Topic : The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
2. Discuss the successes and failures of the moderate phase of the Indian National movement. (250 words)
Reference: Modern Indian history by Bipin Chandra
Why the question:
The question is from the static portions of GS paper I.
Key Demand of the question:
Explain in detail the successes and failures of the moderate phase of the Indian National movement.
Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.
Structure of the answer:
Briefly introduce with the moderate phase of the Indian National movement, its duration, important leaders, demands, methods, etc.
Start by explaining that the moderate phase of the Indian National movement refers to the first two decades of the formation of the Indian National Congress (1885-1905). It was guided by the moderate ideologies/methods of leaders of INC such as Dadabhai Nairoji, G. K. Gokhale, W. C. Banerjee,Ferozshah Mehta and others, who came to be known as Moderates.
Their key demands were administrative and legislative reforms of the country, reduction of military expenditures, and introduction of representative institutions, etc. Their methods included peaceful and constitutional methods to demand reforms using prayers, petitions, protests, meetings, resolutions, pamphlets, memoranda and delegations. They had faith in the British justice system.
Highlight the successes as well as failures/limitations of the moderates
Conclude briefly with their overall contribution to the Indian National movement