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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 11 August 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. Discuss how the pre-congress political organisations evolved in 19th century. (250 words)

Reference: Bipin Chandra’s Struggle for Independence

Why the question:

The question is from the modern history; Indian freedom struggle portions of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail how the pre-congress political organisations evolved in 19th century.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly talk about the importance of the coming of pre-congress political organisations that evolved in 19th century.

Body:

Following are the important public associations, established before the Indian National Congress −

  • The Landholders’ Society − founded in 1837, it was an association of the landlords of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa. Its purpose was to promote the class interests of the landlords.
  • The Bengal British Indian Society − founded in 1843, it was organized to protect and promote general public interests.
  • In 1851, the Landholders’ Society and the Bengal British Indian Society merged to form the British India Association.
  • The Madras Native Association and the Bombay Association were established in 1852.

The Scientific Society founded by Sayyid Ahmad Khan, were established in different towns of the country.

All the above-discussed associations were dominated by wealthy and aristocratic elements — called in those days’ prominent persons and were provincial or local in character.

The members of public associations worked for reform of administration, association of Indians with the administration, and spread of education, and sent long petitions, putting forward Indian demands, to the British Parliament.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of these associations to the formation of congress at a later stage that played key role in the freedom struggle.

 

Topic : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

2. The American Revolution inspired the French revolution and yet it was markedly different from it. Elaborate. (250 words)

Reference: World History by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question is from static portions of GS paper I , part world history.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way American Revolution inspired French revolution and yet it was remarkably different.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief talk about some details of both the revolutions, present some timeline.

Body:

The American Revolution principally introduced new political possibilities driven by the

Enlightenment idea of republicanism, resurgent from Roman times to those living in France. The American Revolution was merely political not social like French revolution. French soldiers and sailors who came to the aid of American patriots in fighting their common enemy, the British, returned to France with some new concepts to work out, most notably “republicanism.” With its philosophical ideas of the natural rights of individuals and the division of powers, the American Revolution inspired the French Revolution.

Present differences and similarities of the two revolutions. Explain how one contributed to the other though the other stood out to be remarkably different.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of the two.

 

Topic : Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.

3. Why is suicide the second leading cause for deaths in Indian youth? How is India tackling this issue? What further strategies are needed to stem suicides? Explain.  (250 words)

Reference: Outlook India 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the rising incidences of suicide cases being witnessed in the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss why suicides have become one of the leading causes of deaths in the country also suggest what needs to be done to resolve the alarming issue or to contain it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Suicides in India have become increasingly prevalent especially in the younger age groups. India has the highest suicide rate in the world among the youth standing at 35.5 per 100,000 people.

Body:

Start by explaining what are the reasons for such trends such as – family issues, unemployment, lack of access to education, lack of equity, mental health, failures in relationships, substance abuse etc.

Suggest what measures can be taken? – Mental health professionals, doctors and counselors can be reached out to manage suicidal tendencies. The proactive steps taken by several such professionals in the capacity of leaders has helped and has the potential to help save thousands of lives. There are several organizations, crisis centers and suicide prevention helplines that are offering a great support to the emotionally distressed and those individuals who feel suicidal.  Some of the helplines that may be approached are the Samaritans Mumbai. The National Mental Health Policy identifies a range of vulnerable groups for protection and seeks to decriminalize suicide.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable balanced opinion.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. The Aviation sector in India requires a major turnaround in the development of Airport infrastructure. What are the challenges that the Indian airports face today? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Recently, an Air India Express flight on a special ‘Vande Bharat’ repatriation flight from Dubai to Kozhikode overshot the runway and fell into a valley resulting in fatalities. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question expects one to bring out the issues and concerns associated with Airport infrastructure and the challenges that Indian airports face today.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by discussing the need for seamless and integrated airport infrastructure.

Body:

Discuss in detail the lacunae of the current airport infrastructure across the country.

Explain in what way with India’s aggressive approach to expanding its aviation sector, how it will handle the influx? Airports and airlines will remain interdependent, Too little infrastructure will harm the airlines; too much capacity will harm the airports, Congestion may signal a need to expand, Overexpansion may waste limited resources, Finding the right balance will take time, Ability of Indian airlines to successfully compete in the global market will shape the development of airports etc.

Suggest measures in this direction that the government is taking.  Present ideas to improvise the current conditions and overcome the grave concerns.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

 Topic : Disaster and disaster management.

5. Capacity building is the most important aspect of pre-disaster preparation to mitigate the impact of disaster. In this light, discuss the various levels and methods of capacity building. (250 words)

Reference: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov, Hindustan Times

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of capacity building during pre-disaster management and its significance.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concept of capacity building and the various levels and methods of it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by capacity building – The United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) define ‘Capacity Development’ for Disaster Risk Reduction as “the process by which people, organizations and society systematically stimulate and develop their capability over time to achieve social and economic goals, including improvement of knowledge, skills, systems, and institutions.

Body:

Discuss in detail the nuances of capacity building in pre-disaster management. Sendai Framework emphasizes the need for enhancing the technical, financial, and administrative capabilities of institutions, governments, and communities to deal with the risks at different levels.

Then move on to discuss the three levels of capacity development: individual, institutional and enabling environment. Present case studies to explain and substantiate better.

Conclusion:

Conclude that Capacity building cannot be the responsibility of the state alone. As the Sendai framework puts it aptly, we need an all-of society approach. There is need to build the knowledge of civil society, communities and volunteers on disaster risk reduction and need to train people in the private sector such as private medical practitioners and engineers for medical response and disaster resilient construction respectively.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. Should the philosophy of Kautilya as sama, dana, danda and bheda be applied in politics and administration to achieve desirable objectives? How it will affect morality of people? Explain. (250 words)

Reference:  idsa.in

Why the question:

The question is based on the applicability of the philosophy of Kautilya as sama, dana, danda and bheda applied to politics and administration.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to deduce upon the applicability of the philosophy of Kautilya to the administration and politics of today’s world.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the philosophy of Kautilya –  sama, dana, danda and bheda.

Body:

Explain that in the context of India, diplomacy is said to be rooted in history and epics. The most ancient methods of diplomacy can be traced back to Chanakya and his nitis. According to the great scholar in order to manage a well-knit administration and safeguard the state, it is essential for a king to be an expert in diplomacy. Diplomacy was considered to be a crucial aspect of statecraft. In order to practice diplomacy, he prescribed four methods or Upayas –  Sama, Dana, Bheda and Danda.

Give relevant examples and present your opinion.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting applicability of the philosophy to Indian context.

 

Topic : ethical issues in international relations

7. The world has not responded responsibly to international refugees’ crisis. Does it show failure of ethics in international relations? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: rescue.org

Why the question:

The question is premised on the theme of International Refugee crisis and the associated ethical concerns.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in what way World has failed to responsibly handle the Refugee crisis and how it’s an indication of failure of Ethics.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss who constitute refugees, provide for key statistics to highlight the dismal conditions of them across the world.

Body:

Globally, more than two-thirds of all refugees come from five countries: Syria (6.7 million), Afghanistan (2.7 million), South Sudan (2.3 million), Myanmar (1.1 million), and Somalia (0.9 million). According to the UN’s Global Trends report, there are 37,000 new displacements every day.

Who is a refugee? – The UN defines refugees as those individuals that have fled their own countries because of persecution, war or violence. “A refugee has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group. Most likely, they cannot return home or are afraid to do so. War and ethnic, tribal and religious violence are leading causes of refugees fleeing their countries”.

Discuss then who is an internally displaced person?

Explain the current refugee crises across the globe. In detail discuss and elaborate on the ethical issues involved and in what way world has failed to responsibly handle them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with suitable solutions.


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