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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 20 August 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity

1. Having invented the principle of institutional integrity, has the Supreme court of India applied it uniformly to cases across political dispensations? Give your opinion with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: The Wire 

Why the question:

The article explains in what way the Supreme Court must not be in contempt of its noble position in the Constitution of India.

Key Demand of the question:

The question aims to analyse whether Supreme Court of India applied the principle of institutional integrity uniformly to cases across political dispensations or not.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining what you understand by the principle of institutional integrity.

Body:

Such questions are better explained with series of examples demonstrating the context of the question.

Explain that the top court has both saved and failed India in the seventy years of its existence. Without the top court’s rulings on basic structure doctrine, its purposive reading of fundamental rights and its strict judicial review of scores of illicit executive actions and invalid laws passed by legislatures, India would have been a different country. The top court has played the role of sentinel of Indian democracy on multiple occasions.

But the court has also failed this nation at some of its darkest moments. The era of the Emergency was one such juncture when many judges of the top court betrayed the soul of the Indian constitution.

Quote recent incidences where the principle has been compromised.

Suggest what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with fair and balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Integrity refers to ‘principled behaviour’. the integrity of institutions or institutional integrity refers to the integrity on the level of an organisation, or even an entire public administration system, where integrity is defined as the correct functioning of the institution and fitness for purpose, its coherence and being perceived as legitimate. Guiding, nurturing and developing Indian democracy has been the Supreme Court’s true metier. The apex court has had a unique role in shaping the destiny of this nation.

Body:

The Judiciary in India is undoubtedly the most respected organ of Government in India. The soul and heart of this respect comes from the integrity of the Courts and their relative independence from the executive and the legislature. There are few defining moments in the history of the judiciary when judges have put their neck on the line to stand up for institutional integrity.

The Supreme Court became the keeper of integrity and the public interest as seen through many of its rulings and verdicts.  The top court has both saved and failed India in the seventy years of its existence. Without the top court’s rulings on basic structure doctrine, its purposive reading of fundamental rights and its strict judicial review of scores of illicit executive actions and invalid laws passed by legislatures, India would have been a different country. The top court has played the role of sentinel of Indian democracy on multiple occasions.

  • Justice S.H. Kapadia, as CJI, read the order annulling the appointment of P.V. Thomas as chief vigilance commissioner, on March 11, 2011.
  • The apex court decisions – especially the order on cancellation of 2G and then coal licenses – stripped the UPA of its political legitimacy.
  • The top court not only cancelled the 2G licenses, it also dictated the new telecom policy when it asked the government to auction all the telecom spectrum henceforth.

Some may argue that the court went overboard, even stepped into the province of the executive. However, they were the need of the hour given the weak executive.

But the court has also failed this nation at some of its darkest moments.

  • The era of the Emergency was one such juncture when many judges of the top court betrayed the soul of the Indian constitution.
  • the top court watched silently even as the criminal cases in fake encounters whose investigation the court itself had supervised over many years collapsed at the very threshold, at the stage of framing of charges itself.
  • The court also dismissed the petition asking for a probe into the mysterious death of Judge B.H. Loya who was presiding over the Sohrabuddin-Kausar Bi-Tulsiram Prajapati extrajudicial killings in which a top cabinet minister happened to be a key accused.
  • The habeas corpus petitions filed by the political detainees of Kashmir, the challenge to the Citizenship (Amendment) Act and electoral bonds, the petition challenging the revocation of Article 370 of the constitution have all been all lying in the dockets of the top court, waiting with a fading hope for their judicial assessment.

Way forward:

  • The judiciary must attend to urgent cases.
  • It should restrict the practice of sealed envelopes except in the rarest cases.
  • There should be independence in appointments
  • There is a need set a benchmark on issues related to rights

Conclusion:

The court must remember that these and more questions will be probed and reckoned with by history. And if they are not adequately addressed, the glorious institution of the Supreme Court of India may itself stand in contempt of its noble position in the constitution of India. The institution must live up to its legacy.

 

Topic : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

2. In the light of recent the Supreme Court judgement held that daughters would have equal rights to inherit ancestral property as sons in a Hindu Undivided Family, analyze the Hindu Succession Law and Daughters Rights in India. (250 words)

Reference: r.search.yahoo.com

Why the question:

The article is amidst the recent Supreme Court judgment that upheld daughters would have equal rights to inherit ancestral property as sons in a Hindu Undivided Family.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Key Demand of the question:

One is expected to analyze the Hindu Succession Law and Daughters Rights in India.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Body:

In an important judgement, the Supreme Court recently held that daughters would have equal rights to inherit ancestral property as sons in a Hindu Undivided Family, saying the amendment in law in 2005 would have retrospective effect.

 It said the daughters would have coparcenary rights in joint Hindu family property even if the father died before the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act 2005. A bench of Justices Arun Mishra, S Abdul Nazeer and M R Shah said the provisions contained in substituted Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 conferred the status of coparcener on the daughter born before or after amendment in the same manner as a son with the same rights and liabilities.

Present the features of Hindu Succession Law.

Comment in detail upon the rights of Daughters in India historically and the present the current state.

Conclusion:

Conclude that such judgments bring more justice and gender equity.

Introduction:

The Supreme Court recently held that daughters, like sons, have an equal birthright to inherit joint Hindu family property. The court decided that the amended Hindu Succession Act, which gives daughters equal rights to ancestral property, will have a retrospective effect. It is a significant judgment which aims at ensuring “right of equality” of a daughter in a Hindu Undivided Family. Though the judgment envisages to rectify one of the discriminatory social practices, it would require no less than a behavioral change in the mindset of the Indian society to fulfill the goal of gender parity.

Body:

goal_of_gender_justice

Highlights of Supreme Court ruling recently:

  • It ruled that a Hindu woman’s right to be a joint heir to the ancestral property is by birth and does not depend on whether her father is alive or not.
  • Coparcenary (joint-heirship) is by birth, so the father doesn’t need to be living as on 9th September 2005, when the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act was enacted.
  • The SC expanded and promoted the amendments done in 2005 which removed the discrimination as contained in Section 6 of the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 by giving equal rights to daughters.
  • It also directed High Courts to dispose of cases involving this issue within six months since they would have been pending for years.

Evolution of the law and daughter’s rights in India:

  • Hindu Succession Act, 1956:
    • The Mitakshara school of Hindu law codified as the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 governed succession and inheritance of property but only recognised males as legal heirs.
    • It applied to everyone who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew by religion. Buddhists, Sikhs, Jains and followers of Arya Samaj, Brahmo Samaj, are also considered Hindus for this law.
    • In a Hindu Undivided Family, several legal heirs through generations can exist jointly. Traditionally, only male descendants of a common ancestor along with their mothers, wives and unmarried daughters are considered a joint Hindu family. The legal heirs hold the family property jointly.
  • Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005:
    • The 1956 Act was amended in September 2005 and women were recognised as coparceners for property partitions arising from 2005.
    • The 174th Law Commission Report had recommended the reform in Hindu succession law.
    • Before the 2005 amendment, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu had made this change in the law and Kerala had abolished the Hindu Joint Family System in 1975.
    • Section 6 of the Act was amended to make a daughter of a coparcener also a coparcener by birth “in her own right in the same manner as the son”.
    • It also gave the daughter the same rights and liabilities “in the coparcenary property as she would have had if she had been a son”.
    • The law applies to ancestral property and to intestate succession in personal property, where succession happens as per law and not through a will.

Significance of the ruling:

  • The verdict has cleared the confusion about the law and made it clear that the amendment to the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 granting equal rights to daughters to inherit ancestral property would have retrospective effect.
  • The court recognized that gender cannot be grounds for denying anyone their inheritance rights. This interpretation by the Supreme Court has removed male primacy over Hindu ancestral property.
  • Giving the daughter equal coparcenary rights is in consonance with the spirit of equality, under Article 14 of the Indian constitution.
  • It is a major push for women who lack economic resources and are often marginalised by male members of the family. The fact that a law and not just a will decides women’s property rights is significant.

Conclusion:

Gender justice is far from being reality in India, with several other inequalities of caste, religion and class reinforcing the secondary status of women. Over the years, the expansion of educational and other opportunities has bent social attitudes towards gender justice, making what seemed abhorrently subversive once (the right to divorce, the end of polygamy) a matter of reasonable progress now.

But the judgment is in sync with a larger churn in Indian life, that has seen women extract similar concessions from families and religions, that involves citizens and communities using constitutional promises to push institutions towards change. This ruling is a seal on a substantive change in the Hindu undivided family.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

3. analyze in detail the transparent taxation platform “Transparent Taxation – Honoring the Honest” that was launched recently in the country. (250 words)

 Reference: The Big Picture: Transparent Taxation, Honoring the Honest

Why the question:

Recently Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched a platform for “Transparent Taxation – Honoring the Honest”.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to analyse the significance and relevance of the platform in detail.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present the taxation system in the country.

Body:

The Transparent Taxation Platform:

  • It is aimed at bringing transparency in income tax systems and empowering taxpayers.
  • The main features of the platform are faceless assessment, faceless appeal and taxpayer charter.
  • The faceless assessment and taxpayer charter will come into place immediately from the launch, while the faceless appeal is going to be applicable from 25th September 2020.
  • Faceless Assessment: It aims to eliminate human interface between the taxpayer and the income tax department.
  • There will be no need for the taxpayer to visit the income tax office or the officer.
  • The selection of a taxpayer is possible through systems using analytics and Artificial Intelligence.
  • Faceless Appeal: Under the system, appeals will be randomly allotted to any officer in the country. The identity of the officer deciding the appeal will remain unknown.
  • Taxpayer Charter: This outlines the rights and responsibilities of both tax officers and taxpayers.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

The Prime Minister of India recently launched the ‘Transparent Taxation – Honouring The Honest’ platform to honour the honest taxpayers of the country. It has been launched to meet the requirements of the 21st century taxation system by further digitise the Income Tax Department’s functioning. The platform has major reforms like Faceless Assessment, Faceless Appeal and Taxpayers Charter. The platform seeks to “reform and simplify our tax system.”

Body:

Key highlights of the Transparent Taxation platform:

  • Faceless Assessment: It aims to eliminate human interface between the taxpayer and the income tax department.
  • There will be no need for the taxpayer to visit the income tax office or the officer.
  • The selection of a taxpayer is possible through systems using analytics and Artificial Intelligence.
  • Faceless Appeal: Under the system, appeals will be randomly allotted to any officer in the country. The identity of the officer deciding the appeal will remain unknown.
  • Taxpayer Charter: This outlines the rights and responsibilities of both tax officers and taxpayers.
  • The faceless assessment and taxpayer charter will come into place immediately from the launch, while the faceless appeal is going to be applicable from 25th September 2020.

Need for such initiatives:

  • The number of taxpayers is significantly low with only 1.5 Crore paying taxes in a country of 130 Crore people. Therefore, it’s time for people to introspect and come forward to pay Income taxes due on them to build an Aatmanirbhar Bharat.
  • In the previous system, income-tax notices had become an instrument for harassing taxpayers. It could not help expand the taxpayer base and rather created conditions for the business of “black and white” [money] to flourish.
  • Besides, the country’s tax structure needed fundamental reforms as the earlier tax structure was developed from the one created during pre-independent times.
  • Even the several changes made during the post-independent times did not alter its fundamental character. Thus, the complexity of the earlier system made it difficult to conform.

Significance of the platform:

  • Honest taxpayers of the country play a big role in nation-building. When the life of an honest taxpayer becomes easy then the country also develops. Therefore, the tax system should be seamless, painless and faceless.
  • The new facilities launched are a part of the Government’s resolve to provide maximum governance with minimum government.
  • The assessment system seeks to eliminate corrupt practices by doing away with the territorial jurisdiction of income-tax offices.
  • With the help of technology, the cases of scrutiny will now be allocated randomly to any official in any part of the country and the document identification numbers will be issued from the central database.
  • It pushes the e-governance further while bringing better transparency in taxation, in line with Government’s aim of Digital India.
  • The move is part of several tax reforms initiated by the Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT).
  • The board last year slashed the corporate tax from 30% to 22% and for new manufacturing units the rates were reduced to 15%. Dividend distribution Tax was also abolished.

Conclusion:

The government now had adopted a people centric approach towards making laws, rules and policies. These reforms are likely to empower citizens by ensuring time-bound services by the Income Tax Department.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

4. Current covid-19 crisis has exposed limitations of central banking framework in the county. Analyze the statement. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The current article presents to us in what way current crisis has exposed limitations of central banking framework.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail how current covid-19 crisis has exposed limitations of central banking framework in the county.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present the context of the question.

Body:

Over the past few months, the Reserve Bank of India, along with the monetary policy committee, has undertaken a slew of measures to arrest the economic slowdown, and address the fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Yet, their actions, guided by multiple considerations — inflation and growth management, debt management and currency management — have inadvertently exposed the limitations of and the inherent contradictions in the central banking framework in India.

Explain what the central bank must do.

Take hints from the article and explain what are the options available to the Bank.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Reserve Bank of India, along with the monetary policy committee, in the recent months has undertaken a slew of measures to arrest the economic slowdown, and address the fallout of the COVID-19 pandemic. Yet, their actions, guided by multiple considerations — inflation and growth management, debt management and currency management — have inadvertently exposed the limitations of and the inherent contradictions in the central banking framework in India.

Body:

Limitations of central banking framework in the country:

  • Growth-inflation conundrum:
    • The MPC is guided by the goal of maintaining inflation at 4 plus/minus 2 per cent.
    • Since February 2019, the MPC has, and rightly so, attached primacy to reviving growth, lowering the benchmark repo rate by 250 basis points.
    • However, in its August policy, despite dire growth prospects, it chose to maintain the status quo.
    • This decision was driven, in part, by elevated inflation which continues to average above the upper threshold of the inflation targeting framework.
  • Rise in inflation:
    • In large part, the current rise in inflation (CPI had fallen from January to March) is driven by supply-chain dislocations owing to the lockdowns.
    • This is evident from the growing disconnect between the wholesale and consumer price index.
    • Since April, while WPI has been in negative territory.
    • CPI has been elevated, indicating, excess supply/low demand at the producer/wholesale level but excess demand/low supply at the retail/consumer level, suggestive of dislocations in the intermediate supply chain.
    • Accepting this implies that the spurt in retail inflation will be temporary, and it will begin to trend lower as these disruptions ebb.
    • Monetary policy is supposed to be forward looking.
  • The current crisis has also brought to the fore the inherent contradictions between the MPC’s operations, and the RBI’s debt and currency management functions, pointing towards a larger structural challenge.
  • the RBI’s interventions in the currency market — intervening in order to prevent the rupee from appreciating — have constrained its ability to carry out open market operations as these would have led to further liquidity injections into the system.
  • Put differently, its debt management functions have run up against its currency management functions.

Way forward:

  • The central bank must develop a clear strategy on what to do.
  • Expanding the range of policy levers: Though RBI is legally bound to an inflation target, there is a strong argument to look past the current spurt in inflation, and test the limits of both conventional and unconventional monetary policy.
  • Given the slowdown in the economy and that the transmission of rate cuts takes time, there is the need for a further Monetary policy easing. The Monetary policy needs to be forward looking.
  • This will also be helpful as uncertainty remains over whether Covid having a deflationary or inflationary impact on the Indian economy in the medium term.

 

Topic: Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. what do you understand by vertical farming? Discuss its possible prospects in our country. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article talks about Vertical farming.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of vertical farming, its prospects in the country.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what Vertical farming is.

Body:

In vertical farming, crops are grown indoors, under artificial conditions of light and temperature.

Crops are grown indoors, under artificial conditions of light and temperature. It aims at higher productivity in smaller spaces. It uses soil-less methods such as hydroponics, aquaponics and aeroponics.

Vertical farming uses significantly less water and pesticides than traditional agricultural methods. Being indoors, the crops aren’t subject to seasons and hence give high productivity year-round. Lettuces, tomatoes and green crops can be produced through this practice.

Discuss the prospects of it in India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

Vertical farming is cultivating and producing crops/ plants in vertically stacked layers and vertically inclined surfaces.  It is the practice of producing food in vertically stacked layers, such as in a skyscraper, used warehouse, or shipping container. The modern ideas of vertical farming use indoor farming techniques and controlled-environment agriculture (CEA) technology, where all environmental factors can be controlled. These facilities utilize artificial control of light, environmental control (humidity, temperature, gases) and fertigation. Some vertical farms use techniques similar to greenhouses, where natural sunlight can be augmented with artificial lighting and metal reflectors.

Body:

Need for vertical farming:

  • The entire world is on the verge of population explosion and there is a gravest challenge of feeding the population.
  • The population explosion has led to the decreased per capita land.
  • Earlier with the aim of supplying the food to ever increasing population agricultural scientist stretched their innovative approaches to the tune of developing hybrid/ improved high yielding varieties, improved techniques, improved tools and implements, integrated practices in water, nutrient management and insect, pest management, greenhouse technology and even the genetically modified crops.
  • All these efforts once were revolutionary, now sound inadequate

Working of vertical farming:

  • There are four critical areas in understanding how vertical farming works: 1. Physical layout, 2. Lighting, 3. Growing medium, and 4. Sustainability features.
  • Firstly, the primary goal of vertical farming is producing more foods per square meter. To accomplish this goal, crops are cultivated in stacked layers in a tower life structure.
  • Secondly, a perfect combination of natural and artificial lights is used to maintain the perfect light level in the room. Technologies such as rotating beds are used to improve lighting efficiency.
  • Thirdly, instead of soil, aeroponic, aquaponic or hydroponic growing mediums are used. Peat moss or coconut husks and similar non-soil mediums are very common in vertical farming.
  • Finally, the vertical farming method uses various sustainability features to offset the energy cost of farming. In fact, vertical farming uses 95 percent less water.

Prospects of vertical farming in India:

  • India is one of the largest producer of vegetables, fruits and many other agricultural commodities.
  • In India, vertical farming has been introduced.
  • ICAR experts are working on the concept of ‘vertical farming’ in soil-less conditions, in which food crops can be grown even on multi-storeyed buildings in metros like New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai without using soil or pesticides.
  • Scientists at the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya in Nadia have already had initial success in working on vertical farming hydroponically on a small scale.
  • Small-scale adaptations of vertical farming have been seen in Nadia, West Bengal and in Punjab.
  • Bidhan Chandra Krishi Vishwavidhalaya in Nadia has found initial success in growing brinjal and tomato.
  • Punjab also has succeeded in producing potato tubers through vertical farming.
  • Ideafarms, an Indian design-in-tech company is producing Vertical farms grow and is preferred because their food is organic, of high quality and the supply is predictable.
  • A Bengaluru based startup Greenopiais selling kits with smart self-watering pots, enriched soil and the right seeds. The sensor-embedded pots replenish moisture in the soil on a need basis, and notify you when you need to refill water externally.
  • A Mumbai-based start-up firm U-Farm Technologies is using hydroponic gardening technique to customise modular farm for an individual apartment complex or for a supermarket.
  • More and more number of start-ups in vertical farming are coming up in India

Conclusion:

Vertical farming is definitely a solution to critical problems in Indian farming like lack of supply   or   oversupply   of   farm   produce, overuse   of   pesticides, overuse   of   fertilizers, deteriorating soils and even the employability.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6.Discuss the relevance of Buddha’s ethical teachings in contemporary world. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the premise of the teachings of Buddha.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the relevance of Buddha’s ethical teachings in contemporary world.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Tradition has it that the Buddha gave 84,000 teachings during his 80 year life (he died around 410 BCE).  Although perhaps not literally true, this very large number illustrates the idea that the Buddha’s teachings are so extensive that people in all kinds of different situations can find within them something that meets their particular need.

Body:

Start by explaining the teachings of Buddha in detail such as the eight fold path. Buddha’s teachings emphasize on learning based on one’s observations and perception and believe that knowledge is not possible without experience. Elaborate on their relevance in the contemporary world. The Buddhist teachings inculcate compassion, calmness & composure, joy among humans and they can help maintain a sustainable balance between man and nature.

Conclusion:

The Buddha’s 84,000 teachings have shown a remarkable ability to adapt and to resonate with people at different times and in contrasting cultures.

Introduction:

The current crisis is an apt time to revisit his teachings, which can be a guiding light for a world looking for peace, harmony and sustainability. The adoption of the “middle path” by avoiding extreme positions as taught by Buddha leads to realizing the truth which further leads to avoiding conflict, reconciliation of different viewpoints, and achieving consensus.

Body:

Buddha’s life and deeds contain such a powerful message, that their resonance transcends cultures, religions and geographies. His messages are becoming increasingly relevant in the present context and a guiding light for chalking out a sustainable approach for the future.

Relevance of Buddha’s teachings:

  • The ongoing COVID pandemic bears testimony to the fact that the complexities of the modern world carry with them more uncertainties and crises.
  • The threats of bioterrorism, climate change, global warming, radicalism, extremism, etc, are shaking the conscience of humanity.
  • Since time immemorial, mankind has built up the capability to control natural resources.
  • The greed and impatient attitude towards utilizing these resources have created an imbalance.
  • Reacting to this, nature is more vigorously attacking humanity.
  • Buddha prescribed an eightfold path, the middle way for liberation. The eightfold path revolves around Wisdom (right understanding and intention), Ethical Conduct (right speech, action and livelihood) and Meditation (right effort, mindfulness and concentration).
  • Right understanding and intention can open the path for knowledge and can liberate the people from ignorance and delusion.
  • Right speech can liberate from the hatred that is spread across the world on the name of race, ethnicity, religion etc.
  • Right action and livelihood can liberate society from corruption, it can ensure food and water security and will enhance economic opportunity and employment giving way to prosperity for all.
  • Right effort, mindfulness and concentration can ensure mental peace and enrich moral and cultural values.
  • Loving-kindness, a meditation practice, which brings about positive attitudinal changes as it systematically develops the quality of ‘loving-acceptance’.
  • The Buddha’s method of introspection and awakening shows the path in these troubling times.
  • The Buddha’s lesson of “Atma Dipo Bhava” — every man can be a light unto himself, a saviour of himself through personal efforts — is apt to alter the individualist approach.
  • The Buddhist approach of righteous behaviour, wisdom, compassion and camaraderie, and the reduction of trishna (greed) offers a set of building blocks for a new world order where violence and conflict are minimised and development takes place without degrading the natural resources.
  • The adoption of the “middle path” by avoiding extreme positions as taught by Buddha leads to realizing the truth which further leads to avoiding conflict, reconciliation of different viewpoints, and achieving consensus.
  • His eight-fold-path has not only transformed the spiritual landscape worldwide but also encouraged ethical and sustainable social, political, and commercial practices.

Conclusion:

Modern developments have offered a lot but also have insecurity and competitiveness as well as tensions and boredom associated with them.  Buddhism offers a few very simple and efficacious methods to combat that. Buddhism has a role to play in our life and a role in which we, from the birth land of Buddha, have an important part to play.

Buddha’s teachings can transform the societies into their better and more humane forms as reflected by Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama “the 20th century was a century of war and violence, now we all need to work to see that the 21st century is of peace and dialogue.’

As peace and sustainable development are interlinked, the Buddha’s prism can be the guiding lights to every single stakeholder from local to global institutions and leaders, to work together for promoting dialogue, harmony, and justice based on compassion and wisdom.

organizational goals.


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