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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 18 August 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

1. What is the Radcliffe Line? Discuss the main motive with which it was drawn and explain its final outcome. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express  ,Times Now News 

Why the question:

On 17 August 1947, the borderline that separated India from Pakistan, known as the Radcliffe Line was revealed. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the formation of Radcliff line, its main objective and its final outcome in detail.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the context of the question in brief.

Body:

The Radcliffe line is spread through the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat till international border in Jammu in Jammu & Kashmir, dividing India and Pakistan into two different countries. Radcliffe divided India into three halves: West Pakistan, East Pakistan and India. On this day, the line demarcating India from the newly formed Pakistan after partition was published.

It was named after the chairman of the Border Commissions, Sir Cyril Radcliffe. He was a lawyer from England who had no previous knowledge or experience with cartography.

This border line is today the international boundary between India and Pakistan on the western side and between India and Bangladesh on the eastern side.

Discuss its objective and outcome in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude that dividing the two countries was a very tough job because the division was done on the basis of religious majority and a fair decision had to made while drawing a boundary between the two countries.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

2. If the Indian judiciary wishes to remain a public governance institution, it must embrace some rules of public accountability, do you agree? Analyse amidst the recent incidences. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

The author in the article emphasizes on the fact that a judiciary that sees a role for itself in governance should also be accountable to the governed.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss and analyse the importance of public accountability of the Judiciary to Indian judiciary and why it is quintessential for it to be a public governance institution.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define why the question has been asked, one can start with the recent case of Prashant Bhushan and the associated verdict of apex court.

Body:

The Supreme Court’s recent contempt judgment against Prashant Bhushan has again raised the question of what is considered legitimate criticism of India’s higher judiciary.

To start with one must first define the identity of the higher judiciary, and its new relationship with the public. Take hints from the article and justify in what way public accountability of the Judiciary is quintessential to its modus operandi of being a public governance system.

Conclusion:

Conclude that such an institution demands a new set of checks and balances. A people’s court will naturally receive feedback, if not criticism, from the very people it claims to govern. If the Indian judiciary wishes to remain a public governance institution, it must embrace some rules of public accountability that it has long enforced on other institutions of governance in the country.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. Why Indian women are generally malnourished compared to their global counterparts? Enlist the reasons. What are the consequences? What measures need to be taken to tackle the problem of malnutrition in the country? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: motherchildnutrition.org

Why the question:

The question aims to analyse the severity of malnutrition being faced by Indian women and its consequences and how it needs to be handled.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the reasons of why Indian women are generally malnourished compared to their global counterparts and its consequence and explain the measures that need to be taken.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce severity of malnourishment among India women.

Body:

Indian women despite upliftment over the decades are still largely behind in the human development indicators like maternal mortality, micronutrient deficiencies etc. A third of women of reproductive age in India are undernourished, with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 kg/m2.

Highlight the reasons for malnourishment of women such as child marriages, early pregnancies, low gap between the children, focus of nutrition programmes for Indian children has largely been post-birth, food distribution in households is not based on need, poverty, illiteracy, ignorance, socioeconomic

And environmental factors and poor water/sanitation and health services etc.

Discuss the consequences of it in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions; hint at the efforts of the government in this direction.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

4. Critically analyse the discontinuation of the unequal system of contract teachers/Para-teachers at all levels in the NEP 2020. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

The draft National Education Policy (NEP) of 2019 made an unequivocal statement on the discontinuation of the unequal system of contract teachers/para-teachers at all levels, from primary right up to colleges and universities. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way NEP 2020 is silent on the contract teacher system and thus such a system erodes the quality of education, affects motivation, and goes against the spirit of the Constitution.

Directive:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgment.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by highlighting the relevant point mentioned in the NEP 2020 with respect to contract teachers.

Body:

The draft National Education Policy (NEP) of 2019 made an unequivocal statement on the discontinuation of the unequal system of contract teachers/Para-teachers at all levels, from primary right up to colleges and universities.

 It recognized the need to relieve teachers of non-educational duties, facilitate vibrant professional communities and give more autonomy in the classroom. It recognized that none of the ideas discussed in the draft policy would be possible without a road map to transform the way teachers are positioned in the system.

Discuss the past practices of hiring contract teachers/para-teachers. Take hints from the article and present your points.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to ensure the wrongs in the policy are rectified and made right.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country, – different types of irrigation and irrigation systems storage, transport and marketing of agricultural produce and issues and related constraints; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

5. Indian agri markets not only need to be integrated spatially but also temporally for a better future of Agri-Markets. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The author of the article explains in what way the new agriculture infrastructure fund is a major step forward. Policymakers must have stable policies for them.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the idea of getting the agri-markets right to ensure better functioning of Indian Markets.  

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly present the current scenario of Agri markets in India and how they function.

Body:

Markets play an important role in rural development, income generation, food security, and developing rural-market linkages thus its importance to ensure their optimum functioning.

Present the case of newly launched Agriculture Infrastructure Fund (AIF), The fund is a major step towards getting agri-markets right.

Then move on to explain what the gaps in the current agri market system are, take cues from the article and list them down. Suggest solutions to the same and explain why it is essential to have markets temporally as well as spatially to ensure their perfect functioning.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and nonpartisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.

6. “When a man assumes a public trust, he should consider himself as public property”. Illustrate the essence of the statement. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the fact that Public employment carries with it a unique obligation to uphold the public trust.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the essence of the statement as to in what way Public employment carries with it a unique obligation to uphold the public trust.

Directive:

Illustrate – A similar instruction to ‘explain’ whereby you are asked to show the workings of something, making use of definite examples and statistics if appropriate to add weight to your explanation.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what is public employment and trust associated with it.

Body:

Explain that Public employment carries with it a unique obligation to uphold the public trust. It is the confidence of the people that directs and empowers authorities to perform their duties and obligations in accordance to what they ought to deliver to the people who put them in position.

Further trust can only be maintained through open, honest, accountable and transparent government, fundamentally through good governance. This requires healthy public and private relationships. The national interest should overpower self-interest and conduct of the civil servant should be in tune to the professional values.

He should work selflessly to demonstrate the highest standards of professional competence, efficiency and effectiveness, upholding the Constitution and the laws, and seeking to advance the public good at all times and should put possibilities for personal advantage to one side.

Public servants should work for betterment of society by sticking to their duties as prescribed according to law along with integrity and honesty.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic : dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker-sections.  Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. How can a public servant empathize with public? Discuss with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the virtue of empathy and its importance to Public servants.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the methods and means by which public servant should and can empathize the public with suitable examples.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by Empathy.

Body:

Every public servant is an individual who is to some extent endowed with natural ability to empathize with people he is serving. However, with the information and knowledge at her disposal, a public servant has the opportunity to empathize at a greater degree.

The official data can give the public servant a detailed idea of the situation the people are living in. She can conduct surveys and seek feedback from the people about the issue concerning the activities taken up by the officials. This way, the public servant is in a good position to understand the situation, feelings, and motives of the people at a higher level.

Give suitable examples/present case study to substantiate your answer.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its significance.


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