Print Friendly, PDF & Email

SECURE SYNOPSIS: 9 July 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic : History of the world will include events from 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redrawal of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.

1. Discuss the problems faced by newly decolonized nations of Asia and Africa? How far they have been successful in tackling these problems? (250 words)

 Reference: World history by Norman Lowe

Why the question:

The question aims to discuss the problems faced by newly decolonized nations of Asia and Africa and to what extent they became successful in tackling such problems.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail the problems associated with the decolonized nations of Asia and Africa also explain how far they could succeed in tacking these problems.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by defining decolonization and reasons for it

Body:

Explain the problems faced by newly decolonized countries. After the World war II, the colonial powers came under pressure from growing nationalism in their colonies. Movements for freedom pushed these colonial powers to free the colonies from their rule and ended dependency on them. This process came to be known as decolonization.

Though, countries fought with unity to get freedom, but this decolonization process came with several hardships.

Explain by taking examples, how the situation has improved over the years

Conclusion:

Conclude that thus, the decolonization process was a challenging one but the countries have learnt a lot from their struggles. This is the reason that today focus has turned towards the third world nations for global matters.

Introduction:

Decolonization is the contrary of colonialism, this is the process whereby one nation establishes itself independent and separate from the state it had emerged from. The term refers particularly to the dismantlement, in the years after World War II, of the Neo-Imperial empires established prior to World War I throughout Africa and Asia. Between 1945 and 1960, three dozen new states in Asia and Africa achieved autonomy or outright independence from their European colonial rulers.

Body:

After the Second World War, the major Asian colonies such as India, Indonesia, Indochina, and the Philippines gained independence. This change rapidly speeded during the 1960s which saw the decolonization of approximately all of Africa. In the decade of 1980s, nearly all the western colonies had become self-governing or had been fully integrated into sovereign states. The ruthless exploitation by the colonial powers was curbed and democracy and equality was established. International relations assumed a truly international character.

The problems faced by newly decolonized nations of Asia and Africa:

  • There were innumerable Cultural, Economic and political impacts of decolonization on the new countries that took birth. Decolonization gave rise to what is referred to as the third world countries.
  • Political issues:
    • The colonial rule drew arbitrary natural boundaries dividing ethnic and linguistic groups and natural features, and laying the foundation for the creation of numerous states lacking geographic, linguistic, ethnic, or political affinity.
    • Inexperienced leadership: At Independence, there were several presidents, like Jomo Kenyatta, had several decades of political experience, but others, like Tanzania’s Julius Nyerere had entered the political fray just years before independence. There was also a distinct lack of trained and experienced civil leadership.
    • USA and European world started democratization of these countries. The Soviet Union deployed similar effort to encourage new nations to join the communist bloc. Some adopted capitalism (Malaysia, Indonesia) while others socialism (India, Egypt etc).
    • Independent foreign policy: Non-aligned movement started in 1955 to focus on internal development. Decolonized nations as a policy took to neutralism and followed nonalignment as a symbol of prestige and dignity.
    • Democracies & civil wars: Though democratic forms of government were setup in colonies, only few like India, Malaysia and Egypt were able to keep their democratic character. In Africa most countries like Angola, Nigeria, Zaire etc suffered from civil wars based on ethnic lines and with a dictator governing the countries.
  • Economic issues:
    • These newly independent countries often relied on only one or two commodities for export. This led to a disaster when the prices of these products fell.
    • For the loans taken from abroad they concentrated on increasing exports. At the same time food for home consumption became more scarce.
    • One of the most pressing challenges these new states faced at Independence was their lack of infrastructure. These new countries also lacked the manufacturing infrastructure to add value to their raw materials. Rich as many African countries were in cash crops and minerals, they could not process these goods themselves.
    • Rise of Neocolonialism: the practice of using capitalism, globalization, and cultural forces to control new countries.
    • The dependency principle evolved: the claim that post-colonial states have no choice but to accept Western conditions for loans, because they desperately need the money to support their own domestic policies.
  • Socio-Cultural Issues:
    • Unlike the colonial time, now they were free and started to revive their old culture. Religious and ethnic movements facilitated interaction of cultures.
    • Racial conflicts continued: For instance, in South Africa the whites dominated the politics and the economic life of the new state. Blacks were not even allowed to vote. Even though blacks made up the majority of the population they were discriminated very badly.
    • Various films, music, fiction, autobiographies, and museum displays were developed to learn the lessons from the history of colonization and its impacts.
    • Population resettlements like relocation of Jews in Palestine and Sikhs and Muslims in border areas of India-Pakistan, creating permanent animosity between people.
    • Also few newly independent countries acquired stable governments almost immediately; others were ruled by dictators or military for decades, or endured long civil wars.
    • In 1980’s Africa reeled under severe drought which caused crop failures, famine, deaths of livestock and starvation.

Success in tackling these problems:

  • The third world countries still have some common characteristics, like poverty, high density of population, high mortality rate, dependence on developed countries etc.
  • In general, the third world countries are less economically developed than the first world and second world countries.
  • These countries face numerous problems like poverty, unemployment, uncontrolled population, high   infant   mortality rate, lack   of industrialization.
  • The reasons for these problems are many, and there are different theories which attempt to explain third world underdevelopment.
  • Causes of under development are not same in all under developing nation states, somewhere corruption is the major cause, somewhere lack in resources are the major cause, and somewhere wrong policies are the major cause of under development.
  • But the most common cause of under development is the dependency upon developed countries, and terrorism.
  • Large populations of the 420 million people living in Africa and Asia have begun the third millennium living under conditions of poverty. Near 40% of households are poor and 16% extremely poor. Poverty is even more widespread and deep in rural areas where 32% of population live and work. Near 55% of rural households are poor and about 33% extremely poor.
  • They lack literacy, illiterate population is 10-15 %, even upto 50 % in some countries. In some African countries like Mozambique, Ethiopia, Benin, Chad literacy rate is as low as 34-35%. Even in South Asian countries like Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh literacy rate is less than 50%.
  • Most of these countries suffer from malnutrition. In the Asian, African and Latin American countries, well over 500 million people are living in what the World Bank has called “absolute poverty”.
  • According to the Global Hunger Index, South Asia has the highest child    malnutrition    rate    of    world’s    Countries    like    Bangladesh, Pakistan, Philippines, India. In fact, half of   the   children   in   India   are   undernourished. Malnutrition is a big problem in the African countries too like Congo, Ethiopia, Sudan, Zambia etc

Way forward:

These countries could improve their human capital by focusing on the socio-economic development and providing Widespread education, better healthcare, livelihood options, skill development, cutting down bureaucracy, financing entrepreneurs, increasing the investment opportunities for national and international investors in a transparent manner, building strong global governing bodies like UN, WTO etc. and providing opportunities for the NGOs to help the needy. These steps would ensure the development of much needed human capital which in turn leads to overall development of the nation.

 

Topic : Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.

2.  Most of the volcanoes are situated along the plate boundaries on the world. Explain the reasons along with discussing the different types of volcanoes. (250 words)

 Reference: Physical geography by Savindra Singh

Why the question:

The question is straight from the static portions of geography subject of GS paper I.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss different types of volcanoes; explain the reasons for most of the volcanoes are situated along the plate boundaries on the world.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce by defining volcanoes.

Body:

A volcano is a place where gases, ashes, and/or molten rock material i.e. lava escape to the ground. Discuss its classification briefly.

Explain the reason for formation of volcanoes along the plate boundaries.

Describe different types of volcanoes – shield volcanoes, composite volcanoes, caldera, flood basalt provinces, mid oceanic ridge volcanoes etc.

Give recent volcanic eruptions as examples and draw diagrams

Conclusion:

Conclude with their importance.

Introduction:

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. The process is called Volcanism and has been ongoing on Earth since the initial stages of its evolution over 4 billion years ago.

Body:

Volcano eruptions on land in the last century alone have produced one and half billion tons of material per year, while the volume of basalts erupted by submarine volcanoes in mid-ocean rifts and along fracture zones is several times higher. Volcanic activity is widespread over the earth, but tends to be concentrated in specific locations. Volcanoes are most likely to occur along the margins of tectonic plates.

  • Volcanoes at convergent plate boundaries:

Ocean-Ocean plate collision and Ocean – Continent plate collision: In subduction zones where oceanic plates dive under continental plates. As the oceanic plate subducts beneath the surface, intense heat and pressure melts the rock. Molten rock material, magma, can then ooze its way toward the surface where it accumulates at the surface to create a volcano.

oceanic

pacific+plate

Circum-Pacific Region: Also known as “Pacific Ring of fire”: about two-thirds of the world’s volcanoes are found in this region. The chain of volcanoes extends from Aleutian Islands into Kamchatka, Japan, the Philippines and Indonesia, southward into Pacific Islands of Solomon, Tonga and New Zealand. On the other side of the pacific, the chain continues from the Andes to Central America (Guatemala, Costa Rica and Nicaragua), Mexico and right up to Alaska. Example: Mt. Fuji, Mt. Vesuvius, Stromboli, Etna etc.

Types of volcanoes found due to convergent plate boundaries:

  • Composite Cones or Strato volcanoes:
    • They are conical or central type volcanic landforms.
    • Along with andesitic lava, large quantities of pyroclastic material and ashes find their way to the ground.
    • They are accumulated in the vicinity of the vent openings leading to formation of layers, and this makes the mounts appear as composite volcanoes.
    • The highest and most common volcanoes have composite cones.
    • Example: Vesuvius, Mt. Fuji, Stromboli (Lighthouse of the Mediterranean) etc.
  • Cinder cone (Tephra cones):
    • Cinder cones are small volume cones consisting predominantly of tephra that result from strombolian eruptions.
    • They usually consist of basaltic to andesitic material.
  • Calderas:
    • After the eruption of magma has ceased from the cones, the crater frequently turns into a lake at a later time.
    • Water may collect in the crater. This lake is called a ‘caldera’.
    • Example: Lake Toba in Sumatra, Crater Lake in Oregon, USA.
  • Volcanoes at Divergent plate boundaries:

Divergent boundaries within continents initially produce rifts which eventually become rift valleys.  Example: In Africa’s East African Great Rift Valley– Mt.Kilimanjaro, Mt. Kenya, Mt. Cameroon.

Most active divergent plate boundaries occur between oceanic plates and exist as mid-oceanic ridges. Example: Mid- Atlantic ridge where there is a constant sea-floor spreading and formation of new plate boundaries. Iceland is a remarkable location in that a section of the North-Atlantic mid-ocean ridge is exposed on land.

Divergent boundaries also form volcanic islands which occur when the plates move apart to produce gaps which molten lava rises to fill.  

divergent_boundary

magma

Types of volcanoes found due to divergent plate boundaries:

  • Conical Vent and Fissure Vent:
    • A conical vent is a narrow cylindrical vent through which magma flows out violently. Conical vents are common in andesitic (composite or strato volcano) volcanism.
    • A fissure vent, also known as a volcanic fissure or eruption fissure, is a narrow, linear volcanic vent through which lava erupts, usually without any explosive activity. The vent is often a few meters wide and may be many kilometres long. Fissure vents are common in basaltic volcanism. 
  • Shield Volcanoes or Lava domes:
    • These volcanoes are mostly made up of basalt, a type of lava that is very fluid when erupted. They are not steep.
    • They become explosive if somehow water gets into the vent; otherwise, they are less explosive.
    • Example: Mauna Loa (Hawaii). 
  • Mid-Ocean Ridges
    • These volcanoes occur in the oceanic areas. There is a system of mid-ocean ridges more than 70,000 km long that stretches through all the ocean basins. The central portion of this ridge experiences frequent eruptions.
    • The lava is basaltic in nature.
    • Cools slowly and flows through longer distances.
    • The lava here is responsible for sea floor spreading.
    • Example: Mid-Atlantic Ocean ridge; extension is seen in the Iceland.
  • Volcanoes due to Hot Spots:

volcanoes

Hot spots are places where a chamber of magma has accumulated at depth beneath the surface. The volcanic islands of Hawaii are a notable example of this. The Hawaiian Islands ride atop the Pacific plate as it moves in a north-westerly direction over the hot spot that creates the volcanoes. Therefore, the oldest volcanic island is found at the northwest end of the chain and the youngest to the southeast. Volcanic activity ceases as the older islands move off the hot spot.

Types of volcanoes found due to Hotspots:

  • Shield Volcanoes or Lava domes:
    • These volcanoes are mostly made up of basalt, a type of lava that is very fluid when erupted. They are not steep.
    • They become explosive if somehow water gets into the vent; otherwise, they are less explosive.
    • Example: Mauna Loa (Hawaii). 
  • Lava Plains and Basalt Plateaus:
    • Sometimes, a very thin magma escapes through cracks and fissures in the earth’s surface and flows after intervals for a long time, spreading over a vast area, finally producing a layered, undulating (wave like), flat surface.
    • Example: Deccan traps (peninsular India), Snake Basin, U.S.A, Icelandic Shield, Canadian Shield etc.

Way Forward:

Volcanoes have a huge impact on man and material as urbanization and globalization increases. The effects have impacts on flora, fauna and the global warming which can accelerate the climate change.

 

Topic : The Freedom Struggle —  its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.

3. “Gandhian non-violence was not only a matter of principle but was also a long-term strategy that helped gain India’s independence”. Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Modern history of India by Bipin Chandra

Why the question:

The question is based on the principles of Gandhian non-violence and in what way it helped gain India’s independence.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the significant contributions of Gandhi to Indian freedom struggle with special reference to Gandhian methods of non-violence.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce briefly on Gandhi and his contributions

Body:

Explain how Gandhi made significant contributions to India’s freedom struggle – from promotion of philosophic ideals to infusing mass character into the national movement. His ideas of non-violence, satyagraha, sarvodaya, swaraj and so on have left an indelible impact on human history.

Discuss in detail the principles of non-violence propounded by him.

Examine non-violence as strategy; explain in what way it led to long –term strategy for India’s freedom struggle.

Conclusion:

Conclude with evaluation of the principle and its relevance even as of today.

Introduction:

Gandhiji was both an Idealist and a Pragmatist, so was his doctrine of Satyagraha. According to Gandhi’s thoughts non- violence is ultimate solution of every kind of problem in the world. Gandhi was single person who fought against the British with the weapons of truth and Non-violence by persuading countrymen to walk on the path of non-violence. Gandhi leading a decades-long nonviolent struggle against British rule in India, which eventually helped India, wins its independence in 1947. Non-violence was non-negotiable for him as was proved by calling off the Non-Cooperation movement because of Chauri Chaura incident.

Body:

Mohandas Gandhi’s reputation as the Indian spiritual and political leader who coordinated and led a successful national struggle for independence against British imperial rule on the strength of a non-violent movement survives largely intact.

Gandhiji’s belief in non-violence:

  • Gandhi believed that only through love an enemy could be permanently won.
  • Non-violence is not passive. It is active, creative, provocative and challenging. Gandhi described non-violence as “A force more powerful than all the weapons of world combined.”
  • “Non-violence is the greatest and most active force in the world.” Gandhi wrote, “It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of humanity. When we tap into the spirit of non-violence, it becomes contagious and can topple empires.”
  • In relation to violence, there are two options in the world. These options are, we fight –back or run away.
  • Non-violence gives us third option: creative active, peaceful resistance to injustice.
  • Non-violence means standing unmoving against injustice until injustice is transformed into justice. Non-violence dose not harm to others and does not adversely affect other directly, but it works internally.
  • Instead of killing others, we should do in the nonviolent struggle for justice and human rights.
  • Non-violence begins in the heart then it moves out to our families, local communities, cities, nation and world.

Non-violence as tool of freedom movement:

  • He had a firm belief that violence gave rise to counter violence. “An eye for an eye will make the whole world blind” summed up his philosophy.
  • He had experimented with non-violent resistance in South Africa and won important rights for the migrants there so his faith in non-violence has deepened.
  • He was pragmatic and knew that everyone couldn’t resort to violent measures and wanted to make Indian freedom movement a mass movement which could be achieved only through non-violent resistance.
  • He knew that the colonial government was much stronger than the masses and violence would be ruthlessly suppressed.
  • His belief in non-violence got stronger with every passing movement to gain independence and he believed that only the strong could practice non-violence.
  • It was his tool to expose the wicked and in-human face of the Colonial government to the world.
  • His technique of Non- violence & Satyagraha gave Doctrine of trusteeship, class cooperation, moral individualism, non-violence / exploitation against environment which todays have become more important & relevant in the current Conflict ridden & environmentally stressed world.

Conclusion:

The importance of non-violence practiced by Gandhi also lies in the fact that he gave equal importance to the purity of means as to the end goal. He knew that a violent resistance would give rise to violence in the society and even if we got independence with such means the future of the country would be marred by violence. So, he also used non-violence to unite the society and is evident from the social harmony and tolerance the Indian society possess.

 

Topic : Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

4. Explain the key features and importance of CAATSA. Also discuss its implications to India. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The US has urged all its allies and partners to forgo transactions with Russia that risk triggering sanctions under the Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA). Thus the question.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward; one must explain the key features and importance of CAATSA and discuss its implications to India.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by discussing what CAATSA is.

Body:

Enacted in 2017, it is a US federal law that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea and Russia. It includes sanctions against countries that engage in significant transactions with Russia’s defence and intelligence sectors. The Act empowers the US President to impose at least five of the 12 listed sanctions on persons engaged in a “significant transaction” with Russian defence and intelligence sectors.

Discuss in detail the nuances associated with it. Explain in detail its implications upon India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) is a US federal law, enacted in 2017 and came into effect from January 2018, that imposed sanctions on Iran, North Korea and Russia. It includes sanctions against countries that engage in significant transactions with Russia’s defence and intelligence sectors. The Act empowers the US President to impose at least five of the 12 listed sanctions on persons engaged in a “significant transaction” with Russian defence and intelligence sectors.

Recently, the USA has reiterated its position and asked all its allies and partners, including India, to stop transactions with Russia.

Body:

Importance of CAATSA:

  • This bill was an amendment to the underlying Iran sanctions bill.
  • The main aim of this bill is to counter the acts of aggression through prescribed punitive measures.
  • The sanctions represent the implementation of multiple legal authorities.

Key features of CAATSA:

  • The Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act (CAATSA), aims at taking punitive measures against Russia, Iran, and North Korea.
  • The Act primarily deals with sanctions on the Russian oil and gas industry, defence and security sector, and financial institutions, in the backdrop of its military intervention in Ukraine and its alleged meddling in the 2016 US presidential elections.
  • The Act empowers the US President to impose at least five of 12 listed sanctions enumerated in Section 235 on persons engaged in a “significant transaction” with the Russian defence and intelligence sectors.
  • The State Department has notified 39 Russian entities including almost all major Russian defence manufacturing and export companies/entities.
  • It includes sanctions against countries that engage in significant transactions with Russia’s defense and intelligence sectors.
  • The bill also provides sanctions for activities concerning: cybersecurity, crude oil projects, financial institutions, corruption, human rights abuses, evasion of sanctions, transactions with Russian defence or intelligence sectors, export pipelines, privatization of state-owned assets by government officials, and arms transfers to Syria.
  • Various kinds of sanctions include:
    • prohibition on loans to the sanctioned person.
    • prohibition of Export-Import bank assistance for exports to sanctioned persons.
    • prohibition on procurement by United States Government to procure goods or services from the sanctioned person.
    • denial of visas to persons closely associated with the sanctioned person.

Importance of CAATSA for India:

  • Seventy per cent of Indian military hardware is Russian in origin.
  • India is set to receive the S-400 Triumf air defence system.
  • While the US has become its second-largest defence supplier, mainly of aircraft and artillery, India still relies heavily on Russian equipment, such as submarines and missiles that the US has been unwilling to provide.
  • Recently India had planned for the purchase of Mig-19 fighter aircraft with Russia at an estimated Rs. 18,148 crore. The U.S has reacted to countries, including India, on sanctions for the purchase of Russian arms has not changed.

Implications of CAATSA on India:

  • The USA President was given the authority in 2018 to waive CAATSA sanctions on a case-by-case basis. However, the USA has repeatedly stated that India should not assume it will get a waiver.
  • Now India could also face USA sanctions for purchasing the S-400 Triumf missile defense system from Russia under the CAATSA.
  • If implemented stringently, CAATSA would impact Indian defence procurement from Russia.
  • Apart from S-400s, India has procurements like 1135.6 frigates and Ka-226T helicopters as well as joint ventures like Indo Russian Aviation Ltd, Multi-Role Transport Aircraft Ltd and Brahmos Aerospace.
  • It would also affect purchase of spares, components, raw materials and other assistance.
  • The bulk of India’s military equipment is of Soviet/Russian origin including the nuclear submarine INS Chakra, the Kilo-class conventional submarine, the supersonic Brahmos cruise missile, the MiG and Sukhoi fighters, MiG helicopters, and the Vikramaditya aircraft carrier.
  • Although the sanctions are not directly imposed on India, it affects India nevertheless. The major reason for this is the nature of relationship India has with Iran and Russia. India happens to have strong trade ties with both these nation states.
  • No, as per the provisions of the bill, US imposes sanctions on all its adversaries, as well as all countries and firms dealing with these adversaries.
  • So, if India does not remove ties with Russia and Iran, the US may invoke sanctions against India. India cannot afford to lose the growing diplomatic relations with the US, but neither can it afford to forego supplies of defence and oil from Russia and Iran.

Impact on India-US bilateral ties:

  • CAATSA impacts Indo-US ties, and dents the image of the US as a reliable partner at a time when it is projecting India as a key player in its Indo-Pacific strategy.
  • US administration for countries like India has favoured relief, citing the “strategic opportunity” that India presents, and also the opportunity “to trade in arms with India”.
  • Indeed, the US defence industry sees India as a major market, Over the last decade, deals with India have grown from near zero to $15 billion.
  • Both in term of the number and value of contracts, the US is way ahead of other major suppliers.
  • The CAATSA exemption also underlines the growing defence and security cooperation that has seen India sign a logistics pact with the US.
  • Also US designated India as a Major Defence Partner, and both countries coming together on Indo-Pacific strategy, the newly resurrected Quad.

Conclusion:

The defence procurement for India has become significant amid deadly clashes with China on Line of Actual Control (LAC). Russia is an all-weather defence partner of India. However, India needs to balance its relation with both Russia and USA, so that its national interest is not compromised.

 

Topic : Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

5. Discuss the relevant options available before India to curb the growing Chinese muscularity in the South China Sea. (250 words)

Reference: The Hindu 

Why the question:

The question is based on the ongoing issues in the South China Sea (SCS) region and the growing influence of China over it.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the growing muscularity of China in the SCS region; explain the relevant options available to India to tackle the situation. 

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the importance of SCS – The South China Sea (SCS) is important not just to its littoral countries. It has been a transit point for trade since early medieval times, contains abundantly rich fisheries, and is a repository of mineral deposits and hydrocarbon reserves.

Body:

Explain the implications of growing Chinese muscularity in the SCS region.

From India’s perspective, foreign and security policy in its larger neighborhood covers the entire expanse of the Asia-Pacific and extends to the Persian Gulf and West Asia. India straddles, and is the fulcrum of, the region between the Suez and Shanghai, between West and East Asia, and between the Mediterranean and the SCS. The SCS carries merchandise to and from India. It follows that India has a stake in the SCS, just as China has in the Indian Ocean.

Take hints from the article and explain the available options before India.

Conclusion:

Conclude with solutions and way ahead.

Introduction:

South China Sea is an arm of western Pacific Ocean in Southeast Asia. It is south of China, east & south of Vietnam, west of the Philippines and north of the island of Borneo. In the middle of the global coronavirus pandemic, China has been busy increasing its presence in the South China Sea. If the dispute were to aggravate, Asia-Pacific researchers believe it could have serious consequences for diplomatic relations and stability in the region.

Body:

China claims most of the contested sea, reaching almost to the Philippines shores and has built artificial islands with heavy military developments on them which worries the neighboring nations and it rejects the UN backed international tribunal ruling as well. The nine dash line asserted by China violates the principle of Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZ).

Developments in the past in SCS:

  • Growing Chinese assertiveness in the SCS is visible in the increased patrolling and live-fire exercising by Chinese naval vessels; ramming and sinking of fishing vessels of other claimant countries; renaming of SCS features; and building of runways, bunkers, and habitation for the possible long-term stationing of personnel on the atolls claimed by China.
  • Chinese exploration and drilling vessels compete aggressively with those of other littoral countries in the disputed waters.
  • The Permanent Court of Arbitration ruled that Chinese claims over 90 percent of the South China Sea area are illegitimate and under UNCLOS, China is intruding into the Philippines’ sovereign waters as the 9-dash line which includes the Scarborough shoal and crosses into the Philippines EEZ.
  • China out rightly rejected the ruling. China prefers bilateral negotiations with the other parties. But many of its neighbors argue that China’s relative size and clout give it an unfair advantage.

Recent developments in the SCS:

  • The focus this time is on two disputed archipelagos of the Spratly Islands and the Paracel Islands in the middle of the South China Sea waters, between the territory of Vietnam and the Philippines.
  • Beijing unilaterally renamed 80 islands and other geographical features in the area, drawing criticism from neighbouring countries who have also laid claim to the same territory.
  • The Philippines invoked the dispute settlement mechanism of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) in 2013 to test the legality of China’s ‘nine-dash line’ regarding the disputed Spratly islands.

Strategic importance of SCS:

  • This sea holds tremendous strategic importance for its location as it is the connecting link between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. (Strait of Malacca)
  • According to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) one-third of the global shipping passes through it, carrying trillions of trade which makes it a significant geopolitical water body.
  • According to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Philippines, this sea has one-third of the entire world’s marine biodiversity and contains lucrative fisheries providing food security to the Southeast Asian nations.
  • South China Sea is believed to have huge oil and gas reserves beneath its seabed.

south_china_sea

India’s stakes in the SCS:

  • The South China Sea (SCS) is important not just to its littoral countries. It has been a transit point for trade since early medieval times, contains abundantly rich fisheries, and is a repository of mineral deposits and hydrocarbon reserves.
  • The SCS carries merchandise to and from India. It follows that India has a stake in the SCS, just as China has in the Indian Ocean.
  • From India’s perspective, foreign and security policy in its larger neighbourhood covers the entire expanse of the Asia-Pacific which includes the SCS.
  • Despite China’s protests, India continues its oil exploration in Vietnam’s exclusive economic zone(EEZ) in the South China Sea from where ONGC Videsh Limited supplies oil to Vietnam.
  • In the aftermath of The Hague Tribunal’s verdict on the South China Sea, India obligated to take a principled stand on the issue of freedom of navigation and commercial access enshrined in the UNCLOS.

Measures needed for India to curb Chinese muscularity in SCS:

  • Building military capacity:
    • India must improve the military capacity of the tri-service Andaman and Nicobar Command given its immense geostrategic value, as it overlooks Asia’s maritime strategic lifeline and the world’s most important global sea lane.
  • Regional diplomatic outreach:
    • India must continue to actively pursue its defence diplomacy outreach in the Indo-Pacific region.
    • Increasing military training and conducting exercises and exchanges at a higher level of complexity
    • Extending Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief activities
    • Sharing patrolling responsibilities of the Malacca Strait with the littoral countries.
  • Strengthening partnerships:
    • The Comprehensive Strategic Partnerships that India has concluded with Australia, Japan, Indonesia, the U.S. and Vietnam could be extended to Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Singapore.
    • India must actively peruse its Act East policy by playing the role of the mediator in the region. Further the active engagement of India with Vietnam and Philippines made it inevitable for India to actively participate in the issue to adore its bilateral ties.
  • Cultural factor:
    • Buddhism is the dominated religion of the countries engage in the dispute. India can leverage the cultural factor as a driving force for the constructive and positive end of the dispute.
  • Multilateral associations:
    • India can also use the regional blocks like ASEAN and SAARC to pressurize the concerned associates to resolve the issue in more magnified manner.

Conclusion:

Located very close to the southern tip of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, the South China Sea is very much a part of India’s “extended neighborhood”. It is of critical geopolitical, geo-economic and geostrategic importance and has a direct bearing on our relations with a host of strategically relevant countries. A combined policy involving defence, economic and cultural co-operation is needed from India’s side for ensuring peace in the South China sea region in future.

 

Topic : Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life.  Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology. Challenges to internal security through communication networks, role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cyber security; money laundering and its prevention.

6. Given India’s complex security challenges, UAVs have the prospects to aid the Indian armed forces on various fronts. Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express 

Why the question:

The question is about the utility and possible potential of the UAVs that Indian armed forces can harness to tackle complex security challenges.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to throw light upon the complex security challenges that India is facing and in what way UAVs can aid the Indian armed forces on multiple fronts.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give a brief introduction of India’s complex security challenges.

Body:

In the answer body explain how UAVs can aid the Indian armed forces in combating these challenges.

India faces complex internal and external security challenges on multiple fronts such as troubled

Neighborhood, lack of social cohesion, Left Wing extremism, terrorism, cyber security issues etc. In this

Scenario, UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) have the potential to aid the Indian armed forces on multiple fronts such as – Easy deployment irrespective of the terrain, border monitoring and surveillance, search and rescue operations etc.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the UAVs offer multiple advantages to the armed forces; however there is a need for developing adequate regulations and standard operating procedures to optimally utilize their potential.

Introduction:

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft that flies without a human pilot aboard. These are commonly known as Drone, and are controlled by a ground based controller through a system of Communications between the UAV and the ground station. These can operate with different levels of autonomy either being remotely controlled by a human operator or autonomously by onboard computers.

The changing facets of security especially in the Indian complex border situations on north-west and north-east demands the need for higher automation in activities like Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) especially for a real-time tactical operation.

Body:

UAVs of India:

  • Nishant:
    • Nishant is a multi-mission Unmanned Aerial Vehicle with Day/Night capability used for battlefield surveillance and reconnaissance, target tracking & localization, and artillery fire correction.
  • Rustom:
    • Rustom (Warrior) is a Medium Altitude Long Endurance unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) being developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation.
  • Panchi:
    • It is the wheeled version of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) Nishant, capable of taking-off and landing by using small airstrips. Panchi UAV has autonomous flight capabilities and is controlled from a user friendly Ground Control Station (GCS).
  • AURA:
    • AURA is stealth UCAV, capable of releasing missiles, bombs and precision-guided munitions.

Prospects of the UAVs for Indian Armed forces:

  • A UAV can range from MALE (Medium altitude Long Endurance) which can be in air for whole day/night operations, to smaller versions in the category of Mini/Micro or Nano drones.
  • Each of the Armed Forces services have their own UAV arms operational for last two decades, as the UAVs had already evolved as future warfare technology world over in 1990’s itself, especially in the asymmetric warfare.
  • Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) are UAVs capable to launch missiles, bombs and precision-guided munition. UCAVs are effectively used world over for Search and Attack role, safeguarding own soldiers from risks.
  • UAVs are the best for search and strike missions with low caliber high accuracy guided weapons.
  • Controlled from a ground station, the UAV either flies a pre-planned path or can be dynamically controlled.
  • UAV’s has high endurance, which allows a high success rate for search and strike missions.
  • The roles of UAVs are gradually increasing in the civil sector, ranging from the delivery of packages to the shooting of high-quality aerial films.
  • By 2050, at least 50 per cent of combat missions would be designated to UAVs and that would require a large fleet of various types of UAVs.

Challenges:

  • While Israel and USA are leaders in UAV technology and operations, the Indian UAV programme is in its infancy.
  • Costs: The drone technology in use by three services since 1990s has been imported, though expensive but highly reliable aerial bodies.
  • Lesser ammunition power: UAVs are capable of carrying low caliber/low weight weapons in limited numbers as compared to manned aircraft.
  • Safety issues: UAV accident rates are four to five times higher than that of manned aircraft.
  • Endurance: Autonomous inflight refueling could keep the UAV in the air for days.
  • The control of UAV is heavily dependent on electromagnetic waves, which are susceptible to interference/jamming/technical malfunctions.
  • Regulatory issues: The evolution of technology has been restricted due to ambiguity in implementation of Drone Regulations promulgated by Airport Authority of India (AAI).
  • Procurement issues: A private MSME completed the successful development and subsequent manufacture trials of ‘Kamikaze’ explosive laden mini-Quadcopter drones. However, due to complicated procurement procedures has not been inducted yet.
  • Manufacturing: MSMEs in drone manufacturing have found the going difficult and with the pandemic melt down of the manufacturing in India, may require impetus more than ever to remain commercially viable.
  • As per CAG report of 2018, the non-availability of critical UAV system has adversely affected the aerial surveillance capability of the Indian Army.
  • Due to restrictions in Explosive Ordnance handling by commercial agencies, the design and development of UCAVs have been limited in India.

Way forward:

  • DRDO, OFB, DPSUs and the Services should collaborate more with the private sector companies and the MSMEs for the indigenous development of UAVs.
  • The Autonomous Unmanned Research Aircraft (AURA) project launched by DRDO shall form the basis of indigenous UCAV in the future.
  • To give a push to the Make in India initiative, now is the time the MoD can balance its investments in DRDO UAVs/UCAVs and private MSMEs.
  • The private sector in Defence has a highly skilled manpower available without any work in hand and they need to be given work to survive.
  • Going by the example of the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), the production of an Indian combat mission capable UAV is at least a couple of decades away.
  • To meet that challenge, it would be prudent to establish a joint venture for the production of UAVs in India under the Strategic Partnership programme.

 

Topic : Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

7. What are the factors that have influenced the contemporary attitude of the state and the society towards homosexuality in India? Also, comment on the changing attitude and the factors driving this change. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why the question:

The question is premised over the attitudes associated with homosexuality in India.

Key Demand of the question:

One must discuss in detail the factors that have been influencing the contemporary attitude of the state and the society towards homosexuality in India and discuss the changing attitude and reasons contributing to it.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

State the factors that are affecting currently held attitude towards homosexuality in India.

Body:

Explain that while acceptance of homosexuality has not been fully entrenched in India, there is a shift in stance of the society and state regarding it. The factors that have influenced the contemporary attitude include religion, international discourse, individual rights, legal pronouncements, advancement of medical understanding, etc.

Then state the reasons for the attitude opposing the homosexuality and discuss the factors responsible for changing social attitude towards homosexuality.

Conclusion:

Conclude with what should be the way forward.

Introduction:

Homosexuality remains a taboo for a large portion of Indian society, even among the youth. Less than half of India’s urban youth approve of same sex relationships, shows survey data collected by market researcher YouGov in collaboration with Mint. Even among those residing in the major metro cities, acceptance of same-sex relationships is low, especially in the southern regions of India.

Body:

Findings of the survey:

  • Social acceptance of homosexuality is the highest in Delhi-NCR, closely followed by Mumbai. About 50% of the youth are supportive of same-sex relationships in these cities.
  • Social acceptance of homosexuality is the highest in Delhi-NCR, closely followed by Mumbai. About 50% of the youth are supportive of same-sex relationships in these cities.
  • Only a third of Chennai’s youth approves of such relationships

Causes for such a mindset:

  • Religion:
    • Among India’s urban youth, those with stronger religious predispositions display more prejudice against homosexuality compared to their less-religious counterparts.
    • A 2013 survey conducted by Pew Research Center found that acceptance of homosexuality was particularly widespread in countries where religion was less central in people’s lives.
  • Patriarchal mindset:
    • The belief that there are only two sexes and Male dominates the females.
    • Homosexuality is against the order of nature and is a sin.
    • Four out of five people are against gay and lesbian marriages.
  • Prejudice:
    • About three out of five Indians feel being gay or lesbian is a disease and almost a same percentage of those surveyed says it can be “cured”
    • Being gay or lesbian is against Indian culture is the popular opinion.
  • Stereotypes:
    • It is stereotypes about gender roles that constituted the basis of criminalising same-sex relations, and which ensure discrimination.
  • Harassment:
    • The amount of protection that the law provides is determined by the level of privilege one wields and other intersectional positions in society, and it can be argued that the decriminalisation of sexual acts in private would do little to limit the harassment LGBTQ persons are subjected to in public spaces and the discrimination they face in employment opportunities.
    • Social exclusion, identity seclusion and isolation from the social mainstream are still the stark realities faced by these individuals today.
    • Constant police harassment of the gay community.
  • Independence:
    • Jobs and, in turn, financial security is denied to people on the basis of their sexual orientation.

The changing attitude and the factors driving this change:

  • Legal measures:
    • In 2018, in a historic verdict, the Supreme Court of India struck down Section 377, a British-era law which criminalized same-sex relationships between consenting adults in India.
    • The Indian Supreme Court ruled that privacy is a fundamental constitutional right for all its citizens. As a result of this ruling, a wider conversation surrounding privacy has opened up, with one of the main topics being homosexuality.
  • Social attitudes:
    • A number of cities and larger towns, such as Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Pune, Chennai etc. have a number of resources for gays, lesbians and transgender communities that include – help-lines, publications/newsletters, health resources, social spaces and drop-in centers.
    • In recent past the homosexual community of Calcutta, Mumbai and Bangalore also hosted the gay pride march.
    • The above instances show that the homosexual community in India is visible and is gradually becoming vocal in their demand.
    • Gay rights activists have been battling against Section 377 for a decade.
  • Scientific evidences:
    • Anthropologists have documented significant variations in the organization and meaning of same-sex practices across cultures and changes within particular societies over time.
    • There is a growing realization that homosexuality is not a single phenomenon and that there may be multiple phenomena within the construct of homosexuality.
    • Anti-homosexual attitudes, once considered the norm, have changed over time in many social and institutional settings in the west.
    • However, heterosexism, which idealizes heterosexuality, considers it the norm, denigrates and stigmatizes all non-heterosexual forms of behavior, identity, relationships and communities, is also common.
  • Technology to the rescue:
    • Various communities are being formed using online networks and dating apps such as Grindr, Planet Romeo and Gaydar. These apps have given isolated individuals a sense of belongingness to the homosexuals.
    • The availability of online networks and dating apps have come to accommodate those in need of a place to turn when family is not an option.

Other measures to overcome the taboo:

  • Law and morality are different issues. Our legislators may frame laws or courts deliver judgments that are ahead of the moral values of a society. But it would be farfetched to expect that moral values can be changed because of court judgments.
  • Indian constitution ought to adapt and transform with the changing needs of the times. The very purpose of constitutionalism is to transform society. Dynamic constitutional interpretation allows for the progressive realization of rights as societies evolve, and is also essential to enable transformative constitutionalism.
  • Periodic sensitisation and awareness programmes for all government officials, particularly police officials, any sensitisation will be incomplete without the systematic devaluation of heterosexism, the institutionalised valorisation of heterosexual activity.
  • The challenges of social mindset need to be changed with people educated that this aspect is not unnatural and is innate to a human being.
  • While the decision by the country’s highest court is certainly significant, there needs to be more of an impetus for social change and removing ignorance from society. There needs to be a campaign to not only to raise awareness but to educate people on what homosexuality
  • The government should conduct programmes to end the stigma around homosexuality and individuals employed with the government should receive workshops to sensitise them to subject.
  • There is a need for rape law reform to protect male survivors of sexual violence. There is no law to protect adult male victims of sexual assault, whether they are cis- or transgender. Parliament needs to fill these lacunae in the law.
  • It is time for the Indian Parliament to conduct wide-ranging review of existing legal framework, repeal discriminatory laws, and address other gaps in the law that prevent LGBT persons from fully exercising their rights

Conclusion:

These advancements are undoubtedly benchmarks of remarkable progress, and signs of great things to come, however, there is still plenty of work to be done. It is important to bear in mind that many of these progressive movements mostly reside in cities which is problematic for a large portion of the population who live in rural areas.

India may have decriminalized homosexuality, but it is still a long way from de-stigmatizing it. The challenges of social mindset need to be changed with people educated that this aspect is not unnatural and is innate to a human being.


  • Join our Official Telegram Channel HERE for Motivation and Fast Updates
  • Subscribe to our YouTube Channel HERE to watch Motivational and New analysis videos