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[Insights Secure – 2020] Daily UPSC Mains Answer Writing Practice: 28 July 2020

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INSIGHTS NEW SECURE – 2020: YEARLONG TIMETABLE

 


General Studies – 1


 

Topic: Social empowerment; Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

1. The relationship between the level of education and early marriage of women is well established in breaking the cycle of poverty, ill health, as well as the inter-generational cycle of malnutrition. Critically examine. (250 words).

Reference: Indian Express 

Why this question?

India’s Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) stands at 122 as per the latest Sample Registration System (SRS) bulletin from last year — a significant decline from an MMR of 556 in 1990. A parallel decrease in the prevalence of child marriage is also noted — 58 per cent in 1970-80 to 21 per cent by 2015-16.

However, despite these positive developments, intrauterine growth restriction and poor birth outcome for gestational age and low birth weight (LBW) remain a grave concern, with three out of 10 children being LBW and a neonatal mortality rate of 23/1000 live births. Early marriage and early pregnancy play a central role in this grim scenario.

Key demand of the question:

One must discuss about the importance of how a well-educated woman’s chances of making informed decisions and exercising greater agency in the household helps in breaking the cycle of poverty, ill health, as well as malnutrition. However, there are challenges in ensuring the education of the women, leading to breakdown of the virtuous cycle of good health and empowerment.

Directive Word:

Critically examine – – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement. 

Structure of Answer:

Introduction:

write a few introductory lines about India’s MMR, intrauterine growth restriction and poor birth outcome for gestational age and low birth weight (LBW) remain a grave concern for the women of India.

Body:

Discuss in points the impacts of the early marriage on women.

Now discuss How education of women leads to calculated choices and in turn helps in breaking the cycle of poverty, ill health, as well as the inter-generational cycle of malnutrition

Provide measures that is needed to strive for empowerment of women.

Conclusion:

Based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion on the given issue.

 


General Studies – 2


 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

2. Covid-19 may make it too ambitious and unrealistic for India to achieve its aim of eradicating tuberculosis (TB) by 2025. Critically analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Live Mint

Why this question:

Covid-19 may make it difficult for India to achieve its aim of eradicating tuberculosis (TB) by 2025. The notification of TB cases has sharply declined in January-June, compared to the same period in 2019, according to real-time data available with the Union health ministry, indicating that the pandemic has severely hit TB notification services. While 914,000 TB cases were reported between January and June, 1.25 million cases came into light in the same period in 2019, representing a 26% fall in case notifications, showed government data.

Key demand of the question:

The question expects us to discuss in detail the current scenario of tuberculosis prevalence in India, the efforts being taken by the government in this direction to eliminate it by 2025. You must critically analyse using facts and figures and justify whether the goal set by the government of India is achievable in near future.

Directive word:

Critically analyze – When asked to analyze, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary. When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, one needs to look at the good and bad of the topic and give a fair judgement.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Re- assert the importance of TB elimination in India.

Body:

Explain Briefly the current status of TB in India – use the facts from the article.

Then justify how eliminating TB by 2025 is a laudable vision, but difficult to achieve, considering the complexities of managing the situation, which requires equitable high quality of care to every person from diagnosis to treatment, cutting the transmission rapidly with a combined strategy of early diagnosis treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTB) and improving socioeconomic conditions.

Highlight the features and lacuna of National Strategic Plan prepared by the center in 2017.

What needs to be done – leveraging private partnership, increased political will, financial resources and increasing research to develop new ways to diagnose etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude with optimism that such a goal is not unachievable if right set of actions are taken.

 

Topic: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

3. The story of bilateral ties between India and Sri Lanka is the story of ups and downs. The pandemic presents an opportune time for Sri Lanka and India to nourish the roots of the relationship using modern toolkits, but leveraging age-old wisdom and experience. Examine. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why this question:

The unique India-Sri Lanka relationship, de jure, is between equals as sovereign nations. But it’s asymmetric in terms of geographic size, population, military and economic power, on the one hand, and social indicators and geographical location, on the other. It is steeped in myth and legend, and influenced by religious, cultural and social affinities. This is an opportune time for Sri Lanka and India to nourish the roots of the relationship using modern toolkits, but leveraging age-old wisdom and experience.

Key demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and aims to examine the bilateral ties between India and SriLanka. One must talk about the historical hits and misses in the bilateral ties. Further, one must discuss how the pandemic presents an opportunity in strengthening the ties using modern tools.

Directive:

Examine – When asked to ‘Examine’, we must look into the topic (content words) in detail, inspect it, investigate it and establish the key facts and issues related to the topic in question. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start with an introduction talking about the bilateral ties between India and SL.

India and Sri Lanka, despite having past common colonial experiences, have certain strategic imperatives, and differing policies dictated by national interests, at times conflicting with each  other.

Body:

Taking cue from the article, explain the highs of bilateral ties since Independence.

Talk about the irritants that are still persisting in the bilateral ties.

What are the prospective and potential areas of co-operation and common interests.

Discuss how the pandemic provides an opportune time to overcome the same.

Conclusion:

Conclude with a balanced way forward.

 


General Studies – 3


 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

4. Discuss the contribution of A P J Abdul Kalam to indigenisation and development of new technology in India? (250 words)

Reference: The Wire

Why this question:

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was a man of many parts. Best known for the good nature he brought to the office of the president, he was also an author and inspirational speaker, a poet in Tamil, an amateur musician and polymath. Most of all, however, he was a scientist with a flair for inventiveness, adaptation and administration – qualities that propelled him to the frontlines of the national imagination when the rocketry that he devoted most of his professional life to helped India reach for the skies. July 27, 2020, is the occasion of Kalam’s fifth death anniversary.

Key demand of the question:

The question is a straightforward one. One must discuss the contributions of “Missile Man of India” – Dr. Kalam.

Directive word:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly introduce about Dr. Kalam.

Body:

The question is straightforward.

Discuss the contributions of Dr. Kalam as a scientist in rocket development, missile development, nuclear programme of India, director of ISRO and DRDO and finally as “People’s President of India” and to the student community of India.

Highlight his varied interests in music, writing as well.

Conclusion:

Conclude with the values that we need to imbibe from the Great man’s life.

 

Topic: Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

5. What are Spywares and stalkerwares? Discuss their implications of the onslaught of cyber-crimes and vulnerabilities in the cyber landscape during the pandemic. Provide measures for the same. (250 words).

Reference: Indian Express 

Why this question

Global cyber-security leader Avast has in a note warned that there was a 51 per cent increase in the use of spyware and stalkerware during the lockdown period from March to June. The usage of these apps, the company had in its note said, increased during lockdown in the backdrop of heightened domestic violence cases.

With this, the onslaught of cyber-crimes and vulnerabilities in the cyber landscape are increasing by the day. Security flaws in videoconferencing tools, along with malware, ransomware attacks on digital payments systems have already surfaced. The sudden thrust towards digitisation involving the new internet users particularly from rural and semi-urban population are most susceptible to data breaches and frauds like phishing and skimming. Levels of online activity that challenge the confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of network traffic are accelerating.

Key demand of the question

The question expects us to explain the concepts of Spyware and stalkerware. One must discuss the increasing implications of the same at cybersecurity during the pandemic. Provide the measures to safeguard people from such dangers.

Directive word

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief narrate the recent attack by the spywares during the pandemic.

Body:

Explain the terms spyware and stalkerware.

Discuss the threats such cyber-attacks pose to people.

Explain the associated risk factors in detail and methods to tackle them.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 

Topic: Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation.

6. With an avalanche of PPE suits, masks and sanitiser bottles in our landfills brought about by Covid, the war against single-use plastic has been reversed. Discuss in detail the underlying causes of such a situation and suggest solutions. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why this question?

Fanning the fear of infection, companies are trying to sneak single-use plastics back into the economy. This might yet be the worst fallout of the pandemic. Thanks to an avalanche of PPE suits, masks and sanitiser bottles in our landfills brought about by Covid, the war against single-use plastic has been reversed. These products are no doubt beneficial during a medical emergency of such scale, but what we’re seeing now is how companies are exploiting yet another crisis.

Key demand of the question:

One must debate upon the increasing single-use plastic in the garb of pandemic. Discuss the reasons for the same and the solutions to overcome the same.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief state some key facts to set the context of the question.

Body:

The answer must detail upon what ails India when it comes to meaningful action on reducing plastic waste.

With high usage of the safety kits, sanitizers, etc. the single use plastic are making a quiet comeback in large scale.

Discuss the various reasons for the same.

Suggest solutions specific to the problems.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

 


General Studies – 4


 

Topic: Human Values – lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers and administrators;

7. “You cannot change your future, but you can change your habits, and surely your habits will change your future.” Explain the meaning of quote and importance of perseverance in life. (250 words)

Key demand of the question.

The question wants us to explain the meaning of quote. In the next part, one must define perseverance and talk about its importance in one’s life.

Structure of the answer

Introduction-

Briefly introduce the quote and talk a few words about Dr. Kalam who gave the quote.

Body-

Explain the meaning of the quote and what it means to you in your life.

You can quote examples and case studies to substantiate your arguments.

Define the word ‘perseverance’ and talk about its importance in one’s life.

Conclusion–

based on your discussion, form a fair and a balanced conclusion.


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