InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Facts for Prelims:
1. Gandagi Mukt Bharat.
GS Paper : 1
Topics Covered: The Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different parts of the country.
78th anniversary of Quit India movement was observed on August 8th, 2020.
- Every year 8 August is celebrated in India as August Kranti Din.
What is Quit India Movement? Why was it launched?
- The Second World War had started in 1939 and Japan, which was part of the Axis Powers that were opposed to the British in the war were gaining onto the north-eastern frontiers of India.
- The British had abandoned their territories in South-East Asia and had left their population in the lurch. This act did not garner much faith among the Indian population who had doubts about the British ability to defend India against Axis aggression.
- Gandhi also believed that if the British left India, Japan would not have enough reason to invade India.
- Apart from hearing news about British setbacks in the war, the war-time difficulties such as high prices of essential commodities fostered resentment against the British government.
- The failure of the Cripps Mission to guarantee any kind of a constitutional remedy to India’s problems also led to the INC calling for a mass civil disobedience movement.
After the failure of the Cripps Mission, Gandhiji gave the call “Do or Die”’ in his speech delivered at the Gowalia Tank Maidan.
The quit India resolution stated the provisions of the movement as:
- An immediate end to British rule over India.
- Declaration of the commitment of free India to defend itself against all kinds of imperialism and fascism.
- Formation of a provisional government of India after British withdrawal.
- Sanctioning a civil disobedience movement against British rule.
Gandhi’s instructions to various sections of the public:
- Government servants: do not resign your job but proclaim loyalty to the INC.
- Soldiers: be with the army but refrain from firing on compatriots.
- Peasants: pay the agreed-upon rent if the landlords/Zamindars are anti-government; if they are pro-government, do not pay the rent.
- Students: can leave studies if they are confident enough.
- Princes: support the people and accept the sovereignty of them.
- People of the princely states:support the ruler only if he is anti-government; declare themselves as part of the Indian nation.
Impact of the movement:
- Several national leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Abdul Kalam Azad, Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel were arrested.
- The Congress was declared an unlawful association, leaders were arrested and its offices all over the country were raided and their funds were frozen.
- The first half of the movement was peaceful with demonstrations and processions. The peaceful protest was carried till Mahatma Gandhi’s release.
- The second half of the movement was violent with raids and setting fire at post offices, government buildings and railway stations. Lord Linlithgow adopted the policy of violence.
- The Viceroy’s Council of Muslims, Communist Party and Americans supported Britishers.
Some of the drawbacks were:
- Use of violent methods by the volunteers and participants.
The movement was crushed in a relatively short period of time by the British.
Lack of leadership did not lead to well-coordinated guidance and progress of the movement, with the intensity restricted to a few pockets.
- Some parties did not support the movement. There was opposition from the Muslim League, the Communist Party of India (the government revoked the ban on the party then) and the Hindu Mahasabha.
- Meanwhile, Subhas Chandra Bose, organised the Indian National Army and the Azad Hind government from outside the country.
- As, C Rajagopalachari was not in favour of complete independence he resigned from the INC.
Quit India Movement was a watershed movement in the sense, that it prepared the ground for future politics in India. It is in the Quit India Movement that freedom struggle was owned by ’We the People’ who fought for India’s freedom.
- Aruna Asaf Alipopularly known as the ‘Grand Old Lady’ of the Independence Movement is known for hoisting the Indian flag at the Gowalia Tank Maidan in Mumbai during the Quit India Movement.
- Female leaders like Usha Mehta has helped set up an underground radio station which led to the awakening about the movement.
- Main proposals of the Cripps Mission.
- INC’s response to Cripps Mission proposals.
- Aruna Asaf Ali and Usha Mehta are popularly remembered for?
- C Rajagopalachari’s response to Quit India Movement.
- Who formed Azad Hind Government? When and where was it formed?
- Parties which did not support Quit India Movement.
- Causes and outcomes of Quit India Movement.
‘August Kranti’ was an important milestone in the Indian freedom struggle for it was more of a spontaneous revolt than a planned movement of Congress.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Educationist Professor Pradeep Kumar Joshi has been appointed as the chairman of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).
- Joshi is currently a member in the Commission.
- He will succeed Arvind Saxena.
Who appoints chairman and other members?
Article-316– Appointment and term of office of members:
The Chairman and other members of a Public Service Commission shall be appointed, in the case of the Union Commission or a Joint Commission, by the President, and in the case of a State Commission, by the Governor of the State.
A member of a Public Service Commission shall hold office for a term of six years from the date on which he enters upon his office or until he attains, in the case of the Union Commission, the age of sixty-five years, and in the case of a State Commission or a Joint Commission, the age of sixty-two years, whichever is earlier.
A person who holds office as a member of a Public Service Commission shall, on the expiration of his term of office, be ineligible for reappointment to that office.
But, a member other than the Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission shall be eligible for appointment as the Chairman of the Union Public Service Commission, or as the Chairman of a State Public Service Commission, but not for any other employment either under the Government of India or under the Government of a State. Also, the Chairman of a State Public Service Commission shall be eligible for appointment as the Chairman or any other member of the Union Public Service Commission.
Article-317- Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission:
Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission shall only be removed from his office by order of the President on the ground of misbehaviour after the Supreme Court, on reference being made to it by the President, has, on inquiry held in accordance with the procedure prescribed in that behalf under article 145, reported that the Chairman or such other member, as the case may be, ought on any such ground to be removed.
Besides, President may by order remove from office the Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission if the Chairman or such other member, as the case may be,—
- is adjudged an insolvent; or
- engages during his term of office in any paid employment outside the duties of his office; or
- is, in the opinion of the President, unfit to continue in office by reason of infirmity of mind or body.
Guilty of Misbehaviour:
If the Chairman or any other member of a Public Service Commission is or becomes in any way concerned or interested in any contract or agreement made by or on behalf of the Government of India or the Government of a State or participates in any way in the profit thereof or in any benefit or emolument arising therefrom otherwise than as a member and in common with the other members of an incorporated company, he shall, for the purposes of clause (1), be deemed to be guilty of misbehaviour.
(Note: This is an important and exhaustive topic. We advise you to go through the following link and note down various related facts:
- Constitutional provisions related to Public Service Commissions.
- Functions of UPSC.
- Chairman and members of UPSC- eligibility, appointment and removal.
- Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission.
- Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions.
- Reports of Public Service Commissions.
Topics Covered: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
In a first of its kind in the country, the Delhi State Legal Services Authority (DSLSA) recently organized the e-lok Adalat to facilitate mediation between the parties, who are willing to get their matters settled amicably, in all the District Courts Complexes of Delhi.
How it was conducted?
In the e-Lok Adalat, an online link would be sent by SAMA (an Online Dispute Resolution platform recognized by Department of Justice for resolving disputes through video conferencing) to the concerned parties and a judge would preside over the mediation process.
Following the settlement, an OTP would be sent to them and on confirmation, the dispute would be settled.
77 Benches were constituted wherein total 5838 cases were disposed of pertaining to various categories in which settlement amount was approx Rs 46.28 crores.
What is a Lok Adalat?
Lok Adalat is one of the alternative dispute redressal mechanisms, it is a forum where disputes/cases pending in the court of law or at pre-litigation stage are settled/ compromised amicably.
The Lok Adalats are formed to fulfil the promise given by the preamble of the Indian Constitution– securing Justice – social, economic and political of every citizen of India.
Article 39A of the Constitution provides for free legal aid to the deprived and weaker sections of the society and to promote justice on the base of equal opportunity.
Articles 14 and 22(1) of the Constitution also make it compulsory for the State to guarantee equality before the law.
Under the Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987 Lok Adalats have been given statutory status.
The decision made by the Lok Adalats is considered to be a verdict of a civil court and is ultimate and binding on all parties.
There is no provision for an appeal against the verdict made by Lok Adalat.
But, they are free to initiate litigation by approaching the court of appropriate jurisdiction by filing a case by following the required procedure, in exercise of their right to litigate.
There is no court fee payable when a matter is filed in a Lok Adalat. If a matter pending in the court of law is referred to the Lok Adalat and is settled subsequently, the court fee originally paid in the court on the complaints/petition is also refunded back to the parties.
Nature of Cases to be Referred to Lok Adalat:
- Any case pending before any court.
- Any dispute which has not been brought before any court and is likely to be filed before the court.
Provided that any matter relating to an offence not compoundable under the law shall not be settled in Lok Adalat.
Levels and Composition of Lok Adalats:
Please go through: https://nalsa.gov.in/lok-adalat.
- Who organises National Lok Adalat?
- What are Permanent Lok Adalats?
- Composition of Lok Adalats.
- Nature of cases to be referred to Lok Adalat.
- Article 39A of the Constitution.
- Decisions made by Lok Adalats- are they binding?
Discuss the significance of Lok Adalats as an effective dispute resolution institution in present scenario.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
It essentially means that the Armed Forces—Army, Navy and Air Force—will only procure all of these 101 items from domestic manufacturers.
- The manufacturers could be private sector players or defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs).
Why was this policy needed? What will be the impacts?
As per Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, India has been the second largest importer between 2014 and 2019 with US$ 16.75 billion worth of imports during this period.
- The government wants to reduce the dependence on imported items in defence and give a shot in the arm to the domestic defence manufacturing industry.
- By denying the possibility of importing the items on the negative list, the domestic industry is given the opportunity to step up and manufacture them for the needs of the forces.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: India and its neighbourhood- relations.
India has refused a request by Pakistan to hold a meeting on issues around the Indus Water Treaty (IWT) at the Attari checkpost near the India-Pakistan border.
In March India had suggested a virtual conference but Pakistan had insisted on a physical meeting.
But, India said because of restrictions on movement in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, travelling to the border for a meeting isn’t advisable.
What are IWT meetings? When they are held?
The practice at the IWT meetings is that they are led by Indus Water Commissioners from both countries and a range of issues on construction of dams and hydropower projects concerning the Indus river system are discussed.
- The last such meeting between the two countries was in October in Islamabad, and, as per the agreement in the Indus Water Treaty (IWT), a meeting was to be scheduled in India before March 31.
What’s the latest dispute?
Evolving a procedure to solve differences on technical aspects governing the construction of the Ratle run-of-the-river (RoR) project on the Chenab in the Kishtwar district of Jammu and Kashmir.
- India has called for the appointment of a ‘neutral’ party while Pakistan favours a Court of Arbitration to agree upon a final resolution on the design parameters of this hydropower project.
About the Indus Water Treaty:
It is a Water-Distribution Treaty, signed in Karachi on 1960, between India (Pm Jawaharlal Nehru) and Pakistan (President Ayub Khan), brokered by the World Bank .
- Under the treaty, India has control over water flowing in the eastern rivers– Beas, Ravi and Sutlej.
- Pakistan has control over the western rivers– Indus, Chenab and Jhelum.
- As per the treaty, the water commissioners of Pakistan and India are required to meet twice a year and arrange technical visits to projects’ sites and critical river head works.
- Both the sides share details of the water flow and the quantum of water being used under the treaty.
- The treaty sets out a mechanism for cooperation and information exchange between the two countries regarding their use of the rivers.
- Indus and its tributaries.
- When was Indus Water treaty signed?
- Who brokered the treaty?
- Highlights of the treaty?
- Functions of Permanent Indus Commission.
- Hydroelectric projects in News in this regard.
Discuss the significance of Indus Water Treaty.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper : 3
Topics Covered: Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System objectives, functioning, limitations, revamping; issues of buffer stocks and food security; Technology missions; economics of animal-rearing.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently launched the financing facility of Rs 1 lakh crore under the Agriculture Infrastructure Fund via video conferencing.
- The fund has been launched as part of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’ (self-reliant India) to make farmers self-reliant.
About the Agriculture Infrastructure Fund:
It is a new pan India Central Sector Scheme.
- The scheme shall provide a medium – long term debt financing facility for investment in viable projects for post-harvest management Infrastructure and community farming assets through interest subvention and financial support.
- The duration of the Scheme shall be from FY2020 to FY2029 (10 years).
Under the scheme, Rs. One Lakh Crore will be provided by banks and financial institutions as loans to Primary Agricultural Credit Societies (PACS), Marketing Cooperative Societies, farmer producer organisations (FPOs), SHGs, Farmers, Joint Liability Groups (JLG), Multipurpose Cooperative Societies, Startups etc.
All loans under this financing facility will have interest subvention of 3% per annum up to a limit of Rs. 2 crore. This subvention will be available for a maximum period of seven years.
- Credit guarantee coverage will be available for eligible borrowers from this financing facility under Credit Guarantee Fund Trust for Micro and Small Enterprises (CGTMSE) scheme for a loan up to Rs. 2 crore.
- The fee for this coverage will be paid by the Government.
- In case of FPOs the credit guarantee may be availed from the facility created under FPO promotion scheme of Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers Welfare (DACFW).
Management of the fund:
- It will be managed and monitored through an online Management Information System (MIS) platform.
- The National, State and District level Monitoring Committees will be set up to ensure real-time monitoring and effective feed-back.
- What are FPOs?
- What are Cooperatives? Constitutional provisions.
- About CGTMSE.
- Central sector vs Centrally sponsored schemes.
- Core vs core of core schemes.
Facts for Prelims
Gandagi Mukt Bharat:
Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently launched “Gandagi Mukt Bharat”, a week-long campaign for ‘swachhata’ in the run-up to Independence Day.
- During this week, each day till August 15 will have special ‘swachhata’ initiatives in urban and rural India to re-enforce the ‘jan andolan’ for ‘swachhata’.
Articles to be covered tomorrow:
- Nepal, India in war of words over Buddha’s origins.
Articles covered previously
(Note: This section helps you have a brief overview of articles which are frequently in news and are repeated with no significant developments. This will also help you reduce unnecessary burden.)
Krishna Water dispute:
Minister for Industries, IT and Urban Development K.T. Rama Rao has stated that Telangana’s cordial relations with Andhra Pradesh would not hinder its fight for the rightful share of people in Krishna water.
- The said there would be no compromise on the State’s interests and the government had already filed a special leave petition in the Supreme Court.
Note: This was just a statement given by a state minister and there has been no significant development on the issue. Hence, please go through the following article to understand all about the dispute: