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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 5 August 2020

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General Studies – 1


 

Topic : Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

1. The economic policies followed by the British led to the rapid transformation of India’s economy into a colonial economy whose nature and structure were determined by the needs of the British economy. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Modern Indian history by Bipin Chandra

Why the question:

The question is based on the features of colonial economy in India and its economic policies.

Key Demand of the question:

Describe the features of colonial economy in India and provide for a detailed analysis of the economic policies of the British in India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by describing the features of colonial economy in India.

Body:

Earlier India was known as sink of gold and silver. It was self-sufficient in agricultural and handicrafts products and had steady market of finished products abroad. However, with the coming of British rule, Indian economy was transformed into colonial economy that suited the interests of British, not the local population. India was transformed into supplier of raw materials, a market of British manufacturers, and a field of investment for foreign capital.

Discuss the exploitation of British through its economic policies in three phases -Mercantile Phase (1757-1813), Free Trade Capitalist exploitation (1813-1858), and Imperialistic phase.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the negative effects of such policies on India and how it entirely lead to the freedom struggle.

 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2. Sea-level rise (SLR) is a “well accepted” consequence of climate change. Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

Recently, a study in journal scientific reports made predictions that a large population and assets will be globally affected as a consequence of Sea Level Rise (SLR). Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail in what way Sea level rise has become more of a result of climate change these days.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Discuss the concept of Sea level rise.

Body:

SLR is an increase in the level of the world’s oceans due to the effects of climate change, especially global warming, induced by three primary factors – Thermal Expansion, melting glaciers, Loss of Greenland and Antarctica’s ice sheets.

Quote some key data such as – Global sea level has been rising over the past century, and the rate has accelerated in recent decades. The average global sea level has risen 8.9 inches between 1880 and 2015. That’s much faster than in the previous 2,700 years.

Discuss the possible consequences and with suitable facts explain in what way it is more a consequence of climate change.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the issue, explain what needs to be done; significance of global collective efforts in this direction.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity.

3. Discuss the prospects of online dispute resolution to the Indian judiciary. Do you agree that it provides for an opportunity to give more people access to justice and ease the burden on the courts? (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article presents to us in detail the possible prospects of online dispute resolution to Indian Judiciary.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the prospects of online dispute resolution and in what way It can aid more accessibility to justice and help in easing the burden of the courts.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by suggesting that the Covid-19 pandemic continues to challenge traditional services’ delivery, including access to justice and effective justice delivery.

Body:

Given the worrying situation in terms of pendency and time taken for resolution of disputes, the pandemic has led to introspection and an immediate pivot to fast-tracking innovation led by technology.

Suggest that for efficient justice delivery will require the intervention of technology and a two-pronged approach towards dispute avoidance and dispute resolution and in such a situation online dispute resolution (ODR) could have a significant role in pre-empting disputes at the avoidance and containment stages.

Talk about the potential of ODR, its advantages and concerns if any.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic : Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

4. Literacy rates differ considerably across gender, regions and social groups in India. Elaborate. Also, suggest measures to improve the current conditions. (250 words)

Reference: orfonline.org

Why the question:

The question intends to analyse the spatial variation of literacy rates across the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the underlying factors responsible for such a spatial variation in the literacy rate and suggest solutions to improve the current conditions.

Directive:

Elaborate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by defining what you understand by literacy rate.

Body:

Literacy is said to be an instrument of empowerment; discuss in what way it varies across the following dimensions – Gender, Region, social groups etc.

Literacy across gender – The literacy rate for women is almost 22% less than the literacy rate for men. There has been rise in female literacy and in the year it was noticed that between year 1991 and 2001 there has been a 15% rise in literacy in case of females compared to the rise in male literacy of a little less than 12% in the same period.

Literacy across social groups – Disadvantaged communities like the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes have lower rates of literacy and rates of female literacy within these groups are even lower.

Literacy across regions – Regional variations are still very wide, with states like Kerala approaching universal literacy, while states like Bihar are lagging far behind.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what needs to be done to address these challenges, one can mention the efforts of the government in this direction while commenting upon the draft NEP 2020.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

5. Pesticide pollution is a major environmental issue in India, which has far-reaching consequences. Discuss while enumerating the various sources of Pesticide pollution. (250 words)

Reference: Down to Earth 

Why the question:

Recently the Centre has issued a draft order banning the manufacture and sale of pesticides on grounds of the grave risk they pose to humans and animals.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the issue of pesticide pollution in India and its far reaching consequences along with its sources.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what pesticide pollution is.

Body:

Introduce the answer with some statistics on pesticide pollution in India. Enlist the sources of pesticide pollution and their consequences. Pesticide contamination, diminishing ecology and biodiversity, farmer suicides, insect resurgence, the monopoly of a few corporations and food export rejection due to pesticide residue are all to be cited in detail.

Explain the sources like apart from agriculture, the chemical industry also contributes heavily to the source.

Conclusion:

Conclude by mentioning a few measures to tackle the sources of pesticide pollution and that India is at a crossroads where the need is increasingly being felt for a ‘science to live’ and not a ‘science to kill’.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic : Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics – in private and public relationships. Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators; role of Family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

6. What do you understand by utilitarianism? Illustrate with examples the grounds on which it has been criticized. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is based on the concept of Utilitarianism.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the concept of Utilitarianism in detail and bring out its criticism with suitable examples.

Directive:

Illustrate – A similar instruction to ‘explain’ whereby you are asked to show the workings of something, making use of definite examples and statistics if appropriate to add weight to your explanation.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Utilitarianism is fundamentally driven by the principle of utility i.e. that action is morally right which produces the best overall consequences with regard to the utility or welfare of all the affected parties.

Body:

Discuss the objectives of the theory in detail; Utilitarian theories propound “greatest happiness of the greatest number”.

Comment upon the ideas of Jeremy Bentham, John Stuart Mill and Henry Sidgwick who are some utilitarianism theorists.

Then move onto discuss the objections to Utilitarian theory such as – Utilitarian theories might require us to do morally problematic or doubtful things in order to bring about a good result, In a utilitarian society, people’s behaviour would lack the kind of predictability and consistency that is required to sustain trust and social stability.

Suggest way out to such situations.

Conclusion:

Conclude that thus, there are various concerns associated with utilitarian ethics and it cannot be the sole guiding light for human actions, societal goals and government’s programmes.

 

Topic: Citizen’s Charters

7. Highlighting their significance, discuss the issues with Citizen’s Charter in India.(250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by Lexicon Publications

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of citizen’s charter; its importance and issues associated with it.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss briefly the concept of citizen’s charter, its significance and bring out the associated issues while suggesting solutions to address the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define citizen’s charter; A Citizen’s Charter is a document of commitments made by an organization regarding the delivery of services to citizens with specified standards, quality and time frame. It seeks to make an organisation transparent, accountable and citizen friendly. The 2nd Administrative Reforms Commission describes it as a tool to ensure that the citizen is always at the heart of any service delivery mechanism.

Body:

Introduce by defining Citizen’s Charter and its objective.

 Proceed to discuss the significance of Citizen’s Charter – It enshrines trust between the service provider and its users, It ushers in a regime of transparency and openness, enhances administrative efficiency and promotes good governance, helps to enhance the quality of the services to be provided etc.

Analyse the issues facing Citizen’s Charter in India such as – Non-existent and out-dated Charters, Bureaucratic rigidity, Unrealistic targets, Lack of awareness amongst citizens etc. among others.

Conclusion:

Conclude by suggesting a way forward.


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