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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 12 August 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Religion has such a deep imprint on Indian art, that often entire Indian art is dismissed as religious only; however, there is no dearth of secular art. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian art and culture by Nitin Singhania

Why the question:

The question is based on the Art and culture of the country and in what way it is secular and not just religious.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to discuss influence of religion on Indian art and substantiate that however it is not the only driving factor and Indian art is equally secular.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present some key facts reporting the influence of religion over the Indian Art.

Body:

In the answer body move on to dismiss the fact that Indian culture is purely religious by presenting the facts related to Secular art. On its way to modern times, Indian art has had cultural influences (Indus valley and Hellenistic) as well as religious influences such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. Present examples to justify your answer such as – The rock cut architecture and art in India mainly focused on natural elements.

The paintings in these sites like barabar caves, Bhimbetka commonly depicted scenes of human life alongside animals, and hunts with stone implements.

During Indus valley civilization there were animal depictions, religious depictions like

Pasupathi etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of Indian secular Art and how often it is misunderstood as only religious.

Introduction:

India, a land of farmers, artists, developers, sportsman, actors, and businessmen, is known to nurture quite a few religions itself. These religions influence the political tactics, but also tend to lay the foundation of some impeccable artworks since centuries. Be it music, sculptures, paintings or any other art, religion played a major cameo in each. The dominant religions in India are Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Sikhism. Indian artists inspired from mythological tales of such religions carved out such dazzling pieces of paintings that have become a benchmark.

Body:

Influence of religion on artwork:

  • Hinduism:
    • Hinduism is one of the oldest religions in this world, which is quite liberal from starting. And this is why so many tales of multiple deities are easily welcomed and believed in Hinduism.
    • But, nothing has inspired artists more than the mythological tales of Mahabharata and Ramayana.
    • There have been several artists across the India who have exhibited different instances from these religious mythologies.
    • The Mysore and Tanjore paintings that are known to hold the stature of Indian art for centuries were inspired from the religious epics.
    • The artists have crafted some engrossing and graceful piece of art depicting the actions or tales of Krishna for a long time now.
    • The legacy of Rajput and Madhubani paintings is the perfect example of how Lord Krishna and his stories inspired the artists.
    • Some other famous paintings style generated from religion are Kalighat paintings of Bengal (inspired from Goddess Kali); Phad paintings of Rajasthan; Rajput paintings of Amber and Jaipur.
    • Apart from paintings, murals were also quite famous art style in ancient time that can be seen on almost every temple in Southern India.
  • Buddhism:
    • Buddhist art was originated in India and was based on the life story of Prince Siddhartha Gautam or popularly known as Gautam Buddha in the 6th and 5th century BCE.
    • In the era when Buddhism was spreading, a lot of mural artists came up. Today, in the temples of Ajanta and Ellora, you can have a glimpse of what mural artists used to carve on the walls, roofs, and ceilings.
    • Buddhist art initially was made in anthropomorphic depictions of Gautam Buddha in Northern India.
    • Two main centres where the Buddhist art took its first step were Gandhara (now located in Pakistan) and the region of Mathura (northern India).
    • Artists in India always found the life and actions of Buddha as inspiring and hence has carved out some captivating Buddha paintings reflecting the same.
    • Rock sculptures of big sizes and paintings on the walls of tombs were quite famed during the dawn of Buddhism.
  • Islam:
    • This era, which is also known as the medieval times was the period of the spread of Islam. The flare-up of Islam introduced the essence of Persian art in India.
    • Mughal Empire ensured a splendid blend of an Indo-Islamic form of art, which was first introduced in Delhi.
    • Artists in this time period made some exceptional paintings, sculptures, miniatures and ceramics.
    • Along with this, you can also find a pinch of Mughal paintings in Rajput paintings too.

However, the secular art also had its place in the art history of India:

  • It can also be noted that non-religious or secular art forms were also getting importance.
  • For example, the seals, terracotta toys, granary from Harappan Civilisation and palaces, gardens from medieval India.
  • the prehistoric art forms are confined to secular paintings like that of Bhimbetka rock shelters.
  • Later, the animistic religious beliefs of Harappan Civilisation gets reflected in the terracotta figurines of mother goddess.
  • Similarly, the patronage provided by the rulers or the society also defines the type of art that gets developed.
  • The Ashokan edicts, whose form and content was largely non-religious, incorporated principles of social conduct.
  • During the Sultanate period emerged the Indo-Islamic form of architecture like tombs and mosques.
  • Likewise, Akbar’s period witnessed art and architecture of religious as well as secular forms (Fatehpur Sikri).
  • The Mughal paintings also highlight the same feature as it depicted non-religious themes in terms of royal portraits and natural beauty.
  • Another aspect of the development of art is those possessed by people in their homes or the art of common man.
  • It is important to note that most of the art and architectural artworks were made from wood and clay which have perished over the course of time. For eg. Kalighat paintings, Warli paintings etc.
  • Besides, several domestic items made of metals (like iron, bronze, silver and gold) were later melted down and reused from time to time.

Conclusion:

Thus, we can conclude that Indian art although was influenced by the religious forms, there was no dearth of secular paintings too.

 

Topic : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

2. Caste system and democracy are not mutually compatible in-principle; however, Indian politics has not only integrated these two, but made caste dissolution impossible. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: The wire 

Why the question:

The article explains how Caste continues to be a consistent measurement of whom upper-caste MPs choose to interact and connect with online.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the system of Caste politics in India; discuss why caste dissolution is impossible in the country.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by suggesting the fact that ideologically, caste and democracy differ from each other and cannot co-exist, because caste advocates fragmentation of society, whereas democracy stands for the unification of society.

Body:

Explain the following factors-

Caste is leased on inequality by birth. Democracy is based on principles of equality.

Caste advocates social exclusion and democracy advocates social inclusion. Caste provides wealth, power and status to specific groups but democracy provides equal chance to all categories irrespective of bias.

However, the peculiarity is that both caste system and democracy co-exist in Indian society.

It happens, because the way Indian system has evolved, caste influences politics and political system influences caste.

Explain the influence of political system on caste and vice-versa.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Millions of Indians are getting (undue) respect, benefits and positions due to their castes. We pretend ourselves to be the victim of our caste when it hurts us, we shamelessly display our castes when it benefits us. Further, the system of affirmative action has institutionalized caste into legal and governance system of the country.

Introduction:

Caste-based vote-bank politics, rather than economic issues and social policy have determined India’s electoral choices. Caste is a social phenomenon of Indian society. By participating in the modern political system, caste is now exposed to divisive influences and a new form of integration resulting from a new scheme of universalist-particularist relationships. Caste has gained an influential position in India politics.

Body:

Many claimed that the 2014 results showed that voters were now driven by an agenda of broad-based and inclusive development rather than caste and religion. A new study by Abhijit Banerjee, Amory Gethin, and Thomas Piketty, published by the Economic and Political Weekly, debunks these claims and shows how identity and religious-ethnic conflicts, rather than economic issues and social policy, determine India’s electoral choices.

Caste system, being a vital inherent feature of Indian society provides a fertile and a strong foundation for pressure group activities influencing the polity of India:

  • Deepens Democracy: They provide vital link between the government and the governed.
  • Political empowerment: Increasing caste based representation, participatory assertion and subsequent political steps taken. Ex: Marwari Association in Rajasthan.
  • Influence policy decision: Pre-independence PG’s highlighted social issues which led to constitutional provision of securing equality and justice for downtrodden. Towards this pursuit, state came out with affirmative measures like reservation in education and employment.
  • Achieve constitutional ideals: of equality, justice and dignity. Voice is given to the marginalised sections as they cannot be ignored in the first-past-the-post electoral system.
  • Legislative measures for empowerment of the lower castes: Article 17 for the abolition of untouchability, several fundamental rights and DPSPs like Article 15, Article 46, Article 335 for claims to services and posts etc.
  • Creation of caste based development corporations: National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSCFDC), Dr. BR Ambedkar Development Corporation by Government of Karnataka etc.
  • Strengthening the democratic nature and inclusive governance: With the marginalized sections’ increasing participation through PG mobilization, awareness and exercise of their rights, they are encouraged into the mainstream effectively.
  • Increasing self-identity/Preservation of ethos and cultural importance: Ex: Celebration of Bhima-Koregaon battle by Dalits.
  • Paved way for the representation at national and regional political landscape. Ex: Political parties like BSP whose political origin is traced back to caste based PGs.

However, there have been some concerns posed by the activities of caste based PGs:

  • Identity politics: Politicians seem to take advantage through caste appeasement and neglect the actual needs and policies required for upliftment, often agreeing to illegitimate and parochial demands. Ex: Reservation to upper and well off castes in Gujarat, Maharashtra etc. when they do not meet criteria of social or educational backward classes.
  • Caste based violence: Riots and unpleasant clashes with other castes, sometimes ending in death or serious consequences. Ex: Clashes between upper castes and the Mahars on the 200th anniversary of the Battle of Bhima Koregaon.
  • Fragmentation of society and enhanced caste consciousness: Creation of favour in own interests and animosity between different sections of people. Ex: Lingayat Sect in Karnataka.
  • Assertions: There is revival of caste based politics in new form through caste assertions to gain political space thereby creating new wedge in society.
  • Political class agreeing to demands under pressure. Ex: reservation for Marathas when they do not meet the criteria of socially-educationally backward class.

Way forward:

  • Supreme Court’s ruling on Sec 123(3) of Representatives of Peoples Act 1951 where it prohibits any candidate, his agent, or any person consented by such candidate or his agent, from soliciting votes, or discouraging voters against voting for a rival candidate, on grounds of religion, race, caste, community or language, by declaring such conduct as a ‘corrupt practice’ should be implemented in letter and spirit.
  • Socio-Economic Development leading to removal of poverty is necessary to remove such polarizations.
  • Education of the people is another way of keeping elections secular.

Conclusion:

Caste still remains one of the important considerations of voting for Indian voters, and caste-based mobilisation remains an important consideration for political parties. The three organs of our Democracy supported by the media needs to act together to fill in the loopholes in law and make electoral process more secular.

 

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : India and its neighborhood- relations. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

3. China is accused of indulging in beggar-thy-neighbor policy. Explain the term and examine its consequences on rest of world? (250 words)

Reference: investopedia.com

Why the question:

The question is premised on the beggar-thy-neighbor policy.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concept of beggar-thy-neighbor policy, its use by China and examine its consequences on the rest of the world.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Beggar thy neighbor policy refers to a policy that aims at addressing one’s own domestic problems at the expense of others — trading partners in particular. It utilizes currency devaluations and protective barriers to alleviate a nation’s economic difficulties at the expense of other countries.

Body:

Conventionally, countries often impose tariff barriers and restrict imports to protect their domestic industries. However, with globalization, such practices are not possible, beyond a level, Central banks devalue or encourage the depreciation of their own currencies compared to its trading partners by intervening in the local currency markets to retain their respective competitive edge and price advantage in exports.

Explain the moves made by China in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the current non system is pushing the world toward competitive monetary easing, to no one’s ultimate benefit. Developing a consensus for free trade and responsible global citizenship and

thus resisting parochial pressures would set the stage for the sustainable growth the world desperately needs.

Introduction:

Beggar thy neighbor policy refers to economic and trade policies that a country enacts that end up adversely affecting its neighbors and/or trading partners. Protectionist barriers such as tariffs, quotas, and sanctions are all examples of policies that can hurt the economies of other countries. Often, beggar thy neighbor policies are not intended to negatively affect other countries; rather, it is a side effect of policies meant to bolster the country’s domestic economy and competitiveness.

Body:

Beggar thy neighbor policy:

  • Beggar thy neighbor often refers to international trade policy that benefits the country that enacted it, while harming its neighbors or trade partners.
  • Protectionism is often seen as a key example of policies that are intended to strengthen a domestic economy, but which may negatively impact trading partners.
  • Beggar thy neighbor policies came about, originally, as a policy solution to domestic depression and high unemployment rates.
  • The basic idea is to increase the demand for a nation’s exports, while reducing reliance on imports.
  • This means driving consumption of domestic goods up, as opposed to consumption of imports. This is usually achieved with some kind of trade barrier — tariffs or quotas — or competitive devaluation, in order to lower the price of exports and drive employment and the price of imports up.
  • A currency war is a prime example of beggar thy neighbor in action since it amounts to a nation attempting to gain an economic advantage without consideration for the ill effects it may have on other countries.

Consequences of Beggar thy neighbour policy:

  • After China devalued its currency by nearly 0.5% to the dollar earlier in January 2016, many emerging market currencies have started weakening against the US dollar.
  • Indian rupee too has lost close 4% to the dollar since January.
  • The immediate cause of a weak emerging market currency is pull out of foreign investors from these economies resulting in a pressure on local currencies.
  • For instance, a weak renminbi will lead to widening of trade deficit.
  • Markets in which China and India compete, Chinese will price out Indians.
  • Chinese will dump cheaper products in our market resulting in factory closure, job losses etc.
  • In the current situation of global economic slowdown and weak demand, a price advantage on goods and services need not necessarily prop up exports.
  • In certain cases, such a policy may prove counterproductive.
  • If, for instance, even the competing country counters one policy move, of say, depreciation (to protect exports) then such a practice may not have desirable results, especially the country’s imports are not price elastic (the imports are essential and not dependent on prices) and instead could end up hurting the trade balance through higher import price and resulting in inflation in such economies.

Conclusion:

The current non-system is pushing the world toward competitive monetary easing, to no one’s ultimate benefit. Developing a consensus for free trade and responsible global citizenship and thus resisting parochial pressures would set the stage for the sustainable growth the world desperately needs.

 

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Agriculture.

4. The technological convergence in industrial revolution 4.0 has brought in robotics much closer to human interface. Evaluate the key benefits of robotics in automated agriculture and manufacturing in the country.  (250 words)

Reference: weforum.org

Why the question:

The question aims to evaluate the key benefits of robotics in automated agriculture and manufacturing in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss first in what way technological convergence in industrial revolution 4.0 has brought in robotics much closer to human interface. And then evaluate the key benefits of robotics in automated agriculture and manufacturing in the country.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The Industrial Revolution 4.0 can be said to be the advent of cyber-physical systems which is marked

by a fusion of technologies straddling the physical, digital and biological worlds.

Body:

Discuss first in what way technological convergence in industrial revolution 4.0 has brought in robotics much closer to human interface. Explain this with suitable recent advancement examples.

Then move on to explain the benefits – Key benefits of robotics in automated agriculture and manufacturing in the country are-

  • They do not get sick or want a time off. They can work the whole year round.
  • They offer fewer errors and at higher speeds. They result in higher quality.
  • They can be used in various fields in agriculture like around the field, trees, ponds etc.

They can reduce up to 80% of farm’s use of pesticides.

  • The robots have many fields of application in the agriculture such as the Merlin Robot Milker, Rosphere, Harvest Automation, Orange Harvester, lettuce bot, and the weeder.
  • They can be used in the livestock applications (the livestock robotics) such as the automatic

Milking, washing and castrating.

  • They improve the safety of the workers as they handle the harmful chemicals. • Higher profitability etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning the concerns and in what way they can be resolved by suggesting solutions to the same.

Introduction:

The Fourth Industrial Revolution (IR 4.0) is a term that describes present technological age. It is the fourth industrial era since the inception of the initial Industrial Revolution of the 18th century. The key elements of the fourth revolution are the fusion of technologies ranging from the physical, digital to biological spheres. Prime Minister gave an institutional shape to the expression by launching the Centre for Fourth Industrial Revolution in India.

Body:

IR_4

As described by the founder and executive chairman of World Economic Forum, Klaus Schwab, “the fourth industrial revolution is a technological revolution that will fundamentally alter the way we live, work and relate to one another”.

Characteristics of IR 4.0:

  • It is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres.
  • It brings together digital technology and the physical world to create a new range of products and services.
  • The possibilities of billions of people connected by mobile devices, with unprecedented processing power, storage capacity, and access to knowledge, are unlimited.
  • And these possibilities will be multiplied by emerging technology breakthroughs in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, the Internet of Things, autonomous vehicles, 3-D printing, nanotechnology, biotechnology, materials science, energy storage, and quantum computing.
  • The revolution is evolving at an exponential rather than a linear pace and it is disrupting almost every industry in every country.

Agriculture Sector:

  • AI can be used to predict advisories for sowing, pest control, input control can help in ensuring increased income and providing stability for the agricultural community.
  • Precision agriculture uses AI technology to aid in detecting diseases in plants, pests, and poor plant nutrition on farms.
  • AI sensors can detect and target weeds and then decide which herbicides to apply within the right buffer zone.
  • Climate pattern and effects on different crops can be analysed using AI software which will help in prediction of the best crop for the season and the possible outcomes.
  • Image classification tools combined with remote and local sensed data can bring a revolutionary change in utilization and efficiency of farm machinery, in areas of weed removal, early disease identification, produce harvesting and grading.

Manufacturing sector:

  • Robots are being used for manufacturing since a long time now; however, more advanced exponential technologies have emerged such as additive manufacturing (3D Printing) which with the help of AI can revolutionize the entire manufacturing supply chain ecosystem.
  • The predictive maintenance of machineries would lead to reduced operational cost
  • IR technologies would be helpful in minimizing deterioration in the quality of the machinery
  • By having a repository of data regarding machines and equipment’s will aid in managing them well.
  • Robots can perform the tasks given by a human because of sensors to detect physical data from the real world such as light, heat, temperature, movement, sound, bump, and pressure.
  • Moreover, they have efficient processors, multiple sensors and huge memory, to exhibit intelligence.
  • Further, they are capable of learning from their errors and therefore can adapt to the new environment.

Way forward:

  • Governments, businesses and civil society organisations should put together an ecosystem for massive upskilling of the workforce.
  • India needs to prepare itself for a period of information and digital abundance, adapt itself to the scorching pace of innovation and learn to collaborate on scale, quickly transform the idea into a breakthrough innovation, shift from a system of time-bound education to a mode of continuous learning and create more employment opportunities than what new and disruptive technologies take away.
  • There is a need for good quality education to make India’s youth a productive asset.
  • Access to finance commensurate with maturity of the business model and beginning stage of the start-up lifecycle is extremely important to scale innovations.
  • Corporates will have a key role in championing this on-going movement, leveraging the ART Model – Alliances, Relationships enabled through Technology.

Conclusion:

Industrial Revolution that first began in Great Britain and later in United States (after end of Civil War) has helped nations in developing faster and easier means of mass production. It has transformed lives of people in many ways over about 250 years. India is also catching up with focussing on Industrial Revolution 4.0. Development of new technologies in this era can help the nations in many ways if these technologies are used effectively for the welfare of mankind.

 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. “Development goals must be pursued without breaching environment regulations”, comment. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the recent natural hazards of the monsoon witnessed in parts of the country – the floods of Brahmaputra valley to konkan coast to Kerala.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail why it is important that development goals must be pursued without breaching environment regulations.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present some data referring to the recent natural hazards that have been witnessed in the country.

Body:

Discuss the importance of environmental regulations – what are they? Why are they important?

Elaborate why there is often a gap between development goals and the regulations explain with example – say for instance the objective of the National Landslide Susceptibility Mapping maps is to help State and district authorities incorporate the risk of landslides into zoning laws. However, just as in the case of earthquake zonation maps, or for that matter, any exercise to scientifically ascertain the risk from natural hazards to a region, these laws are barely implemented in the right spirit.

Highlight the need to address the situation with utmost priority and recognize the importance of it.

Conclusion:

Conclude that there is a cost to pursuing development goals without paying attention to environmental constraints.

Introduction:

The recent landslide in Idukki district of Kerala has claimed more than 30 lives thus far and rendered several families homeless. This was a result of incessant rains leading to flood like situation, 2nd time in a row in last 2 years. Such hazards are increasingly becoming very common in other parts of India, due to the vagaries of climate change. Moreover, the impact of climate change is not limited to landslides, but it also results in devastating floods co-existing along with long dry spells and loss of biodiversity.

Body:

Anthropogenic changes and natural exploitation for economic growth are the major contributors to climate change and its effects. This is due to the underlying thought that development policies promote economic well-being, while environmental policies have been seen to be restricting it.

Environmental disasters in the recent past:

  • Landslips or landslides have been a recurrent phenomenon in the Western Ghat state of Kerala.
  • Data from the Geological Survey of India shows that Kerala has experienced 67 major landslide events and several minor ones from 1961-2013.
  • In 2019, Wayanad district witnessed multiple landslides that claimed several lives and destroyed multiple hamlets.
  • The National Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (NLSM) programme of the Geological Survey of India notes that nearly 13 of the State’s 14 districts are prone to landslides.
  • As part of a National Landslide Susceptibility Mapping (NLSM) programme, the Geological Survey of India mapped States facing high landslide risk to assess the vulnerability of the districts to landslides.
  • This included states in the Western Ghats, the north-eastern States, Jammu and Kashmir and Uttarakhand

Developmental goals are breaching the environmental sustainability:

  • Neglect of environmental principles is a key reason why natural hazards end up causing a significant number of avoidable casualties.
  • Any exercise to scientifically ascertain the risk from natural hazards to a region are barely implemented in the right spirit.
  • Unregulated quarrying and the unscientific cutting of slopes into hills aggravates the risk of soil erosion and subsequently increases the risk of landslides.
  • In pursuit of providing welfare to vulnerable sections of society, the government has provided a bulk of subsidies.
  • However, subsidised nature of services like energy and electricity leads to their overuse and undermines environmental sustainability.
  • Further, subsidies also undermine the revenue base and limit the government’s capacity to invest in new, cleaner technologies.
  • Access to natural resources is entirely open and no individual user bears the full cost of environmental degradation and resources are consequently overused.
  • Increasing population tends to exacerbate the linkages between underdevelopment and environmental degradation.
  • Further, poverty generates significant incentives to raise large families and stimulate migrations, which makes urban areas environmentally unsustainable.
  • Both outcomes increase pressure on resources and consequently worsen environmental quality, diminish productivity and reinforce poverty.

Measures needed:

  • Role of Enterprises:
    • Production systems must become sustainable.
    • Switching from non-renewable to renewable sources of energy and materials targetting cleaner production.
    • Improving energy efficiency in industry is one of the most cost-effective measure.
    • Maximising recycling and reuse of wastes.
    • Industries across sectors must come together on a common platform to address the issues concerning economic development and environment protection.
    • Market-based instruments such as pollution tax and tradable pollution permits must be carried out.
  • Role of Government:
    • Policies need to be simplified to create an ecosystem for new sustainable businesses to flourish.
    • Economic policies such as rationalization of price subsidies, the clarification of property rights, facilitation of technology transfer may help in achieving environmental sustainability.
    • ICT can help drive socio-economic achievements via e-health, e-government services and smart grids for utilities.
    • Good environmental governance which limits exploitation of natural resources to sustainable levels.
    • Our policy should not be based on the “pollute-first; clean-up-later” approach.
    • We need to strengthen participatory processes such as public hearings in the environmental and forest clearance process.
    • Developing and reporting measures of human well-being other than GDP that better account for environmental and social costs of resource use.
    • The Green GDP is a step forward for India if it wishes to account for true economic growth and its holistic wealth.
    • Strict environmental regulation may reduce environmental damage significantly.
    • India should work with foreign governments and global organizations to find ways of subsidizing clean fuel and cleaning our rivers and aquifers.
    • Regions and countries can benefit from the knowledge of indigenous people and their understanding of large ecosystems.
    • Thus, Governance, including customary institutions and management systems should involve indigenous peoples and local communities to safeguard nature and understand climate change.
    • The linkage of biodiversity and environmental sustainability highlights the critical need to integrate biodiversity considerations in global decision-making.

Conclusion:

Development remains the greatest pursuit as well as a challenge, faced by humanity. However, despite the unprecedented economic and social progress that has been made over the last century, poverty, famine and environmental degradation still persist on a global scale. Moreover, environmental deterioration and climate change have started to show irrevocable damages to the developmental progress made so far. Thus, development goals must be pursued without breaching environment regulations.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. “Science and technology are a complement to human instinct and intuition, not an alternative”, do you agree? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the importance of human instinct and intuition in the age of science and technology.

Key Demand of the question:

The answer demands a balanced opinion of how human instincts and intuition are equally important to science and technology.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by suggesting how world has today moved way ahead in terms of development of science and technology.

Body:

Expand the meaning of the statement in question – “Science and technology are a complement to human instinct and intuition, not an alternative”. Discuss how sci and tech complement human instincts and intuitions. Use examples such as that of the current Covid-19 pandemic. Explain why it is importance and very relevant to recognise the role of human intelligence.

Take hints from the article and substantiate your answer with suitable examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Reconciliation is the act of bringing people together to be friendly again or coming to an agreement. Forgiveness is internal and makes reconciliation possible, but not inevitable. Reconciliation is interpersonal and involves rebuilding trust in a relationship where trust has been damaged. An example of reconciliation is two siblings who mend their relationship after a period of fighting. Under Mandela’s stewardship South Africa initiated the project of reconciling with the past rather than retributive justice.

Body:

Significance of reconciliation as a key virtue:

  • Reconciliation refers to the restoration of fractured relationships by overcoming grief, pain, and anger.
  • It is, as Karen Broenus has written, “a societal process that involves mutual acknowledgment of past suffering and the changing of destructive attitudes and behavior into constructive relationships toward sustainable peace.”
  • Forgiveness and reconciliation can occur in every sphere of human experience, including individual, community, national, and trans-national levels.
  • Reconciliation can also involve the reframing of identity.
  • Reconciliation can bring new insights.
  • Reconciliation can help transform attitudes.
  • Reconciliation can help repair broken relationships.
  • Reconciliation can help break the cycle of violence.
  • It can be an important part of any peace-building process, and sometimes the only thing that can help divided communities move toward reconciliation.
  • The process of reconciliation was set in place in South Africa under the leadership of Mandela, and guided by the same principles that he had expressed publicly, his earnest desire and his determination that South Africa belonged to all irrespective of race and class. The transition from apartheid to democracy was largely peaceful in as much as there was no open civil war or large-scale bloodshed as international commentators had forecast.
  • In a similar matter, reconciliation must involve actively rebuilding relationships by creating opportunities for people to engage with each other through spaces, activities, and enterprises.
  • Reconciliation often builds on grassroots initiatives, such as theatre, music, and sport, so that barriers between people can be addressed and broken down.
  • Other examples might include initiatives such as workshops that promote psychological healing, perhaps offering safe spaces for narrative sharing and storytelling; or social projects that bring together individuals from diverse groups and communities.
  • By so working to effect social change, people also learn to respect each other and to coexist peacefully.

Conclusion:

At the core of the concept of reconciliation is the centrality of human rights, what should not be done to people, and what should be done for them. Reconciliation does not provide comprehensive solutions to the problems of the past; it seeks to change attitudes to historical injustice. Forgiveness may not be a key issue in reconciliation, it is more important to accept that wrong has been done, that the wrongdoer has accepted his crime, and that societies should now carry on.


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