pipelines – all of these need to be aligned to the goal of healthy milk

Conclusion:

The Government initiatives can ensure sustainable growth of the dairy sector as well as boost incomes of millions of small and marginal dairy farmers. Linking the animal husbandry with food processing industry, agriculture, researches & patents has all the possible potential to make India a nutritional power house of the world. Animal husbandry is the imperative hope, definite desire and urgent panacea for India as well as the world.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Discuss the key findings of Export Preparedness Index 2020 while throwing light on the challenges that Indian exports face. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

Export Preparedness Index 2020 to evaluate States’ potential and capacities has been released by the NITI Aayog in partnership with the Institute of Competitiveness was released recently, thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss the key findings of Export Preparedness Index 2020 while throwing light on the challenges that Indian exports face.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what export preparedness Index is.

Body:

Export Preparedness Index (EPI); It is the first report to examine the export preparedness and performance of Indian states. EPI intends to identify challenges and opportunities; enhance the effectiveness of government policies; and encourage a facilitative regulatory framework. It promotes healthy competition among states and UTs to work on parameters for promoting the country’s exports, which is one of the key indicators for boosting economic growth.

Then explain the challenges faced by India’s Export Sector -based on the findings of the report, export promotion in India faces three fundamental challenges:  Intra- and inter-regional disparities in export infrastructure, Poor trade support and growth orientation among states, Poor R&D infrastructure to promote complex and unique exports.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issues.

Introduction:

Export Preparedness Index (EPI) 2020 is the first report which aims to assess the readiness of the states, in terms of their export potential and performance of Indian states. NITI Aayog in partnership with the Institute of Competitiveness has released the EPI. The index weighed all states and union territories on four pillars such as policy, business ecosystem, export ecosystem and export performance and 11 sub-pillars including export promotion policy, export infrastructure, access to finance, transport connectivity and export diversification.

Body:

Highlights of the report:

  • Top 3 states: Gujarat, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.
  • Among the landlocked states, Rajasthan has performed the best, followed by Telangana and Haryana.
  • Among the Himalayan states, Uttarakhand topped the chart, followed by Tripura and Himachal Pradesh.
  • Across Union Territories/City States, Delhi has performed the best, followed by Goa and Chandigarh.
  • On policy parameters, Maharashtra topped the index followed by Gujarat and Jharkhand.
  • On business ecosystem parameter, Gujarat was ranked number one followed by Delhi and Tamil Nadu.
  • In the export ecosystem parameter, Maharashtra topped the Index followed by Odisha and Rajasthan.
  • On the export performance parameter, Mizoram led the index, followed by Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  • At present, 70 per cent of India’s export has been dominated by five states – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Telangana.

Key findings of the report:

  • India’s merchandise exports have witnessed growth from USD 275.9 billion in 2016-17 to USD 331.0 billion in 2019-20.
  • However, the Covid-19 crisis gave a major blow to the current fiscal. Consequently, India’s exports shrank by 60% in April 2020.
  • This consistent positive growth has been a result of key measures adopted by the government post-2016 for the promotion of merchandise exports.
  • A mid-term review of the Foreign Trade Policy 2015-20 was conducted in 2017 to assess the policy interventions required to boost the export levels.
  • A new Logistics Division was established in the Department of Commerce to organize the integrated development of the logistics sector.
  • Trade Infrastructure for Export Scheme (TIES) was launched in 2017 to address the existing export infrastructure gaps.
  • Agriculture Export Policy was rolled out to target export contribution at a micro-level.
  • Transport and Marketing Assistance (TMA) scheme was also introduced for the export of specified agriculture products to mitigate the disadvantage of the higher cost of transportation.

Export promotion in India faces three fundamental challenges:

  • Intra- and inter-regional disparities in export infrastructure.
  • Poor trade support and growth orientation among states.
  • Poor R&D infrastructure to promote complex and unique exports.

Measures needed:

  • A joint development of export infrastructure.
  • Strengthening industry-academia linkages.
  • Creating state-level engagements for economic diplomacy.
  • Revamped designs and standards for local products.
  • Harness the innovating tendencies to provide new use cases for such products, with adequate support from the Centre.

Way forward:

  • Increase in exports can help India to achieve the target of making India a developed economy by focusing on ‘Atma Nirbhar Bharat’. The exports can also help generate employment in India.
  • Rapid growth of exports is a crucial component for long-term economic growth.
  • A favourable ecosystem enables a country to contribute significantly to global value chains and reap the benefits of integrated production networks, globally.
  • The private sector can also play an important role in export promotion.

 

Topic: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, biotechnology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. Amidst the new challenges growing space industry is facing across the world; discuss the aspects necessary to be considered for India’s space vision. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The editorial covers outer space vision, challenges involved and the need for space legislation.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to ascertain the aspects necessary to be considered for India’s space vision amidst growing challenges across the world.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by discussing the aspects of expanding space industry.

Body:

India has invested enormous resources in its space programme through the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). More importantly, space assets are crucial for India’s development. India’s future plans are ambitious. The plans are designed to establish India as a major space-faring nation by the end of the decade.

The proposed involvement of private players and the creation of an autonomous body IN-SPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Centre) under the Department of Space for permitting and regulating activities of the private sector are welcome efforts.

However, the space environment that India faces requires us to go beyond meeting technical milestones. There is a need for a space legislation enabling coherence across technical, legal, commercial, diplomatic and defence goals.

Conclusion:

Conclude that India’s space vision also needs to address global governance, regulatory and arms control issues.

Introduction:

Space programmes have for long been viewed as either strategic or symbols of national prestige for big countries that are prepared to invest significant resources in the pursuit of a credible presence in outer space. India, however, is quite some distance away from adapting to the unfolding changes in the global space business. In its early years, India’s space programme that was constrained by lack of resources found innovative ways of getting ahead in space.

Body:

Challenges space industry is facing across the world:

  • Weak global space governance framework:
    • Outer space is becoming democratised, commercialised and crowded, leading to unmanageable challenge.
    • The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 enshrines the idea that space should be “the province of all mankind” and “not subject to national appropriation by claims of sovereignty”.
    • The Rescue Agreement, Space Liability Convention, and the Space Registration Convention expanded provisions of the Outer Space Treaty.
    • The Moon Treaty of 1979 was not ratified by major space-faring nations.
    • Space law does not have a dispute settlement mechanism, is silent on collisions and debris, and offers insufficient guidance on interference with others’ space assets.
    • These gaps heighten the potential for conflict in an era of congested orbits and breakneck technological change.
  • Commercialization and privatization is transforming humankind’s activity in outer space:
    • Japan is scheduled to launch the UAE Mars probe this year.
    • India’s own ISRO is also working with the UAE on its Mars mission.
    • The first Emirati Astronaut, Hazza al-Mansouri spent more than a week in the US-Russian space station.
    • Luxembourg has a similar strategy. It too entered the space sector only in the middle of the last decade. It is also driven by the need for economic diversification.
    • Military uses of space and prestige projects like Moon-landing have emerged, major private sector entities already in the aviation industry like Boeing and Lockheed won space contracts in the US.
    • As the digital revolution in the 21st century transformed the world economy, the commercial space sector has begun to grow in leaps and bounds. The global space business is now estimated to be around $ 400 billion and is expected easily rise to at least trillion dollars by 2040.
    • The entry of private sector has begun to drive down the cost-per-launch through innovations such as reusable rockets.
    • SpaceX plans to launch hundreds of satellites into the low-earth orbit to provide internet services. Amazon has plans to build a network of more than 3,000 satellites in the low-earth orbit.
    • SpaceX and Amazon have plans to develop space tourism and build human settlements on the Moon and on Mars.
    • It is not just big companies that are aiming for the Moon. Last year, a private company in Israel sent a lunar lander to the Moon.
  • Rising space arms race:
    • States are investing in military space systems for communications, navigation, and reconnaissance purposes, so as to ensure the operability of a range of capabilities.
    • So investment in technologies that can disrupt or destroy space-based capabilities is underway.
    • The space arms race is difficult to curb, especially since almost all space technologies have military applications.
    • For example, satellite constellations are commercial but governments could acquire their data to monitor military movements.
    • The current geopolitical situation does not hold hope for addressing concerns of a space arms race.
    • The UN General Assembly passed a resolution on the Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space since 1982.
    • Chinese- and Russian-backed Treaty proposals were initiated in 2008 and updated in 2014.
    • The EU’s International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities has not gained traction.
    • For various legal, technical, and political reasons these have not advanced at the Conference on Disarmament. Groups of Governmental Experts have not helped in making progress.

Way forward for India:

  • The proposed involvement of private players and the creation of an autonomous body IN-SPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre) under the Department of Space for permitting and regulating activities of the private sector are welcome efforts.
  • India should have national space activities legislation which takes on board all stakeholders.
  • A public-private partnership (PPP) model can be looked into to realise ISRO’s workhorse Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), with a joint venture between ISRO and the private sector.
  • In the UK, space ventures are treated as a complement to big organizations and not a competitor. This should be encouraged in India too.
  • A supportive international partner and likeminded local partners helps to set up a space business.
  • The idea should be to let the private industry build their own facilities after gaining enough expertise.
  • ISRO has built a space technology park spread over 25 acres in Bengaluru where the entire range of facilities have been set up for use by the industry.
  • It needs a regulatory environment that encourages a more dynamic role for the private sector and promotes innovation. It will be a pity if India squanders the many advantages of its early start in space by delaying the much-needed reform and reorganization of its space sector.
  • India’s space vision also needs to address global governance, regulatory and arms control issues.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. While acting for ‘change’ and ‘progress’, should an administrator be disappointed because s/he can do too little? Substantiate. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the two factors of change and progress and in what way Public administrators usually face the crisis of choosing between them.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the dilemma involved in choosing change or progress in the lives of civil servants while making decisions.

Directive:

Substantiate – When you are asked to Substantiate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by “Change” and “Progress” in the context of the question.

Body:

The process of change in a large-scale system is a mix of art and science. It requires scientific principles to bring change and progress as well as requires social and human emotions for strong determination and will power.

But a system is “any collection of things that have some influence on one another.” If we take the example of Environment – Individual things like plants, people, schools, communities, and watersheds – are all systems of interrelated elements. All have well-defined niche and role in the maintenance of system whether small or big.

 Conclusion:

Hence one should not be disappointed that he can do nothing big to change the system, even small and genuine steps can bring change.

Introduction:

Administrators or public servants are the glue between the State and the people. They have a wide array of responsibilities from formulation, implementation of various rules, policies to service delivery to citizens. They are granted with sufficient powers to carry on their work in an unhindered manner. The vast scope of operations can give rise to situations where they are faced with various challenges which could lead to disappointments.

Body:

Change and progress is an important part in everyone’s society for the general public welfare. Administrators are put in charge to bring about these necessary changes so that there is social and economic justice delivered to every citizen as envisaged by our constitution.

However, there can be situations during the process of bringing about change and progress which could lead to disappointments for administrators.

For instance, consider the case of building a multipurpose dam which needs evacuation of many people from few villages. Here the dilemma could bring about disappointment to administrators as s/he cannot do much from people being evacuated from their places. But, keeping in mind the utilitarian view of how the multipurpose dam would be of great use for greater number of people, an administrator must go on with project although he can do very little for the evacuees. However, s/he can quickly take other measures to ensure the evacuated people are rehabilitated and normalcy in their lives is restored.

Measures to overcome those challenges and disappointments:

  • Personal self-interest should be secondary to the common good in all situations, especially when such circumstances give rise to conflict of interest.
  • A challenge should be dealt appropriately by considering and reformulating all the options in a systematic and coherent manner.
  • To resolve such challenges, an order or a sequence of logical reasoning is must to integrate and rearrange the process of dealing with challenges.
  • The decisions should be guided by following principles:
    • The provisions of Indian Constitution.
    • Democratic accountability of administration.
    • The rule of law and the principle of legality.
    • Professional integrity.
    • Impartiality and neutrality.
    • Larger public good.
    • Responsiveness to civil society.
  • The bureaucracy should be loyal to the country and its people while decision making considering consequences of such decisions.
  • It is fundamental ethical duty of civil servants to show a spirit of neutrality and discretion and keep their own personal preferences out in the performance of their duties and responsibilities.

Conclusion:

A public servant is bound to be faced by many such challenges during his course of work. Adhering to the ethical values like integrity, objectivity, transparency, working with conscience and application of wisdom can help in overcoming the challenges and dilemmas.


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