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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 11 August 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Discuss how the pre-congress political organisations evolved in 19th century. (250 words)

Reference: Bipin Chandra’s Struggle for Independence

Why the question:

The question is from the modern history; Indian freedom struggle portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail how the pre-congress political organisations evolved in 19th century.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the importance of the coming of pre-congress political organisations that evolved in 19th century.

Body:

Following are the important public associations, established before the Indian National Congress −

  • The Landholders’ Society − founded in 1837, it was an association of the landlords of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. Its purpose was to promote the class interests of the landlords.
  • The Bengal British Indian Society − founded in 1843, it was organized to protect and promote general public interests.
  • In 1851, the Landholders’ Society and the Bengal British Indian Society merged to form the British India Association.
  • The Madras Native Association and the Bombay Association were established in 1852.

The Scientific Society founded by Sayyid Ahmad Khan, were established in different towns of the country.

All the above-discussed associations were dominated by wealthy and aristocratic elements — called in those days’ prominent persons and were provincial or local in character.

The members of public associations worked for reform of administration, association of Indians with the administration, and spread of education, and sent long petitions, putting forward Indian demands, to the British Parliament.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of these associations to the formation of congress at a later stage that played key role in the freedom struggle.

Introduction:

The Indian National Congress (INC) was formed in Dec 1885. However, there were many political organizations which were a pre-cursor to INC. The political organisations in the early half of the nineteenth century were dominated by wealthy and aristocratic elements, local or regional in character, and through long petitions to the British Parliament demanded Administrative reforms, Association of Indians with the administration, and Spread of education.

Body:

Some of the prominent Political Associations which played very important role in arousing general will and laying down a path towards modern Nationalism. Most of them had the common objectives of their own wellbeing and were mostly localised in nature. The evolution of the same are as follows:

  • Landholders Society:
    • In July 1838, the “Zamindari Association”, also known as the “Landholders Society”, was established to safeguard the interests of the landlords.
    • Landholders’ Society was limited in its objectives i.e. covered demand of Landlords only.
    • The landholders Society used the methods of constitutional agitation for the redressal of grievances and marked the beginning of organised political activities.
  • Bengal British India Society:
    • In April 1843, another political association under the name of the Bengal British India Society was founded.
    • Its objective was “the collection and dissemination of information relating to the actual condition of the people of British India”
  • The British Indian Association of Calcutta (1851):
    • It was formed in 1851 by the merger of Bengal British India Society and the Landholders’ Society.
    • It was established to convey Indian grievances to the British Govt.
    • It suggested various reform in Company’s upcoming charter like Need for the establishment of a separate legislature, separation of judicial functions from executive functions, salaries of higher officers to be reduced, abolition of abkari, salt duty and stamp duties.
    • Some of the recommendations of the association were accepted when the Charter Act of 1853 provided addition of six members to the governor general’s council for legislative purposes.
  • The Deccan Association (1852):
    • British India Association of Calcutta was confined only to Bengal but British India Association’s Secretary, Debendranath Thakur wanted to expand the association, as the aim of the British India Association was to make representations from every part of British India to the British Parliament.
    • In February 1852 as a further expansion of British India Association, the Deccan Association was established at Poona.
    • Deccan Association did not last long and could not fulfil its objective of sending any mission or petition for suggesting reforms to the upcoming Charter Act I.e. Charter Act of 1853.
  • The Madras Native Association (1852):
    • After the establishment of Deccan Association, Madras acted next by establishing, the Madras branch of the British Indian Association in February 1852.
    • Within a few months, its name was changed to the Madras Native Association as it decided to act independently of the parent body.
    • The possibility of joint Indian petition to Parliament was wrecked by the split between Calcutta and Madras associations.
    • However, the Madras Native Association right from its inception possessed very little vitality, had hardly any hold upon the public mind and languished into obscurity after 1857.
  • The Bombay Association (1852):
    • On the lines of British India Association of Calcutta, on 26 August 1852, Bombay Association was founded with the object of ‘reminding from time to time the government authorities in India or in England for the removal of existing evils, and for the prevention of proposed measures which may be deemed injurious or for the introduction of enactment which may tend to promote the general interest of all connected with this country’.
    • The Bombay Association sent a petition to the British Parliament urging the formation of new legislative council to which Indians should also be represented.
    • It also condemned the policy of exclusion of Indians from all higher services, lavish expenditure on posts given to the Europeans. However, this Association didn’t survive for long.
  • East India Association:
    • In the year 1866, East India Association was founded by Dadabhai Naoroji in London.
    • East India association started its branches in Bombay, Kolkata and Madras in 1869.
    • The objective of East India Association was to discuss the problem and questions related to India and to influence the British leaders towards the development of India.
    • Later, Dadabhai Naoroji also opened its branch in various important Indian cities.
  • Poona Sarvajanik Sabha:
    • The Poona Sarvajanik Sabha was established in 1867 at Poona.
    • It has the objective of serving as a bridge between the Government and the people.
  • India League
    • It was established by Sisir Kumar Ghose in 1875.
    • The aim of India league was to instill the feeling of Nationalism amongst the people.
  • The Indian Association of Calcutta
    • Surendranath Banerjee and Anand Mohan Bose founded the Indian Association of Calcutta in 1876.
    • Founders of Indian Association of Calcutta were discontented with the pro-landlord and conservative policies of the British India Association that’s why they established this new Association.
    • This association was aimed to unify Indian people on a common political programme and create a strong public opinion on political questions.
    • East India association also organized an all India agitation known as the Civil Service Agitation after its formation.
  • The Bombay Presidency Association
    • Pherozeshah Mehta, K.T. Telang, Badruddin Tyabji and others formed the Bombay Presidency Association in 1885.
    • The reactionary policies of Lytton and the Ilbert Bill controversy caused political commotion in Bombay and led to the formation of Bombay Presidency Association.
  • Madras Mahajan Sabha
    • In 1884 Madras Mahajan Sabha was established by Viraraghavachari, P. Ananda- charlu and B. Subramaniya Aiyer.
    • The Madras Mahajan Sabha was formed in May, 1884 to co-ordinate the activities of local association and to ‘provide a focus for the non-official intelligence spread up through the Presidency’. It was founded by M. V. Raghavachari, G. Subrahmanyam Aiyar, Anand Charlu and others.

Shortcomings:

  • These early Associations had, though, important contribution in terms of arousing the political will and demands of the Indian public, but their area and activities, were limited.
  • They mainly questioned local issues and their members and leaders were also limited to one or adjoining provinces.
  • Despite good leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Surendranath Banerjee, Ananda Charlu and others there was a lack of national unity in case of political association later it was gained by the formation of Indian National Congress.

Conclusion:

Most of these political organizations finally merged and culminated into a pan India organization called the Indian National Congress. It was a result of many a regional consciousness uniting together under the context of commonality of interests.

 

Topic : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. The American Revolution inspired the French revolution and yet it was markedly different from it. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: World History by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from static portions of GS paper I , part world history.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way American Revolution inspired French revolution and yet it was remarkably different.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief talk about some details of both the revolutions, present some timeline.

Body:

The American Revolution principally introduced new political possibilities driven by the

Enlightenment idea of republicanism, resurgent from Roman times to those living in France. The American Revolution was merely political not social like French revolution. French soldiers and sailors who came to the aid of American patriots in fighting their common enemy, the British, returned to France with some new concepts to work out, most notably “republicanism.” With its philosophical ideas of the natural rights of individuals and the division of powers, the American Revolution inspired the French Revolution.

Present differences and similarities of the two revolutions. Explain how one contributed to the other though the other stood out to be remarkably different.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the two.

Introduction:

The French Revolution was a complex conflict with numerous triggers and causes and the American Revolution set the stage for an effective uprising that the French had observed first-hand. When American colonists won independence from Great Britain in the Revolutionary War, the French, who participated in the war themselves, were both close allies and key participants. Several years after the revolt in America, French reformists faced political, social and economic hardships that mirrored the colonists’ struggles.

Body:

There were similar causes for both revolutions.

Although the French and American people had several distinct and differing motives for revolting against their ruling governments, some similar causes led to both revolutions, including the following:

  • Economic struggles: Both the Americans and French dealt with a taxation system they found discriminating and unfair. Additionally, France’s involvement in the American Revolution, along with extravagant spending practices by King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette, left the country on the verge of bankruptcy.
  • Monarchy: Although the colonists had lived in a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system, they revolted against the royal powers of King George III just like the French rose up against Louis XVI.
  • Unequal rights: Like the American colonists, the French felt that specific rights were only granted to certain segments of society, namely the elite and aristocrats.

Influence of American revolution on French revolution:

  • Many experts believe that the same ideologies that sparked the American Revolution had long percolated through French culture.
  • One key ideological movement, known as Enlightenment, was central to the American uprising. Enlightenment stressed the idea of natural rights and equality for all citizens.
  • The Americans’ victory over the British may have been the single greatest impact on the French Revolution.
  • The French people saw that a revolt could be successful – even against a major military power – and lasting change was possible. Many experts argue that this gave them the motivation to rebel.
  • The newly-formed government of the United States also became a model for French reformers.
  • Ideas that were once just abstract thoughts – such as popular sovereignty, natural rights, constitutional checks and balances and separation of powers – were now part of an actual political system that worked.
  • The French who had direct contact with the Americans were able to successfully implement Enlightenment ideas into a new political system.
  • The National Assembly in France even used the American Declaration of Independence as a model when drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen in 1789.
  • Much like the American document, the French declaration included Enlightenment philosophies, such as equal rights and popular sovereignty.

The extent of American influence on French revolution is also debated:

  • Though most historians agree that the American Revolution impacted the French Revolution, which lasted from 1789-1799, some scholars debate the significance and extent of this effect.
  • France, a country on the verge of financial collapse with an outdated feudal system and a wildly unpopular monarchy, was a powder keg waiting to explode, with or without the American war to serve as an example.
  • Other political, social and religious factors also activated the French people’s appetite for change.

Conclusion:

Though there were clear differences between the motives for each revolt and how the two wars were fought, most experts believe that the war in America at least partly paved the way for France’s uprising. The Americans provided a working model of revolutionary success that wasn’t lost on the French.

 

Topic : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

3. Why is suicide the second leading cause for deaths in Indian youth? How is India tackling this issue? What further strategies are needed to stem suicides? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: Outlook India 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the rising incidences of suicide cases being witnessed in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss why suicides have become one of the leading causes of deaths in the country also suggest what needs to be done to resolve the alarming issue or to contain it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Suicides in India have become increasingly prevalent especially in the younger age groups. India has the highest suicide rate in the world among the youth standing at 35.5 per 100,000 people.

Body:

Start by explaining what are the reasons for such trends such as – family issues, unemployment, lack of access to education, lack of equity, mental health, failures in relationships, substance abuse etc.

Suggest what measures can be taken? – Mental health professionals, doctors and counselors can be reached out to manage suicidal tendencies. The proactive steps taken by several such professionals in the capacity of leaders has helped and has the potential to help save thousands of lives. There are several organizations, crisis centers and suicide prevention helplines that are offering a great support to the emotionally distressed and those individuals who feel suicidal.  Some of the helplines that may be approached are the Samaritans Mumbai. The National Mental Health Policy identifies a range of vulnerable groups for protection and seeks to decriminalize suicide.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable balanced opinion.

Introduction:

Sociologist Emile Durkheim had famously hypothesised that ‘suicides are a result of not just psychological or emotional factors but social factors as well’.  Every 40 seconds, someone somewhere in the world takes his or her own life.

A few cases have been reported around the world where people out of fear of getting COVID-19 infection, social stigma, isolation, depression, anxiety, emotional imbalance, economic shutdown, lack and/or improper knowledge, financial and future insecurities took their lives. With recent suicide reports we can anticipate the rippling effect of this virus on worldwide suicide events. However, the basic psychology and inability of the person and the mass society to deal with the situation are the major factors behind these COVID-19 suicides pandemic.

Body:

Suicide Rates have risen exponentially in India as the economy continues to flutter due to Covid. Data released by the police this week revealed that 466 persons, both men and women, died due to suicide in Himachal Pradesh in the last six months, particularly February and July, 2020.

Reasons behind increasing suicides during pandemic:

  • Social Isolation/distancing:
    • It induces a lot of anxiety in many citizens of different country.
    • However, the most vulnerable are those with existing mental health issues like depression and older adults living in loneliness and isolation.
    • Such people are self-judgemental, have extreme suicidal thoughts.
    • Imposed isolation and quarantine disrupts normal social lives and created psychological fear and feeling like trapped, for an indefinite period of time.
    • Government recommendations to work from home, and travel less advisories restricted our social life.
  • Worldwide lockdown creating economic recession:
    • The looming economic crisis may create panic, mass unemployment, poverty and homelessness will possibly surge the suicide risk or drive an increase in the attempt to suicide rates in such patients.
  • Stress, anxiety and pressure in medical healthcare professionals:
    • These are at immense and at the peak. 50% of the medical staff in the British hospitals are sick, and at home, leaving high pressure on the remaining staff to deal with the situation. In King’s College Hospital, London, a young nurse took her own life while treating COVID-19 patients
  • Social boycott and discrimination:
    • This also added few cases to the list of COVID-19 suicides. For instance, the first COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh, where a 36-year-old man committed suicide due to social avoidance by the neighbours and his moral conscience to ensure not to pass on the virus to his community

Immediate measures needed: 

  • Emotional distress people need to first set the limit of COVID-19 related news consumption from local, national, international, social and digital platform and the sources must be authentic like CDC and WHO.
  • One needs to maintain connectedness and solidarity despite the physical distance.
  • Individuals with the previous history of suicidal thoughts, panic and stress disorder, low self-esteem and low self-worth, are easily susceptible to catastrophic thinking like suicide in such viral pandemic.
  • Indirect clues need to be noticed with great care, where people often say ‘I’m tired of life’, ‘no one loves me’, ‘leave me alone’ and so on.
  • On suspecting such behaviour in person, we can pull together the people struggling with suicidal ideation to make them feel loved and protective.
  • Socio-psychology needs and interventions for mental rehabilitation should be designed.
  • Tele-counselling along with, 24×7 crisis response service for emotional, mental and behavioural support need to be implemented.
  • Psychological support and care should be given to the individual. The state can seek assistance from NGOs as well as religious missionaries for this purpose.
  • Strengthening the existing National Mental Health Programme and the district mental health programme, along with focus on training resources and streamlining of funds are some other recommendations for fighting depression and suicide.
  • long-term solutions like helping unemployed people find meaningful work or training the armies of contact tracers who will be sent out into communities to identify people at risk of a mental health crisis.

Conclusion:

Suicide is preventable. people who are contemplating suicide frequently give warning signs of their distress. We can spend time indoor with our families, connect to friends on social media, and engage in mindfulness activities, till we all win this battle.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. The Aviation sector in India requires a major turnaround in the development of Airport infrastructure. What are the challenges that the Indian airports face today? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently, an Air India Express flight on a special ‘Vande Bharat’ repatriation flight from Dubai to Kozhikode overshot the runway and fell into a valley resulting in fatalities. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question expects one to bring out the issues and concerns associated with Airport infrastructure and the challenges that Indian airports face today.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by discussing the need for seamless and integrated airport infrastructure.

Body:

Discuss in detail the lacunae of the current airport infrastructure across the country.

Explain in what way with India’s aggressive approach to expanding its aviation sector, how it will handle the influx? Airports and airlines will remain interdependent, Too little infrastructure will harm the airlines; too much capacity will harm the airports, Congestion may signal a need to expand, Overexpansion may waste limited resources, Finding the right balance will take time, Ability of Indian airlines to successfully compete in the global market will shape the development of airports etc.

Suggest measures in this direction that the government is taking.  Present ideas to improvise the current conditions and overcome the grave concerns.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The coronavirus pandemic has caused probably the most significant impact to the aviation sector. With the world going into a lockdown and airlines being grounded internationally, the sector has come to a standstill. Indian Government started the ‘Vande Bharat Mission’ to repatriate the distressed diaspora from foreign countries. The recent Kochi air accident during the mission has once again turned the spotlight on operations to what are called ‘tabletop airports’ in India.

Body:

Challenges plaguing the Indian Aviation sector in general:

  • Aviation is among the worst-affected sectors amidst the Covid-19 crisis that has taken the scale of a pandemic. According to the International Air Transport Association, airlines globally can lose in passenger revenues of up to $113 billion due to this crisis.
  • Domestic traffic growth is also gradually being affected with domestic travellers postponing or cancelling their travel plans.
  • Cash reserves of airline companies are running low and many are almost at the brink of bankruptcy. Moreover, the crisis could lead to loss of jobs and pay cuts. Some airlines have asked many of their employees to go on leave without pay.
  • Cost of aviation turbine fuel (ATF) is very high in India. High taxes and being vulnerable to currency movements makes it a large chunk of Indian airlines’ operating expenses— around 40% compared to 20% for foreign carriers.
  • The intense competition among domestic carriers, the need to capture a slice of the ever expanding market and passenger price sensitivity makes the airlines difficult to raise ticket prices.
  • The new civil aviation policy (NCAP) 2016’s regional connectivity scheme doesn’t help. The ticket price caps it imposes under the scheme, the fact that the viability gap funding will last only for three years and various operational issues such as the lack of slots for connecting flights at major airports are a hindrance.
  • Reduced passenger traffic may mean stakeholders could set aside more funds for the development of drones and autonomous vehicles to better serve its whole ecosystem.
  • The Cargo sector is already well accustomed to using them

Challenges the Indian Airports, in particular, face are:

  • Topography and lack of space leading to development of tabletop airports:
    • it is an airport located and built on top of a plateau or hilly surface, with one or both ends of the runway overlooking a drop.
    • The airports in the country which would count as “tabletops”, are namely Lengpui (Mizoram), Shimla and Kullu (Himachal Pradesh), Pakyong (Sikkim), Mangaluru (Karnataka), Kozhikode and Kannur (both Kerala).
    • there have been some aviation incidents at these airports, it was the accident in Mangaluru on May 22, 2010, that highlighted operational risks.
  • Poor infrastructure in tier-II and tier-III cities like road connectivity, transport facilities to reach the airport, difficult terrains, and frequent cancellation of flights makes it difficult to build traffic on the route on a sustained basis.
  • Capacity:
    • India’s metro airports have already run out of capacity in terms of landing and parking slots. Also, there is not much capacity augmentation due to addition of UDAN routes.
    • Current airport capacity is presently estimated at 317m. However, by March 2018 itself, traffic reached 308.7m.
    • There is concern that India’s airport system could exceed its structural capacity by early 2022, said Sydney-based think tank Center for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA).
    • According to the India Brand Equity Foundation, by 2036 India will have around 480m passengers, greater than Japan and Germany combined.
  • Overburdened regulator:
    • The Airports Authority of India is ‘over-burdened with multiple responsibilities for airport operations, construction and rehabilitation, airspace management, regional connectivity, cargo handling and various other activities
    • Airports Authority of India (AAI) manages 125 airports, 95 of which are operational and 75 with scheduled commercial operations provides air navigation services for over 2.8m² nm of air space.

Measures needed:

Structural:

  • avoidance of the downward slope in the overshoot area particularly on ‘tabletop’ runways
  • the need for a ground arresting system for aircraft — such a facility is maintained at almost all airfields of the Indian Air Force’.
    • Engineered Materials Arrestor/Arresting System, it is made of engineered lightweight and crushable cellular cement/concrete.
    • Used at the runway ends, it acts as a safety barrier and successfully stops an aircraft overrun.
  • A visual reference system to alert the pilot (while landing) of the remaining distance to be covered;
  • Location of the ATC tower, approach and area radars
  • The role of the Rescue and Fire Fighting service, aerodrome risk assessment and, finally, recommendations for the DGCA.

Non-structural:

  • Policy interventions like UDAN (“Ude Desh Ka Aam Naagrik”) have given impetus to revive the un-served and under-served airports and revitalizing regional air connectivity in India.
  • As Indian aviation market continues to surge, focus should be ensuring adequate airport infrastructure capacity.
  • The Air Navigation Services (ANS) unit of the AAI operates communication, navigation, surveillance and traffic management systems for aircraft operating in Indian airspace. With ever increasing busy airspace, it is of paramount importance to ensure that ANS can continues to provide aviation safety.
  • The MRO industry in India holds great potential. It is important to ensure that the industry is regulated properly, and that the required skills are developed to service increasingly sophisticated aircraft
  • More transparent ATF regime should be ensured where oil marketing companies are required to declare costs and methods used to price the end product.
  • Excessive concentration of power in the DGCA should be checked to ensure proper competition and economic viability of the sector.

Conclusion:

India’s aviation industry has a huge potential and offers huge growth opportunities. Like telecom and financial services, aviation has been a stand-out sector after liberalization. There is much at stake in ensuring the health and competitive spirit of this industry given that it can be an economic force multiplier with a clear knock-on impact in terms of creating jobs.

 

Topic : Disaster and disaster management.

5. Capacity building is the most important aspect of pre-disaster preparation to mitigate the impact of disaster. In this light, discuss the various levels and methods of capacity building. (250 words)

Reference: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of capacity building during pre-disaster management and its significance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of capacity building and the various levels and methods of it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by capacity building – The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) define ‘Capacity Development’ for Disaster Risk Reduction as “the process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capability over time to achieve social and economic goals, including improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions.

Body:

Discuss in detail the nuances of capacity building in pre-disaster management. Sendai Framework emphasizes the need for enhancing the technical, financial, and administrative capabilities of institutions, governments, and communities to deal with the risks at different levels.

Then move on to discuss the three levels of capacity development: individual, institutional and enabling environment. Present case studies to explain and substantiate better.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Capacity building cannot be the responsibility of the state alone. As the Sendai framework puts it aptly, we need an all-of society approach. There is need to build the knowledge of civil society, communities and volunteers on disaster risk reduction and need to train people in the private sector such as private medical practitioners and engineers for medical response and disaster resilient construction respectively.

Introduction:

The Indian subcontinent is among the world’s most disaster prone areas. Almost 57% of the land is vulnerable to earthquake (high seismic zones lll-V), 68% to drought, 8% to cyclones and 12% to floods. Disaster management in India has evolved from an activity-based setup to an institutionalized structure; from single faculty domain to a multi-stakeholder setup; and from a relief-based approach to a ‘multi-dimensional approach for reducing risk’.

Body:

Spells of heavy rain for short periods, bigger catchment areas of streams and topographical conditions are leading to cloudbursts, flash floods and landslides in the hilly regions of Uttarakhand. Over 40 people have died in rain-related disasters in Uttarakhand in the current monsoon.

UNDP’s definition of capacity development is as follows: The process through which individuals, organizations and societies obtain, strengthen and maintain the capabilities to set and achieve their own development objectives over time.

Importance of capacity building in pre-disaster preparation:

  • India’s capacity to manage disaster risk is challenged by its size and huge population. The country is likely to have the greatest exposure of any nation in the world to extreme weather and natural disasters by 2030.
  • Capacity building is an ongoing process that equips officials, stakeholders and the community to perform their functions in a better manner during a crisis/disaster.
  • Capacity-building should support the planning and implementation of actions across the full disaster management cycle.
  • The primary focus of capacity building is selection and providing training to the people who are capable of planning, coordinating, acting and intervening where necessary.
  • With better training local teams would be better prepared and able to respond to local disasters too.

The steps involved in Capacity building for pre-disaster preparedness are:

  • Education on disaster prevention and response:
    • It includes educating the vulnerable communities as well as the population of state to the possible hazards and their impacts in their area.
  • Training to vulnerable communities:
    • It includes imparting the basic training of disaster management to the volunteers and local people.
    • It aims to teach the people that how they can survive and help others.
  • Collaboration with relief agencies:
    • It includes the collaboration between different government as well as non-government agencies involved in the relief work through the state for all kind of disasters.
    • For instance, OSDMA, ODRAF, Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS), fire service units, civil defines units, NGOs, Village, Gram Panchayat and Block level disaster management teams needed to work together.
  • Mock drill:
    • Basically Mock drills are set of simulation exercise, which if practiced several times, would help in improving the cohesiveness of the community during an emergency.
    • Mock drills can be organized in all cyclone prone districts involving all stakeholders, districts administrations, PRI institutions, cyclone shelter management and maintenance committees, and task force members to keep the community sensitized and responsive.
  • Household preparation:
    • it covers the preparation of keeping all valuable items in waterproof bags, keeping minimum clothing, and being ready with a plan for evacuation.
  • Understanding warning/de-warning messages:
    • Dissemination of early warning message to the vulnerable communities is the next task which can be achieved through better training and involvement of all stakeholders.
  • First aid preparedness:
    • Along with all necessary things it’s important to have a well-stocked first aid kit to deal with minor accidents and injuries.

In India, the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) is the capacity building arm and the States have disaster management cells in the State Administrative Training Institutes performs the function of capacity building for effective and efficient disaster management. There are a number of other training institutes which are engaged in training and capacity building in the area of disaster management. It is vital for state disaster management authorities to focus on the continued capacity-building of district disaster management authorities and CSOs that are responsible for managing disaster risk.

Conclusion:

Since, risk associated with natural disasters cannot be reduced due to the fact that natural disasters are certain to strike, but we can minimize the adverse effect of these disasters through maximizing our capacity.  In other words, our vision should be to maximize our cope up capacity so that vulnerability can be minimized.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Should the philosophy of Kautilya as sama, dana, danda and bheda be applied in politics and administration to achieve desirable objectives? How it will affect morality of people? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  idsa.in

Why the question:

The question is based on the applicability of the philosophy of Kautilya as sama, dana, danda and bheda applied to politics and administration.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to deduce upon the applicability of the philosophy of Kautilya to the administration and politics of today’s world.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the philosophy of Kautilya –  sama, dana, danda and bheda.

Body:

Explain that in the context of India, diplomacy is said to be rooted in history and epics. The most ancient methods of diplomacy can be traced back to Chanakya and his nitis. According to the great scholar in order to manage a well-knit administration and safeguard the state, it is essential for a king to be an expert in diplomacy. Diplomacy was considered to be a crucial aspect of statecraft. In order to practice diplomacy, he prescribed four methods or Upayas –  Sama, Dana, Bheda and Danda.

Give relevant examples and present your opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting applicability of the philosophy to Indian context.

Introduction:

Kautilya was the prime minister of the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta and the author of the oldest text on public administration in the world. Arthashastra, the ancient Indian classic offers deep insights into politics, state craft and issues of governance. He gave the four upayas or approaches, i.e., ways of realising aim or object have existed since the period of the epics and the Dharmasastra. The upayas are sama- dana- bheda- danda: conciliation, gifts, rupture and force. The upayas have a wider application, being useful in securing the submission of anyone.

Body:

Kautilya’s philosophy:

  • Sama or ‘conciliation’ can be achieved in five ways, praising merits, mention of relationships, pointing out of mutual benefits, showing advantages and placing oneself at the other’s disposal.
  • Dana consists of conferring benefits of money.
  • Bheda or ‘dissension’ is creating apprehension and reprimanding.
  • Danda or ‘force’ is killing, tormenting and seizure of property.

Application of the above in politics and administration to achieve desirable objectives:

  • For the    welfare    of    the    people, the    state    has    to    carry    out developmental activities like constructions of dams, settlement of virgin lands, opening trade centre, maintenance of widows, the orphans and the helpless.
  • The state’s main duty of protect the social order in accordance with the system of varnas (caste) and their Dharma (duties). The state has to promote education, learning and art.
  • Kautilya’s economic system can be included under’ Mixed Economy System’ Kautilya’s views on state activities and its economis system resemble modern Indian welfare state system
  • According to Kautilya, to ensure good governance there must be a properly guided public administration, where the ruler should surrender his likes and dislikes in the interest of his subjects, and the personnel running the Government should be responsive and responsible.
  • He states that “In the happiness of his subjects lies the king’s happiness, in their welfare lays his welfare. He shall not consider as good as only that which pleases him but treat as beneficial to him whatever pleases his subjects”. This view of Kautilya’s displays his emphasis on Good Governance
  • Kautilya further emphasized that for citizen friendly good governance there should be uniformity in the administrative practices as well as competent ministers and officials possessing qualities of leadership, accountability, intellect, energy, good moral conduct, and physical fitness, capable of taking prompt decision.
  • A ruler who administers justice on the basis of four principles: righteousness, evidence, history of the case, and the prevalent law, shall conquer the earth.
  • According to him, there is stability if rulers are responsive, responsible, accountable, removable and recallable, otherwise there would be instability.
  • For good governance, all administrators, including the King, were considered servants of the people. They were paid for the services rendered and not for their ownership of anything.

Conclusion:

Kautilya’s views on state, government, law, justice system of administration, state function and foreign relations are milestones in the political literature and provide guidelines for all generations.

 

Topic : ethical issues in international relations

7. The world has not responded responsibly to international refugees’ crisis. Does it show failure of ethics in international relations? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: rescue.org

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of International Refugee crisis and the associated ethical concerns.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way World has failed to responsibly handle the Refugee crisis and how it’s an indication of failure of Ethics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss who constitute refugees, provide for key statistics to highlight the dismal conditions of them across the world.

Body:

Globally, more than two-thirds of all refugees come from five countries: Syria (6.7 million), Afghanistan (2.7 million), South Sudan (2.3 million), Myanmar (1.1 million), and Somalia (0.9 million). According to the UN’s Global Trends report, there are 37,000 new displacements every day.

Who is a refugee? – The UN defines refugees as those individuals that have fled their own countries because of persecution, war or violence. “A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries”.

Discuss then who is an internally displaced person?

Explain the current refugee crises across the globe. In detail discuss and elaborate on the ethical issues involved and in what way world has failed to responsibly handle them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions.

Introduction:

A refugee is defined as a person who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country. In the seven decades since it became an independent country, India has seen and largely welcomed waves of migrants fleeing conflict in neighbouring nations.

Body:

In today’s borderless world, there are a lot of interactions at various levels (country, professional, personal). The difference in the value systems and diversity makes Ethics in International relations imperative. Ethics provides guidance to the people in their international affairs.

Refugee crisis in on the rise across the globe:

  • Globally, more two-thirds of all refugees come from five countries: Syria (6.7 million), Afghanistan (2.7 million), South Sudan (2.3 million), Myanmar (1.1 million), and Somalia (0.9 million).
  • Countries in the developed regions host 16 per cent of refugees; one-third of the refugee population (6.7 million people) are in the Least Developed Countries.
  • The largest host countries are Turkey (3.7 million), Pakistan (1.4 million), Uganda (1.2 million), Sudan (1.1 million), and Germany (1.1 million).
  • According to the UN’s Global Trends report released in June this year, there are 37,000 new displacements every day.
  • In 2018, 13.6 million people were newly displaced due to conflict and or persecution.

 Ethical issues in IR with respect to refugee crisis:

  • In the face of the desperate plight of refugees, virtually all moral and political philosophers, regardless of their general position on immigration controls, argue that states have a duty to grant asylum: people must not be turned back to countries where they would face persecution or severe human rights violations.
  • Yet this consensus obscures a number of thorny ethical issues raised by the plight of the displaced.
  • Drawing on the normative standards of both the humanitarian and human rights movements, we can affirm that all persons deserve equal protection from grave threats to their worth as persons.
  • Denial of Protection: the ethical question lies in the cause of the so called “migration” which is not more of voluntary but undertaken to escape the instability and fear of persecution in the African and other countries. So the labelling of these people as migrants and not “refugees” itself denies them the protection under the international law – refugee convention of UNHCR. They are being considered mere economic subjects migrating due to economic hardships
  • Lack of humanitarian consideration: These migrants have been considered as a problem to deal with than as people in need of humanitarian relief. This underlies the political preference than humanitarian.
  • Consideration as a local problem: The problem is being looked at as one of the source countries and an integrated approach is lacking

Measures needed:

  • Firstly, the community where the crisis is occurring bears prime responsibility.
  • The criterion of capability also sheds light on positive duties to respond to crises that displace large numbers of people
  • Countries with greater economic and political capacities to help have proportionally greater responsibilities to do so.
  • These responsibilities may be carried out by granting asylum to more refugees, by providing larger opportunities for resettlement, and, perhaps most importantly today, by providing economic and other forms of assistance to countries like Turkey, Lebanon, and Jordan, who are already carrying a disproportionate burden.
  • the world leaders who should come forward and declare their stand and has to fix the problem at multilateral level.
  • It’s the time for the world to take the task into its hand, and engage the stakeholders into an effective dialogue. And fix this problem once and forever.

Conclusion:

Ultimately, refugee crises end when their root causes are addressed. Ending conflicts and widespread human rights abuses are objectives that states should pursue, but they are difficult to achieve. However, individual states and the international community as a whole must recognize that they can lessen the devastating consequences of the refugee crisis on people. For this, a global approach to the problem is needed. Ethics and Morality demands humanism should be the pioneer ideology in 21st century.


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