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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 10 August 2020

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2020: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

1. What is Magnetic Reconnection with respect to the sun’s surface? Discuss its role in coronal heating and coronal mass ejection. (250 words)

Reference: phys.orgThe Hindu 

Why the question:

An international team of solar physicists have measured the global magnetic field of the sun’s corona, or outer atmosphere, for the very first time. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the concept of magnetic Reconnection and its role in coronal heating and coronal mass ejection.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define Magnetic reconnection first; Magnetic reconnection is a process where opposite polarity magnetic field lines connect and some of the magnetic energy is converted to heat energy and also kinetic energy which leads to the generation of heating, solar flares, solar jets, etc.

Body:

Explain that Reconnection is at the heart of many spectacular events in our solar system. For example, solar flares which occur near sunspots are believed to be powered by magnetic reconnection. Solar magnetic activity, including flares, can eject high energy charged particles into space. When the particles reach Earth, they can disrupt power grids and communications systems and threaten spacecraft and satellites.

A related phenomenon is the aurora seen near the polar regions of Earth as well as on other magnetized planets. The Earth’s own magnetic field is constantly perturbed by the impinging field from the sun (called the solar wind). During strong bursts (such as those caused by extraordinary solar flares) reconnection can be induced in the near-Earth magneto tail (a narrow magnetic field structure located on the night side many Earth-radii away). The tenuous plasma in that region is then accelerated down magnetic field lines into the Polar Regions, striking Earth’s atmosphere and exciting nitrogen and oxygen atoms as well as other atoms present in our atmosphere. The immediate de-excitation of these atoms then emit the wonderful and often intricate display of light we know as the aurora or northern (and southern) lights.

Discuss its contributions to coronal heating and coronal mass ejection in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of such a discovery.

 

Topic : The Freedom Struggle —  its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

2. Discuss the significance and impact of Quit India movement. How is it relevant in today’s times? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The 77th anniversary of the August Kranti Din, which is considered as one of the important milestones in the history of freedom struggle of our country, was observed on yesterday.

Key Demand of the question:

Question is from the static portions of GS paper I; modern history of India. One has to discuss the significance and impact of Quit India movement and its relevance as of today.

Directive:

Structure of the answer:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments

Introduction:

Discuss about the movement; The Indian National Congress launched the ‘Quit India Movement’ in August 1942, under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, at the Bombay session of Congress Committee.

The aim of the movement was to force the British to withdraw from India.

Body:

Start by explaining the importance and significance of such a movement. Explain what happened during the Quit India Movement, what led to the movement. Importance of Quit India Movement – Significance/What it achieved? – Despite heavy-handed suppression by the government, the people were unfazed and continued their struggle. Even though the government said that independence could be granted only after the end of the war, the movement drove home the point that India could not be governed without the support of the Indians. The movement placed the demand for complete independence at the top agenda of the freedom movement. Public morale and anti-British sentiment were enhanced.

Discuss its relevance as of today.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : India and its neighborhood- relations. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

3. Deliberate upon the concerns associated with Cartographic aggression attempted by Pakistan recently, how will they further up the tensions between India and Pakistan? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is amidst the tit-for-tat game that India and Pakistan often engage in has entered a new phase with the Pakistan government unveiling a ‘new political map’ of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the concerns associated with such a cartographic aggression of Indian neighbors especially Pakistan and its impact on the further tensions between India and Pakistan.

Directive:

Deliberate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Prime Minister Imran Khan issued a map that shows the Indian Union Territories of Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), and Ladakh as well as territory in Gujarat as part of Pakistan, a move that is in response to a map that India issued in October last year that showed Pakistan-Occupied Kashmir (POK) and Gilgit-Baltistan as well as Aksai Chin as Indian territory.

Body:

The Indian Ministry of External Affairs has termed Pakistan’s announcement of a new political map, which asserts its claims on Jammu and Kashmir, Siachen and Sir Creek, and lays a new claim to Junagadh, as an exercise in “political absurdity”, and accused Pakistan of attempting a form of “territorial aggrandizement supported by cross-border terrorism”.

Pakistan’s decision to issue the map, a tit-for-tat maneuver in return for India’s decision to reorganize Jammu and Kashmir a year ago, appears to reset several agreements with India that have been concretized over the past 70 years.

Discuss in what way such aggressions are causing ill effect on the India-Pak relations.

Explain what the available way forward to resolve the issue is.

Conclusion:

Pakistan’s actions, while on completely bilateral matters, come in conjunction with map-related issues India faces today on two other fronts: with China at the Line of Actual Control on Ladakh, and with Nepal at Kalapani and Limpiyadhura. It is surely no coincidence that all three countries objected to the map and thus New Delhi must be well-prepared to deal with the three-pronged cartographic challenge it will face in the coming months.

 

Topic : Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures. Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.

4. What do you understand by Universal Service obligation Fund? Highlight its Contributions to Inclusive development of the country. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

PM will inaugurate Submarine cable connectivity to Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the program is going to be funded with USOF.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what you understand by Universal Service obligation Fund and also highlight its Contributions to Inclusive development of the country.

Directive:

Highlight – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what you understand by USOF.

Body:

Universal Service Obligation Fund:  Funds come from the Universal Service Levy (USL) of 5% charged from all the telecom operators on their Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) which are then deposited into the Consolidated Fund of India, and require prior parliamentary approval to be dispatched.

Their aim is to provide universal telecom services and ensure that even the unconnected areas in the country reap the benefits of inclusive development.

Quote the example of submarine cable connectivity to Andaman & Nicobar Islands (A&NI) that is premised on the USOF.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance of such funds in Inclusive development of the country.

 

 Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5. Is the NEP’s 10-year deadline, to make all children entering Grade 1 school-ready through Early Childhood Care and Education, practical? Debate. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article is from By, Anita Rampal, is a former Dean, Faculty of Education at Delhi University; Leena Chandran Wadia was a senior consultant in the Kasturirangan Committee on the 10 year deadline of NEP 2020.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss whether the NEP’s 10-year deadline, to make all children entering Grade 1 school-ready through Early Childhood Care and Education, practical.

Directive:

Debate – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you agree with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Quote relevant facts related to the question context. The new National Education Policy (NEP), approved by the Union Cabinet last week, seeks to align itself with the Sustainable Development Goal of ensuring inclusive and equitable quality education for all in the next 20 years.

Body:

Present in detail the possible arguments as applicable to the question demands- At the time that their brain is developing fast and they can learn a lot, we must help them learn as much as possible. So that is a deadline we must try to meet.

Since April 1, 2010, we have a Right to Education Act making it a fundamental right of every child aged between 6 and 14 years to get free and compulsory education, in a neighborhood school. This has been a fundamental right for the last 10 years. So there is no question of having a target of another 10 years. What this policy is doing is, it is very quietly, very problematically, going back on a fundamental right of a child, enacted by law. Discuss with the NEP silent on last year’s draft proposal to expand the RTE Act’s scope to cover children from 3 to 18 years, can universal education be attained?

Take hints from the article and present suitable stand.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to overcome these associated challenges.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Work ethics and work culture

6. Lack of an orientation to take and own responsibility as moral development is the main cause of poor work ethics in governments’ offices. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao and P N Chowdhary

Why the question:

The question is based on the work ethics in government offices.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the need for proper orientation and need to own responsibility as moral development to ensure effective functioning of government offices ethically.

Directive:

Substantiate – When you are asked to substantiate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question using suitable case studies or/ and examples.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss what you understand by lack of an orientation to take and own responsibility as moral development.

Body:

Discuss the concept of work ethics; explain the need to take responsibility.

Such answers are best explained with case studies/examples, one must give day to day office situation to explain the need for moral responsibility as a key feature to ensure good work ethics.

Discuss why there is lack of moral development in the government offices? Suggest how it can be inculcated. Explain and suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

7. Discuss the possible ethical concerns involved with issuing ‘immunity certificates’ to people who have recovered from diseases like covid-19. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article analyzes the arguments both in favour of and against the issuing of immunity certificates. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the possible ethical concerns involved with issuing ‘immunity certificates’ to people who have recovered from diseases like covid-19.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Firstly, discuss what you understand by Immunity certificates?

Body:

An immunity certificate is a document attesting that its bearer is immune to a contagious disease. These certificates are granted following a serological test demonstrating that the bearer has antibodies making them immune to a disease. The concept of immunity certificate has drawn much attention during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Discuss the associated nuances; present the debate of Natural infection-induced immunity and vaccine-induced immunity, explain in what way these aspects attract the ethical concerns in issuing immunity certificates.

Concerns – Lack of scientific studies, no surety of test results, Public health risk involved, profiteering by private labs performing tests, and the menace of fake certificates etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that in the end, an immunity passport will further divide the society with different ‘haves’ and ‘have-nots’.


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