Print Friendly, PDF & Email


InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.

current affairs, current events, current gk, insights ias current affairs, upsc ias current affairs

GS Paper 1:

1. Onam


GS Paper 2:

1. Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs).

2. National Register of Citizens (NRC).

3. National Population Register (NPR).

4. UN’s guidelines on access to social justice for people with disabilities.


GS Paper 3:

1. Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana.

2. RORO service of South Western Railway.


Facts for Prelims:

1. Noor Inayat Khan.

2. National Sports Awards.

3. What is an ‘Armageddon’ in chess?

4. Kandhamal Haladi.

5. Doklam and Naku La.

6. Channapatna Toys.


GS Paper  : 1


Topics Covered: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


Onam is celebrated at the beginning of the month of Chingam, the first month of the solar Malayalam calendar (Kollavarsham). It falls in August or September each year.

  • The festival is spread over 10 days and culminates with Thiruvonam, the most important day.


About the festival:

According to a popular legend, the festival is celebrated to welcome King Mahabali, whose spirit is said to visit Kerala at the time of Onam.

It is also celebrated as the festival of paddy harvest.

How is it celebrated?

During the festival, people get dressed in their traditional attire, prepare the Onam Sadhya and take part in a variety of group activities such as the Pookolam (rangoli made with fresh flowers), Vallam Kali (boat race), Pulikali (tiger dance), Kai Kottu Kali (Onam dance), Kummattikali (mask dance) and various other activities.


Prelims Link:

Harvest festivals celebrated in various parts of the country.

Overview of:

1. Pulikali.

2. Vallam Kali.

3. Kummattikali.

4.Kai Kottu Kali.

Sources: pib.


GS Paper  : 2


Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

Why in News?

Over 10 individuals belonging the Great Andamanese tribe, a notified Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Group (PVTG), with a population of just 56 individuals tested positive for COVID.

  • The island administration has since ramped up testing among the Onge, Little Andamanese and the Great Andamanese and the Jarawas.

About ‘Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)’:

PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.

  • They have declining or stagnant population, low level of literacy, pre-agricultural level of technology and are economically backward.
  • They generally inhabit remote localities having poor infrastructure and administrative support.


In 1973, the Dhebar Commission created Primitive Tribal Groups (PTGs) as a separate category, who are less developed among the tribal groups.

  • In 1975, the Government of India initiated to identify the most vulnerable tribal groups as a separate category called PVTGs and declared 52 such groups, while in 1993 an additional 23 groups were added to the category, making it a total of 75 PVTGs, spread over 18 states and one Union Territory (A&N Islands) in the country (2011 census).
  • Among the 75 listed PVTG’s the highest number are found in Odisha (13), followed by Andhra Pradesh (12).

In 2006, the Government of India renamed the PTGs as PVTGs.

Scheme for development of PVTGs:

The Ministry of Tribal Affairs implements the Scheme of “Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs)” exclusively for them.

  • Under the scheme, Conservation-cum-Development (CCD)/Annual Plans are to be prepared by each State/UT for their PVTGs based on their need assessment, which are then appraised and approved by the Project Appraisal Committee of the Ministry.
  • Priority is also assigned to PVTGs under the schemes of Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Tribal Sub-Scheme (TSS), Grants under Article 275(1) of the Constitution, Grants-in-aid to Voluntary Organisations working for the welfare of Schedule Tribes and Strengthening of Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts.

The criteria followed for determination of PVTGs are as under:

  1. A pre-agriculture level of technology.
  2. A stagnant or declining population.
  3. Extremely low literacy.
  4. A subsistence level of economy.


Prelims Link:

  1. PVTGs in India.
  2. State with highest number of PVTGs.
  3. Article 275(1) of the Constitution is related to?
  4. Overview of the Scheme for development of PVTGs.
  5. Criteria followed for determination of PVTGs.
  6. PVTGs found in A&N Islands.

Mains Link:

Who are PVTGs? Discuss the issues related to their protection and statutory rights given to them.

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

National Register of Citizens (NRC):


The final list of Assam’s updated National Register of Citizens (NRC) was published on August 31 last year.

But a year since that date, the process hasn’t moved forward much.

  • The 19 lakh applicants (of the total 3.30 crore) who were left out of the list have not been able to file appeals as they are yet to get rejection slips needed to do so.

Reasons for the delay:

The ongoing COVID-19 crisis and the floods in between.

What are rejection slips?

The rejection slips are required for those left out of the NRC to file appeals in the foreigners’ tribunals (FTs), a quasi-judicial body that decides the fate of those declared suspected foreigners.

  • These slips will mention reasons for exclusion of an applicant’s name.
  • The state NRC office has to issue to rejection slips.

What is NRC?

The NRC is the list of Indian citizens and was prepared in 1951, following the census of 1951.

  • The process of NRC update was taken up in Assam as per a Supreme Court order in 2013.
  • In order to wean out cases of illegal migration from Bangladesh and other adjoining areas, NRC updation was carried out under The Citizenship Act, 1955, and according to rules framed in the Assam Accord.


Prelims Link:

  1. Relation between Census and NPR.
  2. NPR vs NRC.
  3. How NRC is related to Assam accord.
  4. Constitutional provisions wrt to grant and revocation of citizenships.
  5. Who carries out Census?
  6. What are rejection slips? Who issues them?
  7. Composition and functions of Foreigners’ Tribunals.

Mains Link:

Discuss why a nationwide NRC exercise may not be feasible.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

National Population Register (NPR):


The first phase of the Census and the exercise to update the National Population Register (NPR), scheduled for this year but deferred due to the coronavirus outbreak, may be delayed by a year as there is no sign of slowdown of the pandemic.

What is National Population Register (NPR)?

It is a Register of usual residents of the country.

  • It is being prepared at the local (Village/sub-Town), sub-District, District, State and National level under provisions of the Citizenship Act 1955 and the Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003.
  • It is mandatory for every usual resident of India to register in the NPR.

Objectives: To create a comprehensive identity database of every usual resident in the country.

Who is a usual resident?

A usual resident is defined for the purposes of NPR as a person who has resided in a local area for the past 6 months or more or a person who intends to reside in that area for the next 6 months or more.

What is the controversy around it?

  • Comes in the backdrop of the NRC excluding lakhs of people in Assam.
  • It intends to collect a much larger amount of personal data on residents of India.
  • There is yet no clarity on the mechanism for protection of this vast amount of data.



Prelims Link:

  1. Constitutional provisions related to Citizenship.
  2. Components of NPR data.
  3. Who is an usual resident?
  4. Who prepares NPR?
  5. How can a person acquire Indian citizenship?
  6. Can an Indian citizen hold dual citizenship? 

Mains Link:

Why are states opposed to the collection of data under NPR. Discuss.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

UN’s guidelines on access to social justice for people with disabilities:


The United Nations has released its first-ever guidelines on access to social justice for people with disabilities to make it easier for them to access justice systems around the world.

  • The guidelines outline a set of 10 principles and detail the steps for implementation.

The 10 principles are:

  1. Principle 1 All persons with disabilities have legal capacity and, therefore, no one shall be denied access to justice on the basis of disability.
  2. Principle 2 Facilities and services must be universally accessible to ensure equal access to justice without discrimination of persons with disabilities.
  3. Principle 3 Persons with disabilities, including children with disabilities, have the right to appropriate procedural accommodations.
  4. Principle 4 Persons with disabilities have the right to access legal notices and information in a timely and accessible manner on an equal basis with others.
  5. Principle 5 Persons with disabilities are entitled to all substantive and procedural safeguards recognized in international law on an equal basis with others, and States must provide the necessary accommodations to guarantee due process.
  6. Principle 6 Persons with disabilities have the right to free or affordable legal assistance.
  7. Principle 7 Persons with disabilities have the right to participate in the administration of justice on an equal basis with others.
  8. Principle 8 Persons with disabilities have the rights to report complaints and initiate legal proceedings concerning human rights violations and crimes, have their complaints investigated and be afforded effective remedies.
  9. Principle 9 Effective and robust monitoring mechanisms play a critical role in supporting access to justice for persons with disabilities.
  10. Principle 10 All those working in the justice system must be provided with awareness-raising and training programmes addressing the rights of persons with disabilities, in particular in the context of access to justice.

How does the UN define a person with a disability?

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities was adopted in 2007 as the first major instrument of human rights in the 21st century.

  • It defines persons with disabilities as those “who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others”.

What does discrimination on the basis of disability mean?

Discrimination on the basis of disability’ means any distinction, exclusion or restriction on the basis of disability which has the purpose or effect of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal basis with others, of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. It includes all forms of discrimination, including denial of reasonable accommodation.

How many people are disabled in India?

As per statistics maintained by the UN, in India 2.4 per cent of males are disabled and two per cent of females from all age groups are disabled.

  • Disabilities include psychological impairment, intellectual impairment, speaking, multiple impairments, hearing, seeing among others.
  • In comparison, the disability prevalence in the US is 12.9 per cent among females and 12.7 per cent among males. Disability prevalence in the UK is at 22.7 per cent among females and 18.7 per cent among males.

Sources: Indian Express.


GS Paper  : 3


Topics Covered: Inclusive growth and issues arising from it.

Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana:

Why in News?

Completes six years of successful implementation.

  • The number of total PMJDY accounts stand at 40.35 crore.
  • Rural PMJDY accounts stand at 63.6 percent.
  • Women PMJDY accounts stand at 55.2 percent.

About PMJDY:

Announced on 15th August 2014, PMJDY is National Mission for Financial Inclusion to ensure access to financial services, namely, Banking/ Savings & Deposit Accounts, Remittance, Credit, Insurance, Pension in an affordable manner.


  • To ensure access of financial products & services at an affordable cost.
  • Use of technology to lower cost & widen reach.

Basic tenets of the scheme:

  1. Banking the unbanked – Opening of basic savings bank deposit (BSBD) account with minimal paperwork, relaxed KYC, e-KYC, account opening in camp mode, zero balance & zero charges.
  2. Securing the unsecured – Issuance of Indigenous Debit cards for cash withdrawals & payments at merchant locations, with free accident insurance coverage of Rs. 2 lakhs.
  3. Funding the unfunded – Other financial products like micro-insurance, overdraft for consumption, micro-pension & micro-credit.

The scheme is Based upon the following 6 pillars:

  1. Universal access to banking services – Branch and Banking Correspondents.
  2. Basic savings bank accounts with overdraft facility (OD) of Rs. 10,000/- to every household.
  3. Financial Literacy Program– Promoting savings, use of ATMs, getting ready for credit, availing insurance and pensions, using basic mobile phones for banking.
  4. Creation of Credit Guarantee Fund – To provide banks some guarantee against defaults.
  5. Insurance – Accident cover up to Rs. 1,00,000 and life cover of 30,000 on account opened between 15 Aug 2014 to 31 January 2015.
  6. Pension scheme for Unorganized sector.

Extension of PMJDY with New features:

  1. Focus shift from Every Household to Every Unbanked Adult.
  2. RuPay Card Insurance – Free accidental insurance cover on RuPay cards increased from Rs. 1 lakh to Rs. 2 lakhs for PMJDY accounts opened after 28.8.2018.
  3. Enhancement in overdraft facilities – OD limit doubled from Rs 5,000 to Rs 10,000; OD upto Rs 2,000 (without conditions). Increase in upper age limit for OD from 60 to 65 years.



Prelims Link:

1. When was Jan Dhan Scheme launched?

2. Eligibility 

3. Overdraft facility under the scheme.

4. Accidental insurance cover under the scheme.

5. Various components of the scheme.

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana.

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: Infrastructure- Railways.

RORO service of South Western Railway:


First ever RORO service of South Western Railway from Nelamangla (near Bengaluru) to Bale (near Solapur) has been started.

  • This shall be the only privately operated RORO train services on Indian Railways.

What is RORO?

Roll On Roll Off (RORO) is a concept of carrying road vehicles loaded with various commodities, on open flat railway wagons.

  • RORO services are combination of best features of road and rail transports in the sense that they offer door to door service with minimal handling transported by fat and direct rail link.

Advantages of RO-RO:

  • Faster movement of goods and essentials, reducing Time taken by trucks to reach destinations due to traffic congestion in between cities.
  • Reduces congestion on the roads.
  • Saves precious fuel.
  • Reduces carbon footprint.
  • Relief to crew of truck as it avoids long distance driving.
  • No hassles of check posts/toll gates etc.
  • Seamless Inter-operability between roadways & railways-Inter-modal transport on existing track.
  • Ensuring uninterrupted supply of essential commodities.


RO-RO train services were first introduced in Indian Railways on Konkan Railways in 1999, and are running successfully since then.



Prelims Link:

  1. What is RORO?
  2. First ever RORO service of South Western Railway was recently started between?
  3. The only privately operated RORO train services on Indian Railways?
  4. RO-RO train services were first introduced in Indian Railways on?

Mains Link:

Discuss the advantages of RORO facility.

Sources: pib.


Facts for Prelims

Noor Inayat Khan:

  • She was Britain’s World War II spy.
  • She became the first Indian-origin woman to be honoured with a memorial Blue Plaque in central London recently.

While Khan is the first woman of Indian origin to be honoured with a blue plague, it has been erected on houses and venues associated with several Indian men including Mahatma Gandhi, Raja Ram Mohon Roy, and B R Ambedkar.

What is the Blue Plaque scheme?

  • It is run by English Heritage charity.
  • It honours notable people and organisations connected with particular buildings across London.

National Sports Awards:


President Kovind honours record 74 Indians with National Sports Awards.

About the Awards:

They are given every year to recognize and reward excellence in sports:

  1. Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award is given for the spectacular and most outstanding performance in the field of sports by a sportsperson over a period of four years;
  2. Arjuna Award is given for consistent outstanding performance for four years;
  3. Dronacharya Award goes to the coaches for producing medal winners at prestigious international sports events;
  4. Dhyan Chand Award is for life time contribution to sports development.
  5. Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puruskar is given to the corporate entities (both in private and public sector) and individuals who have played a visible role in the area of sports promotion and development.
  6. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Trophy is for the Overall top performing university in inter-university tournaments.
  7. Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Award is for recognition of adventure among the people of the country.

National Pharmaceuticals Pricing Authority:


Foundation day of NPPA was recently observed.

About NPPA:

  • NPPA was set-up as an independent Regulator on 29th August, 1997 for pricing of drugs and to ensure availability and accessibility of medicines at affordable prices.
  • The regulator is an attached office of the Department of Pharmaceuticals (DoP), Ministry of Chemicals & Fertilizers.

The functions of NPPA include fixation and revision of prices of Scheduled drugs under Drug (Price Control) Orders issued from time to time, as well as monitoring and enforcement of prices and ensuring availability and accessibility of all medicines and medical devices, including non scheduled drugs.

What is an ‘Armageddon’ in chess?

It’s similar to a Super Over in cricket or a penalty shootout in hockey or football.

  • In an Armageddon game White has more thinking time on the clock than Black but a draw on the board scores as a Black win. Normally White has five or six minutes and Black four or five for the entire game.
  • Black, considered at a disadvantage, is given a minute less to process the game and the handicap effectively puts the onus of a win on White.

Odisha’s Kandhamal Haladi:

  • It has a GI tag.
  • It is a pure organic product.
  • Tribals grow the tuber without applying fertiliser or pesticide.

Why in News?

Despite a GI tag, the lockdown has meant meagre sales of the organic tuber.

Doklam and Naku La:

Why in News?

China has been developing two air defence positions that will cover the 2017 Doklam stand-off area and also Naku La in Sikkim.

Key facts:

Naku La sector is a pass at a height of more than 5,000 metres above Mean Sea Level (MSL) in the state of Sikkim. It is located ahead of Muguthang or Cho Lhamu (source of River Teesta).

Doklam (or Zhonglan or Donglong): It is an area with a plateau and a valley which lies on the Bhutan-China border, near India. It is located between Tibet’s Chumbi valley to the North, Bhutan’s Ha valley to the East and India’s Sikkim state to the West.


Channapatna Toys:

Channapatna toys are a particular form of wooden toys (and dolls) that are manufactured in the town of Channapatna in the Ramanagara district of Karnataka state.

  • This traditional craft is protected as geographical indication(GI).
  • As a result of the popularity of these toys, Channapatna is known as Gombegala Ooru (toy-town) of Karnataka.

Why in News?

COVID-19 pandemic has dealt a crippling blow to the industry. It has forced many workers to scout for sundry jobs for survival.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos