InstaLinks help you think beyond the issue but relevant to the issue from UPSC prelims and Mains exam point of view. These linkages provided in this ‘hint’ format help you frame possible questions in your mind that might arise(or an examiner might imagine) from each current event. InstaLinks also connect every issue to their static or theoretical background. This helps you study a topic holistically and add new dimensions to every current event to help you think analytically.
Table of Contents:
GS Paper 1:
GS Paper 2:
GS Paper 3:
Facts for Prelims:
1. Smart India Hackathon 2020.
2. Bharat Air Fibre Services.
5. Places in News- Barakah Nuclear Energy Plant.
6. Places in News- Agatti island.
7. UK Plans Coin In Mahatma Gandhi’s Honour.
GS Paper : 1
Topics Covered: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
One of the firebrand freedom fighters and the strongest proponent of ‘purna swaraj’ or ‘total self-rule’, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak’s 100th death anniversary was observed on August 1st.
- Part of the Lal-Bal-Pal (Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal) troika, Bal Gangadhar Tilak was called ‘father of the Indian unrest” by British colonial rulers.
- Jawaharlal Nehru called him the ‘father of Indian revolution’.
- Mahatma Gandhi described Tilak as ‘the maker of modern India’.
His famous slogan:
His slogan ‘Swaraj is my birth right and I shall have it’ caught the imagination of a country fighting to free itself from the colonial rule.
Tilak’s birth anniversary was on 23rd July. A detailed article has already been published. Hence, we request you to go through this article:
- Extremists vs Moderates in the Indian National Congress.
- Who founded All India Home Rule league? What were the objectives?
- Newspapers published by Tilak.
- Tilak’s association with the Deccan Education Society.
- About Gita Rahasya.
- Who described Tilak as the “maker of modern India”.
Bal Gangadhar Tilak played a vital and major role in India’s freedom struggle. Discuss.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.
Why in News?
Recently, Foreign Minister of Nepal said that the 1947 agreement among India, Nepal and the United Kingdom that deals with the military service of Gorkha soldiers has become redundant.
About the 1947 pact on Gorkha soldiers:
- Following the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16, the British decided to recruit Gorkha soldiers in 1815.
- After India’s Independence in 1947, the question of allotting the 10 regiments of Gorkha soldiers was settled by the Britain-India-Nepal Tripartite Agreement.
- The agreement divided the Gorkha Regiments of the british Empire between India and the United Kingdom.
- It also assured that the Gorkha soldiers of Nepal while serving in the british military will draw perks and privileges equivalent to their counterparts.
What’s the issue now?
- For some time now, Gorkha veterans have been alleging that the UK has been discriminating against them.
- The objection from Nepal regarding the Gorkhas serving in the Indian military has been heard more prominently in the recent months in the backdrop of Nepal-India territorial dispute over the Kalapani region.
Nepal has written to the United Kingdom to review the engagement with London to secure the prospects of the Gorkha soldiers.
And also, Nepal is planning to terminate the 1947 agreement.
Gorkhas in the British Army:
Currently, the Gorkhas comprise up to 3% of the British Army, and in 2015 completed 200 years of service there.
- Regarded as fierce and loyal, the Gorkhas are held in high esteem in the British Army. They are enlisted not only in the infantry, but also in the engineering corps and as logisticians.
- Their signature weapon, the khukri, famous for the inwardly curved shape of its blade and its legendary utility, forms part of the Gorkha regimental insignia in Britain as well as in India.
- Queen Elizabeth II of Britain is guarded by two personal Gurkha officers.
The Indian Army Chief is granted the honorary post of a General in the Nepal Army.
- Causes and the outcomes of the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814-16.
- About Treaty of Sugauli.
- Overview of the 1947 pact on Gorkha Soldiers.
- Where is Kalapani.
- Where is Naku La?
- Where is Doklam?
Discuss the contributions of Gorkhas to the Indian army and implications of their service on India – Nepal relations.
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper : 2
Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
Why in News?
The special status of Jammu and Kashmir was revoked on August 5 last year. But, even after almost a year, over two dozen mainstream leaders of the regional parties in Jammu and Kashmir remain under house arrest.
- The state was stripped of special status under Article 370 and the government had also repealed Article 35A.
Concerns associated with such measures:
- House detentions without any administrative orders are unlawful.
- It undermines human rights and individual liberty.
- Even the courts failed to hear petitions and left jailed Kashmiris at the mercy of the government.
How many people have been arrested so far?
Jammu and Kashmir home department officials estimate that, in the run up to and aftermath of August 5, more than 500 people were booked under the Public Safety Act.
- That included stone-pelters, lawyers, separatist leaders of the Hurriyat as well as leaders of pro-India parties.
- Around 250 Kashmiri detainees are still lodged in jails outside the Union Territory.
Since 6th of August, 2019, more than six hundred Habeas Corpus Petitions have been filed before the Hon’ble High Court of Union Territory of J&K at Srinagar and till date not even 1% of such cases have been decided by the J&K High Court.
What needs to be done now?
- Conditional release of leaders placed under house arrest for more than a year.
- Restoration of 4G network.
- Lifting of the curbs on peaceful political activity.
- A multilevel dialogue with those affected with the August 5 decision.
- Compensation to Kashmiri farmers and businessmen for their economic losses.
Powers of government under the Public Safety Act:
- Also called as the Jammu & Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA), 1978.
- It is a preventive detention law, under which a person is taken into custody to prevent him or her from acting in any manner that is prejudicial to “the security of the state or the maintenance of the public order”.
When and why was it introduced?
Introduced as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers “out of circulation”.
- The law allowed the government to detain any person above the age of 16 without trial for a period of two years.
- It allows for administrative detention for up to two years “in the case of persons acting in any manner prejudicial to the security of the State”, and for administrative detention up to one year where “any person is acting in any manner prejudicial to the maintenance of public order”.
How is it enforced?
It comes into force when administrative order passed by either by Divisional Commissioner or the District Magistrate.
The detaining authority need not disclose any facts about the detention “which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose”.
Protection to enforcing authorities:
Section 22 of the Act provides protection for any action taken “in good faith” under the Act: “No suit, prosecution or any other legal proceeding shall lie against any person for anything done or intended to be done in good faith in pursuance of the provisions of this Act.”
Who is empowered to make rules in this regard?
Under Section 23 of the Act, the government is empowered to “make such Rules consistent with the provisions of this Act, as may be necessary for carrying out the objects of this Act”.
However, no Rules have so far been framed to lay down procedures for the implementation of the provisions of the PSA.
But, why is the law controversial?
- It allows for detention without trial.
- No Right to File Bail
- It provides a vast number of reasons for detention.
- No Distinction Between Minor and Major Offences.
Can the Courts intervene?
The only way this administrative preventive detention order can be challenged is through a habeas corpus petition filed by relatives of the detained person.
- The High Court and the Supreme Court have the jurisdiction to hear such petitions.
- However, if the order is quashed, there is no bar on the government passing another detention order under the PSA and detaining the person again.
Article 22 (3) – If a person is arrested or detained under preventive detention, then the protection against arrest and detention under Article 22 (1) and 22(2) shall not be available.
- Articles 370 and 35A are related to?
- Preventive detention related provisions under the Indian Constitution.
- When and why was Public Safety Act introduced?
- Sections 22 and 23 of the Public Safety Act are related to?
- Who enforces the provisions of the act?
Discuss the key features of Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA). Why is it often referred to as a “draconian” law?
Sources: the Hindu.
GS Paper : 3
Topics Covered: Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.
Why in News?
Global electronics giants such as Samsung, Pegatron, Flex, and Foxconn among others are in final stages of negotiations to benefit from the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology’s (MeitY) production linked incentive (PLI) scheme for making mobile phones and certain other specified electronic components.
About the PLI scheme:
Notified on April 1 as a part of the National Policy on Electronics.
It proposes a financial incentive to boost domestic manufacturing and attract large investments in the electronics value chain.
Key features of the scheme:
- The scheme shall extend an incentive of 4% to 6% on incremental sales (over base year) of goods manufactured in India and covered under target segments, to eligible companies, for a period of five (5) years with financial year (FY) 2019-20 considered as the base year for calculation of incentives.
- The Scheme is open for applications for a period of 4 months initially which may be extended.
- The Scheme will be implemented through a Nodal Agency which shall act as a Project Management Agency (PMA) and be responsible for providing secretarial, managerial and implementation support and carrying out other responsibilities as assigned by MeitY from time to time.
According to the scheme, companies that make mobile phones which sell for Rs 15,000 or more will get an incentive of up to 6 per cent on incremental sales of all such mobile phones made in India.
In the same category, companies which are owned by Indian nationals and make such mobile phones, the incentive has been kept at Rs 200 crore for the next four years.
What kind of investments will be considered?
- All electronic manufacturing companies which are either Indian or have a registered unit in India will be eligible to apply for the scheme.
- These companies can either create a new unit or seek incentives for their existing units from one or more locations in India.
- However, all investment done by companies on land and buildings for the project will not be considered for any incentives or determine eligibility of the scheme.
Why we need such scheme?
The domestic electronics hardware manufacturing sector faces lack of a level playing field vis-à-vis competing nations.
- The sector suffers disability of around 8.5% to 11% on account of lack of adequate infrastructure, domestic supply chain and logistics; high cost of finance; inadequate availability of quality power; limited design capabilities and focus on R&D by the industry; and inadequacies in skill development.
- Therefore, to position India as a global hub for Electronics System Design and Manufacturing (ESDM), it is necessary to encourage and drive capabilities in the country for developing core components and create an enabling environment for the industry to compete globally.
- Key proposals under the National Policy on Electronics.
- Production linked incentive scheme- when was it announced?
- Incentives under the scheme is available to?
- What kind of investments will be considered?
- Duration of the scheme.
- Who will implement it?
What is the production linked incentive scheme for electronics manufacturers? Discuss.
Sources: the Hindu.
Topics Covered: Awareness in space.
China has recently completed its BeiDou Navigation Satellite System constellation.
What is the BeiDou navigation system?
It is Chinese Satellite Navigation System.
The system uses a network of satellites and can provide positional accuracies of under ten metres (GPS provides positioning accuracies of under 2.2 metres).
- China initiated BeiDou in 1994 with aims to integrate its application in different sectors, including fishery, agriculture, special care, mass-market applications, forestry and public security.
- BeiDou offers services including accurate positioning, navigation and timing as well as short message communication.
How many satellites are there in the system?
It consists of 27 satellites in medium Earth orbit, five in geostationary orbit and three more in inclined geosynchronous orbits.
What does this mean for China?
As ties between US and China deteriorated, it had become more important for China to have its own navigation system that the US does not have control over.
By completing BeiDou, China now has its own navigation system, which will compete with systems developed by other countries.
It is of foremost importance in allowing China’s military to employ Beidou-guided conventional strike weapons.
Which other countries are working on building their navigation systems?
- The GPS is owned by the US government and operated by the US Air Force.
- Russia has its navigation system called GLONASS.
- The European Union (EU) has Galileo.
- India’s navigation system is called Navigation with Indian Constellation (NavIC).
- Differences between low earth orbit, medium earth orbit and geostationary orbit.
- Services offered by BeiDou navigation system.
- How is it different from the GPS of US.
- About GLONASS and Galileo navigation system.
- About NavIC.
Write a note on the objectives and significance of NAVIC (Navigation with Indian Constellation).
Sources: Indian Express.
Topics Covered: Infrastructure- roadways.
It is an online transit pass generation system for timber, bamboo and other forest produce.
- It was launched recently by the Union Environment Ministry.
- The pilot project will be functional in Madhya Pradesh and Telangana for now.
How it works?
An applicant has to register in the system, thereafter the applicant can apply for a transit pass.
Application will move to concerned range forest office. After following state specific procedure of verification, transit pass will be issued.
The applicant will receive message of issuance and transit pass can be downloaded and viewed.
It expedites issuance of transit pass system. A transit pass issued will be valid across India. This will enhance seamless movement of forest produce.
Facts for Prelims
Smart India Hackathon 2020:
- The hackathon is a nationwide initiative to provide students with a platform to solve some of the pressing problems people face in daily lives, and thus inculcate a culture of product innovation and a mindset of problem-solving.
- The first edition of Smart India Hackathon was held in 2017.
- This hackathon is being organised jointly by the Ministry of Human Resources Development, All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), Persistent Systems and i4c.
Bharat Air Fibre Services:
The Bharat Air Fibre services are introduced by BSNL as part of digital India initiates by the Government of India and it aims of providing Wireless Connectivity in the range of 20 KMs from the BSNL Locations and thus customers at remote places also will be benefitted as BSNL comes with cheapest services with support of Telecom Infrastructure Partners (TIPs).
Dhole (Asiatic wild dog):
Why in News? Karnataka, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh rank high in the conservation of the endangered dhole in India, according to a new study.
- Dhole is an apex social carnivore in the tropical forests of South and South East Asia.
- Endangered –IUCN.
- CITES – Appendix II.
- Shedule II of wildlife act.
- Disease and pathogens: Dholes are susceptible to rabies, canine distemper, canine parvovirus and sarcoptic mange among others which are usually contracted from domestic village dogs that act as reservoirs.
It is the language of government and education of the Chinese mainland and Taiwan, with the notable exceptions of Hong Kong and Macau where a local dialect of Chinese called Cantonese is more often used.
The National Education Policy (NEP) has dropped Mandarin or ‘Chinese’ from its list of examples of foreign languages that can be taught in schools.
Places in News- Barakah Nuclear Energy Plant:
United Arab Emirates’ first nuclear reactor at the Barakah Nuclear Energy Plant has achieved first criticality and successfully started up.
Barakah, which means “blessing” in Arabic, is a regional first.
Barakah was built by a consortium led by the Korea Electric Power Corporation.
Places in News- Agatti island:
Why in News?
Recently, the National Green Tribunal granted an interim stay on felling of coconut trees on Agatti Island for the purpose of forming a Beach Road.
UK Plans Coin In Mahatma Gandhi’s Honour:
Britain is considering minting a coin to commemorate Mahatma Gandhi, amid growing interest in recognizing the contributions of people from the Black, Asian and other minority ethnic communities.