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Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)

Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

Why in News?

Over 10 individuals belonging the Great Andamanese tribe, a notified Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG), with a population of just 56 individuals tested positive for COVID.

  • The island administration has since ramped up testing among the Onge, Little Andamanese and the Great Andamanese and the Jarawas.

About ‘Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)’:

PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.

  • They have declining or stagnant population, low level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
  • They generally inhabit remote localities having poor infrastructure and administrative support.


In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.

  • In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).
  • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).

In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as PVTGs.

Scheme for development of PVTGs:

The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.

  • Under the scheme, Conservation-cum-Development (CCD)/Annual Plans are to be prepared by each State/UT for their PVTGs based on their need assessment, which are then appraised and approved by the Project Appraisal Committee of the Ministry.
  • Priority is also assigned to PVTGs under the schemes of Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Tribal Sub-Scheme (TSS), Grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution, Grants-in-aid to Voluntary Organisations working for the welfare of Schedule Tribes and Strengthening of Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts.

The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:

  1. A pre-agriculture level of technology.
  2. A stagnant or declining population.
  3. Extremely low literacy.
  4. A subsistence level of economy.


Prelims Link:

  1. PVTGs in India.
  2. State with highest number of PVTGs.
  3. Article 275(1) of the Constitution is related to?
  4. Overview of the Scheme for development of PVTGs.
  5. Criteria followed for determination of PVTGs.
  6. PVTGs found in A&N Islands.

Mains Link:

Who are PVTGs? Discuss the issues related to their protection and statutory rights given to them.

Sources: pib.