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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 20 August 2020

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General Studies – 2


 

Topic : GS-1: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. Shall urban India focus beyond toilets to address sanitation woes? Give arguments in support of the opinion. Suggest measures to make urban India open-defecation free. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

Result of Swachh Survekshan 2020 will be announced today, thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is intended to anticipate the need to recognize sanitation woes beyond toilets in the country.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by sanitation in detail.

Body:

Sanitation is intrinsically linked to health, and unless faecal waste is treated properly and disposed of safely, it will find its way back into the food chain. In India, there is increasing awareness about the importance of using toilets, largely due to flagship programme Swachh Bharat Mission launched in 2014.

Then move onto discuss India’s approach to sanitation and related issues.

Explain the problems with focusing on toilets alone.

Discuss why India needs to focus beyond toilets.

Conclusion:

Conclude with efforts of the government in this direction, suggest solutions.

 

Topic : Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests. Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. Discuss in detail the Tension in the eastern Mediterranean region with Turkey and Greece having overlapping maritime claims recently. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently there have been tensions in the eastern Mediterranean region. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the Tension in the eastern Mediterranean region with Turkey and Greece having overlapping maritime claims recently.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by narrating briefly the background of the issue.  Turkey and Greece have overlapping maritime claims. The maritime dispute is with respect to the Aegean Sea. The dispute is related to the maritime jurisdiction areas, including the territorial waters and the continental shelf and their delimitation.

Body:

The dispute has to do with Turkish claims to maritime territories in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Turkey has been arguing that the many Greek islands off Turkey’s Aegean coast should be only entitled to a much reduced Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) as compared to the normal 200 nautical miles limit.

It is a fundamental rule of international law that delimitation of maritime boundaries between adjacent and opposite states in locations where maritime areas overlap or converge should be effected by agreement on the basis of international law. However, the maritime boundaries between Turkey and Greece are yet to be delimited by agreement.

Discuss in detail the recent developments in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude that there is an urgent need to bring down tensions and find a diplomatic and mutually acceptable solution to the gas contest.

The maritime dispute which happens to fuel tensions in the region must be resolved in line with the established related jurisprudence, while taking into consideration the equity and security requirements of the stakeholders.

 

Topic : Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

3. Discuss the key features of Atma Nirbhar Bharat scheme for migrants and its utility especially in the current covid-19 conditions. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

The article titled “Atma Nirbhar Bharat Scheme for Migrants – A holistic perspective” discusses in detail the nuances of the scheme specifically for migrants amidst the Covid-19.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the key features of Atma Nirbhar Bharat scheme for migrants and its utility especially in the current covid-19 conditions.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Amidst the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) crisis in the country, the Government of India had announced various economic measures under the Atma Nirbhar Bharat Package (ANBP) in the middle of May 2020 for migrant workers across the country.

Body:

Discuss the key features of the scheme- The number of inter-state migrants was not

Documented liberal estimate of about 8 Crore migrants/stranded migrant persons across the country was made.

Food grains will be provided to projected 8 crores migrant laborers, stranded and needy families, who are not covered under NFSA or State scheme PDS cards.

5 kg of food grain per person, 1 kg of gram/dal per family for the month was to be distributed free of cost for the months of May and June to all migrants.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such scheme especially in such testing times.

 

Topic : GS2- Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation. GS3- Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of  Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.

4. “Self-reliant agriculture is critical for the goal of an Atmanirbhar Bharat”, in this context discuss the importance of agricultural exports to India. (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

Exports of agricultural commodities during March to June 2020 increased by 23.24% compared to corresponding period in 2019. Thus the question about self-reliance in agriculture.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail in what way self-reliance in agriculture is critical for the goal of Atmanirbhar Bharat.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Agricultural export is extremely important as besides earning precious foreign exchange for the country, the exports help farmers/ producers/ exporters to take advantage of wider

International market and increase their income.

Body:

Start with key statistics related to agri imports in the country and highlight the importance of self-reliance under atma Bharat for Agri sector.

The agricultural exports as a percentage of India’s agricultural GDP has increased from 9.4 % in 2017-18 to 9.9 % in 2018-19.

Agricultural imports as a percentage of India’s agricultural GDP has declined from 5.7 % to 4.9 % indicating exportable surplus and decreased dependence on import of agricultural products in India.

Discuss in detail the efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of recognising self-reliance for Agri sector.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Disaster and disaster management.

5. What is an oil spill? Discuss and suggest its impact while highlighting the methods through which oil spills can be cleaned. (250 words)

Reference: bbc.com

Why the question:

India has sent copters and equipment to help Mauritius deal with an oil spill. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail what oil spills are and discuss their impact while also discussing methods through which they can be cleaned.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what oil spills are.

Body:

One can start by quoting the recent incidence of oil spill in the Mauritius. Japanese bulk carrier MV Wakashio struck a coral reef off the capital, Port Louis, in July 2020 resulting in an oil spill of over 1,000 tonnes into the Indian Ocean.

Then discuss the concerns of it – It has raised concerns over the ecological damage caused to the region. The accident had taken place near two environmentally protected marine ecosystems and the Blue Bay Marine Park Reserve, which is a wetland of international importance.

Explain how dangerous are oil spills? – Oil spills affect marine life by exposing them to harsh elements and destroying their sources of food and habitat.

According to the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), both birds and mammals can die from hypothermia as a result of oil spills. For instance:

The insulating ability of fur-bearing mammals such as sea otters is destroyed by oil.

It also decreases the water repellency of birds’ feathers, without which they lose their ability to repel cold water.

Then discuss methods and procedures of cleaning oil spills in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Quotation based ethics question

6. “Never waste a good crisis”, remarked Winston Churchill. Do you think that a moral crisis is an essential precondition for the conscience to come alive? Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: Quotation based questions

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of “Moral crisis” and in what way it is an essential precondition for the conscience to come alive.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the essence of the quote in question; explain how moral crisis is an essential precondition for the conscience to come alive.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by a crisis.

Body:

A crisis is a situation that leads to the disruption within the functioning of a system; it could be a political, social, economic, physiological, moral or any other organized system of function. There are three attitudes that can be taken in response to a crisis

  1. To wish away the crisis and think of it as a curse – which is dogmatic
  2. To indulge excessively in a crisis in the name of being anti-establishment – which is fatal 3. To capitalize on the crisis by using its energies appropriately to bring a transformation – this is ideal.

Demonstrate the above with suitable ideas.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of moral crisis as an essential precondition for the conscience to come alive

 

Topic :Case Study

7. A woman is working as a senior manager with an organization. She has been working for the organization for several years, receiving exemplary reviews and also the ‘employee-of-the-year’ award. Yet, each of the five times she has applied for promotion, the positions she applied for were, instead, filled by less-qualified men. On her enquiry with the reporting manager, the reason he gave was that some of the organization’s long-time clients are more comfortable dealing with men, yet he was willing to consider her promotion on the pretext of some unwanted favors. After sometime, the woman launched a formal complaint with the senior manager, regarding her due promotion and also against the reporting manager. The organization, instead of taking any action against the complaint, issued a transfer letter to the woman. (250 words)

1. Identify the ethical issues involved in this case.

2. Evaluate the option(s) available to the woman.

3. State the option(s) she should adopt and why.

Reference: Case study

Why the question:

The case study is based on the theme of gender equity.

Key Demand of the question:

One must evaluate in detail the nuances of the case study and evaluate the options available to the woman in question on case by case basis.

Directive:

Evaluate – When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can start by expressing relevance of Gender equality in general.

Body:

Gender equality is prerequisite for socio-economic development and sustainable inclusive growth.

First identify the Ethical issues involved covering all stakeholders in the question – women employee, lack of professionalism on part of manager, his Patriarchal mindset, objectification of woman etc.

Evaluate the options available with the woman (along with the analysis of each option) – switch job, resign from job, Accept the transfer and continue with the job, Bring the issue to the notice of media/Civil Societies /NGOs, Lodge an FIR against the organization, Approach the higher authority of the organization etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a fair and balanced opinion.


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