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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 4 August 2020

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2020: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

1. Given the significance of laborers to urban development, there is a need to address the stark inequalities and make urban spaces in India more socially and financially inclusive. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The question is based on the inclusive urbanisation from topics of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the need to address the stark inequalities and make urban spaces in India more socially and financially inclusive through the concept of inclusive urbanisation.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define the context of the question; provide some statistical data suggesting the stark inequalities, the plight of laborers in the country.

Body:

Define what you understand by inclusive urbanisation. Suggest its key features. Explain why the concept is more relevant than ever in the context of Indian cities.  

The Covid-19 pandemic has proved that the Indian cities are overburdened and underprepared to provide guaranteed social protection to millions of migrant workers. Due to denial of access to adequate food and nutrition, livelihood, housing and basic amenities like water and sanitation facilities, there has been an exodus of migrant laborers from urban to rural areas.

Further, with over 90% of the population working in the informal economy, the International Labour Organization (ILO) has predicted that as a result of the crisis and subsequent lockdown, about 400 million workers will fall deeper into poverty. Given the significance of these laborers to urban development, there is a need to address the stark inequalities and make urban spaces in India more socially and financially inclusive.

Discuss the issues faced by migrant workers in urban areas.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions to address the problem.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic : Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2. Give an account of the benefits that can accrue from the One Nation One Ration Card scheme. In this context, also discuss the challenges that need to be addressed for the scheme to become a success. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint 

Why the question:

The question is based on the rationale of One Nation One Ration Card scheme.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in what way this scheme will be instrumental in the welfare of migrant workers and play a vital role in averting migrant crisis as it existed today. Also discuss the challenges associated with it.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the fact that Covid-19 pandemic has created a dilemma of lives vs livelihood, for governments as well as citizens. But in the absence of basic income and food security, this dilemma may hurt migrant workers the most and will lead to a migrant crisis.

Body:

Account for the advantages that the scheme can accrue. Discuss in detail the rationale behind the ONORC scheme. Discuss the benefits.

List down the possible challenges associated with implementation and execution of the scheme.

Suggest what steps need to be taken to address those challenges.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

3. What do you understand by human capital? Explain how human capital formation contributes to economic growth and development. (250 words)

Reference: Investopedia 

Why the question:

The question is premised on the concept of human capital and its contributions to economic growth and development of the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the concept of human capital; explain in what way it contributes to economic growth and development.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define human capital first, Human Capital can be defined as the knowledge, skills, competence and other attributes that individuals or groups of individuals acquire during their life and use to produce goods, services and ideas in the economy. It can be developed through skilling, training and providing quality education & health care facilities.

Body:

Write a brief note on the economic and non-economic benefits of investment in human capital. Giving few examples discuss how human capital formation contributes to economic growth and development.

Discuss how it enhances employability of the human resources, how it has a positive correlation with improved earnings and career prospects etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

 

Topic : Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. Examine the significant features as well as the gaps in the recently approved National Education Policy of 2020. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

Thirty-four years after the last National Policy on Education was introduced, in 1986, the National Education Policy, 2020 has been announced. It has been approved by the Union Cabinet, and will hopefully be approved by Parliament soon. Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and aims to assess the advantages and lacunae in the NEP 2020.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The article explains that despite having several innovative and bold proposals, National Education Policy, 2020 also makes a few problematic assumptions.

Body:

Discuss first the features and the bold moves of the new policy 2020 such as recognition of education as a public good. Holistic education involving both academic and non-academic spheres. Incorporation of early childhood care and education and the provision of breakfast in the school meal programme through 5+3+3+4 system.

Discuss then the issues associated with NEP 2020. Highlight the concerns and suggest solutions.

Conclusion:

Conclude that an idea based on good intentions cannot materialize unless it is implemented properly.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment

5.  What is Production Linked incentive scheme for electronics manufacturing? How does the scheme benefit Indian economy? Explain. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article talks about the production linked incentive scheme for electronics manufacturing and its benefits to the Indian economy.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss what Production Linked incentive scheme for electronics manufacturing is and explain does the scheme benefit Indian economy.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define Production Linked incentive scheme.

Body:

Production Linked Incentive Scheme (PLI) for Large Scale Electronics Manufacturing, Notified on 1st April, 2020. Incentives are applicable under the scheme from 01.08.2020.

 What it is? an incentive of 4% to 6% on incremental sales (over base year) of goods under target segments that are manufactured in India to eligible companies, for a period of five years subsequent to the base year (FY2019-20). 22 companies have filed their application under the Scheme.

Discuss the benefits and challenges associated with it.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the prospects of the program.

 

Topic: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment.

6. Comment upon the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and suggest a few policy measures to address this challenge. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article co-authored by the former Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh discusses the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and suggests a few policy measures to address this challenge.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the economic impact of Covid-19 pandemic and suggest a few policy measures to address.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

India entered the COVID-19 crisis in a precarious position, with slowing growth, rising unemployment and a strained financial system. The epidemic has made it more painful.

Body:

The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent regulations have had adverse impacts on livelihoods and the larger economy. The economic impact of COVID-19 is expected to be bigger than the health impact itself. The global economy is expected to experience one of its worst years in history and the Indian Economic contraction does not just imply a decrease in GDP numbers but marks a reversal of years of progress.

The article argues that the slowdown in economic activity is a function of both external factors such as the lockdown and behavioural changes of people and enterprises, driven by fear, and calls for definitive and urgent steps to revive the economy back to good health.

The article argues that the key to reviving India’s economy would be to inject confidence back in the entire ecosystem involving the people (consumers), entrepreneurs and the bankers.

Conclusion:

The path to sustained recovery is to improve confidence and sentiments in society, using economic tools of fiscal and monetary policies.

 

7. “Borderless cyberspace, as a part of the “global commons” does not exist; discuss the quest for order amid cyber insecurity. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The article is by Syed Akbaruddin who has served as India’s Permanent Representative at the United Nations.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to discuss the quest of order amidst cyber insecurity and in what way borderless cyberspace needs to be part of global commons.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

 Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Cyber-attacks amidst this pandemic have grown tremendously. In one week in April 2020, reportedly, there were over 18 million daily malware and phishing emails related to COVID-19 monitored by a single email provider, in addition to more than 240 million COVID-19-related daily spam messages.

Body:

Explain that like global public health, cybersecurity is a niche area, left to experts. A better understanding of the global cyberspace architecture is required.

Discuss what the gaps in the current system are. Borderless cyberspace, as a part of the “global commons” does not exist. It is an illusion that connectivity across national boundaries nurtured.

The Internet depends on physical infrastructure that is under national control, and hence is subject to border controls too. Each state applies its laws to national networks, consistent with its international commitments.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the need to recognise quest for order amid cyber insecurity.


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