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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 1 July 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.

1. To what extent is India’s foreign policy irreconcilably linked to the ideals promoted in the Indian national movement? Analyse. (250 words)

Reference: Indian modern history by Spectrum Publications

Why the question:

The question aims to address the opposing link between India’s foreign policy and ideals promoted in the Indian national movement.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss in detail as to what extent India’s foreign policy is irreconcilably linked to the ideals promoted in the Indian national movement.

Directive:

AnalyzeWhen asked to analyse, you have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduce with the ideals promoted during India’s struggle for freedom such as Respect for Self-determination, International ethics through Panchsheel, Non alignment as a tenet of foreign policy,

Promotion of democratic values without exporting them, concept of Vasudaiva Kutumbakam Etc.  

Body:

In detail discuss how such ideals played out in India’s foreign policy.

Explain how Indian national movement through its ideals and principles has left an indelible mark in the foreign policy of the country.

Then present a detailed evaluation and limitations of the above ideals of Indian freedom movement.

Conclusion:

Conclude that that Indian Foreign Policy however not in totality but still has reflected many idealistic values which remain key ingredient of Indian soft power even today.

Introduction

The evolution of foreign policy that took place immediately after independence was informed with the same degree of idealism that permeated the freedom struggle. So initially when India achieved its independence, this idealism formed the bedrock of her foreign policy and there was no dearth of issues for her to espouse. The war against colonialism and the war against racism formed, some of the basic ingredients of India’s early foreign policy.

Body

Influence of freedom struggle on India’s foreign policy

  • The foreign policy of independent India was strongly influenced by Pre-independence stance of Indian National Congress and its leaders, which was based on four basic principles: –
    • Opposition to imperialism and colonial rule;
    • Active sympathy and support to the people fighting for independence;
    • Opposition to militarism, war and devotion to peace, and avoiding foreign entanglements for India.
  • Nehru, who took keen interest in formulating and implementing India’s foreign policy, influenced the west through his charismatic image that greatly helped to change the discriminatory attitudes of the foreign countries towards India.
  • Non-Alignment: The principles of non-interference in the domestic affairs of other countries and maintenance of one’s own sovereignty (which are the basic postulates of India’s foreign policy) evolved into the crystallisation of the concept of non-alignment. The term ‘non-alignment’ got currency in the post-Bandung Conference (1955).
    • All throughout cold-war, India’s non-alignment policy helped it to manoeuvre the paradigm of foreign relations without taking sides and getting entangled in the super power rivalry.
  • The Group of 77 which consisted mostly of the non-aligned countries became an important instrument of negotiation and articulation of views of the developing countries in all fora where economic issues were discussed.
  • Further, it was focussed against menaces fascism, apartheid, imperialism, racism etc. The foreign policy of the country strived for world peace, arms race reduction, diplomatic resolution of conflict and disarmament. The outcome was an Indian Foreign Policy based on these principles:
    • A belief in friendly relations with neighbours and all countries of the world
    • The resolution of conflicts by peaceful means
    • The sovereign equality of all states
    • Independence of thought and action as manifested in the principles of Non-alignment
    • Equity in the conduct of international relations.
    • Improvement of bilateral relations and strengthening of regional co-operation.
    • Strong advocacy of general and complete disarmament
  • Idealism: The idealistic policy perhaps explains why India, even after it became independent, did not nurse the kind of bitterness against former colonial rulers that was noticed in other countries which achieved independence.
    • The fact that we joined the Commonwealth of nations is proof of the absence of that bitterness.
  • Further, Gandhian ideals of truth, nonviolence, tolerance and Idealism mixed with notion of Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam; Nehruvian rhetoric of socialist development at democratic front and policy of non-alignment became the cornerstones of India’s foreign policy.
    • Based on principles of Panchsheel and Non-alignment, India consistently emphasized on settlement of international disputes through dialogue and negotiations.
    • India also laid great emphasize on purity of means.

Indian foreign policy shortcomings due to idealism

  • India was taken by surprise when China waged war in 1962.
    • This experience after the 1962 boundary war with China, led to its prestige decline among third world countries.
    • India learnt a bitter lesson that idealism to an extreme extent was naivety and stumbling block for the well-being of nation’s security.
  • Ideals (most notably that of non-alignment) fell out of favour with the end of Cold-War and India was late in establishing diplomatic relations with many nations in this regard.
    • g.: It was only in 1992, India established full relations with Israel.
  • Domestic politics influenced much of India’s decisions, rather than an objective assessment. Politics and vote bank became major factors in deciding the actions taken on international relations front. This hurt India’s rise as a global power, delaying it by few decades.
  • The non-alignment movement could not achieve New International Economic Order as envisaged, in the interest of the developing and third world countries.
  • Futility of war was greatly emphasized along with peace with neighbours. Unfortunately, India went to war with Pakistan many times since Independence.
  • Arms race, including deployment of nuclear weapons, would result in increased suspicions and mistrust among the nations, was India’s official outlook in the early decades of Independence.
    • Also, the expenditure on arms would make the governments deprived of sufficient money required for upliftment of people from poverty.
    • However, sandwiched between two hostile neighbours which had waged war against India, it was forced to militarise and increase defence expenditure on their account.
    • India further declared itself as a nuclear power and embraced “nuclear deterrence” against which it had once campaigned.

Conclusion

India has cherished the values of the noble sacrifice of freedom fighters and the struggle against colonialism, especially through its foreign policy. From the formation of Panchsheel to Non-alignment and further towards realism and economic diplomacy today, India has evolved its foreign policies. This is in line with the ethos of our Constitution as well.

 

Topic: Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies.

2. Just as there is wage gap between men and women in the workplace there is ‘leisure gap’ between them at home. Discuss the above statement in the context of gender inequalities in India. (250 words)

Reference: Economic Times 

Why the question:

The question is premised on the gender inequalities in India.

Key Demand of the question:

One has to elaborate upon the inherent meaning of the statement in question – “Just as there is wage gap between men and women in the workplace there is ‘leisure gap’ between them at home”.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

One can begin by quoting relevant statistics that can highlight the context of the question.

Body:

India scores quite low in when it comes to gender inequality, according to latest UNDP Human development report, India is ranked 125 of 159 countries in the Gender Inequality Index (GII). In terms of labour participation only 26.85% of women (79.1% men) above 15 years are part of India’s labour force. When it comes to salary, women earns 20 percent less than what men earns.

Move on to explain how often gender inequality is always only measured merely in terms of labour participation or workforce participation. What does not get due attention is the glaring gender inequality when it comes to sharing household chores at home i.e. leisure gap or unequal sharing of household chores at home.

Explain the double burden that women face in detail.

Conclusion:

Conclude that the experience of double burden exist because domestic work is private and outside the economy, it is not remunerated and this causes it to appear as something less than real work and as part of the gender role of women. The double burden can be overcome by giving recognition to household works and equal sharing of burden.

Introduction

The World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2020 says men and women will have pay equality in 257 years. Of the 153 countries studied for the report, India ranks 112th on the overall Global Gender Gap Index. The economic gender gap runs particularly deep and has gotten significantly wider.

Body

Gender gap in India: Current Scenario

  • India scores quite low in when it comes to gender inequality, according to latest UNDP Human development report, India is ranked 125 of 159 countries in the Gender Inequality Index (GII).
  • Labour participation: In terms of labour participation only 23.3% of women (79.1% men) above 15 years are part of India’s labour force.
  • Wage gap: Research from India’ leading diversity and inclusion consulting firm Avtar Group shows that women are paid 34% less than men for performing the same job with the same qualifications.
  • Lack of Economic Empowerment: Women are underrepresented in senior managerial position and overrepresented in low paying jobs. Oxford Survey shows that globally only 19% firms have a female senior manager.
  • Access to productive capital: It is harder for women to access funds and capital for farming, starting a business or for other developmental works.
  • Secondary Education for women is lower than man in majority of countries while this stands at less than 80% in India.
  • Social norms and stereotypes: Classifying men as “bread winners” and women pursuing jobs as “career women” was reported by Oxford University Survey. It also highlighted that most of the unpaid work is seen as a women’s job.

Often gender-gap and inequality gets measured in political and economic terms. Those interested in gender equality tend to be obsessed with the politically and economically important areas in which one needs equality — education, employment, health, political representation. But equality in these important but grim attributes leaves out many things that actually make life more enjoyable and thus more worth living. Leisure gap is a part of this void.

Leisure Gap: Both men and women work in the same fishbowl environment. While the men are often free to unwind after work, network if they want to, socialise or not, women grapple with the constant pressure of not deviating from their domestic duties. This difference in the amount of mental and physical rest that men and women get is the leisure gap.

Burden of domestic responsibilities solely on women

  • The burden of unpaid work falls disproportionately on women in India because tasks such as cooking, cleaning, fetching water and firewood are highly gendered, and patriarchal norms dictate that women also perform care work, validate men’s failure to assume domestic responsibilities and thus entrench women’s unequal social status, the report says.
  • Women in India currently spend upto 352 minutes per day on domestic work, 577% more than men (52 minutes) and at least 40% more than women in South Africa and China according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data.
  • Indian women’s unpaid work plays a crucial role in sustaining economic activity, equivalent to 1% of GDP.
    • However, much of the contribution goes unrecognised or is incorrectly measured, amounting to a “systemic transfer of hidden subsidies to the economy.
  • Up to 64% of women said they have no choice taking up care work, since there is ‘no other member to carry out the domestic duties’, the 68th round of the NSSO survey found.
  • Women also spend eight hours less on activities such as learning, social and cultural activities (Leisure Gap) according to a pilot time-use survey conducted by the ministry of statistics and programme implementation (MOSPI) between 1988 and 1999.
    • This meant that the burden of unpaid work not only impacts a woman’s family and community relations but also her ability to play an effective role outside home, in turn perpetuating the gender skew.
  • The proportion of women aged over 15 and in rural areas who spend the majority of their time in domestic duties has increased from 51% in 2004-05 to 60% in 2011-12, the year the last NSSO employment survey was released.

What needs to be done?

  • The family needs to adjust to the changing role of women and volunteer to share household work.
    • Unrealistic expectations can be detrimental to their physical and mental well-being.
  • Workplaces can do their bit by introducing part-time and flexi-time work facilities and work from home opportunities to avoid their burnout.
  • Policies that provide services, social protection and basic infrastructure, promote sharing of domestic and care work between men and women, and create more paid jobs in the care economy, are urgently needed to accelerate progress on women’s economic empowerment.
  • Ensuring basic infrastructure such as piped drinking water, LPG cylinders to all rural areas have helped reduce the burden of domestic responsibilities on women.

Conclusion

The experience of double burden exists because domestic work is private and outside the economy, it is not remunerated and this causes it to appear as something less than real work and as part of the gender role of women. The double burden can be overcome by giving recognition to household works and equal sharing of burden.

 

Topic: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary—Ministries and Departments of the Government; pressure groups and formal/informal associations and their role in the Polity

3. Discuss the significance of Implementation of DK Basu judgments with respect to custodial deaths in India. (250 words)

Reference: Indian Express 

Why the question:

The article highlights how Implementation of DK Basu judgments, monitoring by civil society, can protect against custodial torture, death.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain and discuss in detail the issue of custodial death in the country and in what way of Implementation of DK Basu judgments holds great significance in addressing the issue.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

In brief quote the recent incident of custodial death that was witnessed in the State of Tamil Nadu.

Body:

Custodial torture is a naked violation of human dignity and degradation which destroys, to a large extent, the individual personality.

Talk about the implementation of Section 176(1A) of the CrPc, which calls for a mandatory judicial inquiry related to incidents of death, disappearance, rape etc. in police and judicial custody.

Discuss the types of Custodial Violence and its illegitimate use in the country.

Explain the relevance and details of the D K Basu judgement with respect to it. D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal: Under this case, the Supreme Court of India observed in this widely publicized death in police custody that using torture to impermissible and offensive to Article 21. 

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and way forward.

Introduction

In the current context of the reprehensible custodial deaths in Tamil Nadu, the important DK Basu judgment needs to be inspected closely. For many years now, custodial torture leading to deaths have become ongoing phenomenon and the question of “Who will guard the guardians”, the so-called “rakshak bhakshak” syndrome remains unanswered and unresolved.

Body

Background

  • A letter was received in 1986 from an organization regarding the matter of lock up deaths in the state of West Bengal.
  • This letter was treated as a writ petition and taken as a PIL.
  • It spawned four crucial and comprehensive judgments – in 1996, twice in 2001 and in 2015 – laying down over 20 commandments.
  • Additionally, it led to at least 5 other procedural, monitoring and coordinating judicial orders.
  • These have created a valuable and seamless web of legal principles and techniques.
  • All of them are aimed at reducing custodial death and torture and to have control on police and a set of guidelines for arresting a person.
  • According to data from the National Crime Records Bureau, 1,727 people died in police custody between 2001 and 2018. However, just 26 policemen were convicted of custodial violence during the same period

Provisions under the judgment: Commandments

  • The police personnel carrying out the arrest and handling the interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name tags with their designations.
    • The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and clear identification and name tags with their designation.
    • The particular of all such personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in a register.
  • That the police officer carrying out the arrest shall prepare a memo of arrest at the time of arrest and such memo shall be attested by at least one witness, who may be either a member of the family of the arrestee or a respectable person of the locality from where the arrest is made.
    • It shall also be counter signed by the arrestee and shall contain the time and date of arrest.
  • The person detained, shall be entitled to have one friend or relative or other person known to him or having interest in his welfare being informed, as soon as practicable, that he has been arrested and is being detained at the particular place, unless the attesting witness of the memo of arrest is himself such a friend or a relative of the arrestee.
  • The time, place of arrest and venue of custody of an arrestee must be notified by the police where the next friend or relative of the arrestee lives outside the district or town through the Legal Aids Organization in the District and the police station of the area concerned telegraphically within a period of 8 to 12 hours after the arrest.
  • An entry must be made in the diary, regarding the arrest of the person which shall also disclosed the name of the next friend of the person who has been informed of the arrest and the names land particulars of the police officials in whose custody the arrestee is.
  • The arrestee should, where he so requests, be also examines at the time of his arrest and major and minor injuries, if any present on his /her body, must be recorded at that time.
  • The arrestee should be subjected to medical examination by the trained doctor every 48 hours during his detention in custody by a doctor on the panel of approved doctor.
  • The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation

Other Intermediate orders

  • Precise detailed compliance reports of above orders to be submitted by all states and UT and any delayed responses to be looked into by special sub-committees appointed by state human rights body.
  • Also where no SHRC existed, the chief justice of the high courts to monitor it administratively.
  • It emphasised that existing powers for magisterial inquiries under the CrPC were lackadaisical and must be completed in four months, unless sessions court judges recorded reasons for extension.
  • It also directed SHRCs to be set up expeditiously in each part of India.
  • All prisons had to have CCTVs within one year. Non-official visitors would do surprise checks on prisons and police stations. Prosecutions and departmental action to be made unhesitatingly mandated.

Operationalisation and implementation status

  • Little more by way of theoretical structure is required if DK Basu’s comprehensive coverage is genuinely implemented.
  • But the real problem is in operationalising the spirit of DK Basu. This encompasses –
    • punitive measures
    • last mile implementation
    • breaking intra-departmental solidarity with errant policemen
    • ensuring swift, efficacious departmental coercive action plus criminal prosecution
  • A 1985 Law Commission report directed enactment of section 114-B into the Evidence Act.
    • This gave way for raising a rebuttable presumption of culpability (guilty) against the police if anyone in their custody dies or is found with torture.
    • This has still not become law, despite a bill introduced as late as 2017. This should be processed soon.
  • We still have abysmally deplorable rates of even initiating prosecutions against accused police officers. Actual convictions are virtually non-existent.

Conclusion

The fundamental idea behind these guidelines was to prohibit police personnel from flagrant abuses of power, but there is little evidence to suggest that they have had the effect that the Supreme Court judges in 1986 had imagined. Until concerted efforts are made to de-normalise custodial brutality in India, and hold the watchmen accountable to their actions, India is doomed to continue repeating the cycle, with the latest incident in Tamil Nadu only likely to be drowned out by the cacophonous news round.

 

Topic: Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.

4. Write a short note on Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana and its implications. (250 words)

Reference: Live mint 

Why the question:

The question is straightforward and is about the importance and key features of Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is straightforward and must in detail explain the Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana and its implications.

Directive:

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the mega ‘Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan’ aimed to boost livelihood opportunities in rural India amid the ongoing Covid-19 crisis.

Body:

The question is straightforward and there isn’t much to deliberate, one must discuss the highlights of the scheme. The scheme will be a coordinated effort by 12 different ministries including rural development, Panchayati Raj, Road transport and highways, mines, drinking water and sanitation, environment, railways, petroleum and natural gas, new and renewable energy, border Roads, Telecom and agriculture.

Discuss the significance of the scheme.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

Introduction

The world today has been severely affected by the covid-19 pandemic and India is no exception. Amid this crisis, the most-affected has been the labour class. The plight of the migrant labour class has shocked the country. The Government of India has decided to launch a rural public works scheme ‘Garib Kalyan Rojgar Abhiyaan’ through video-conferencing from village Telihar in Khagaria district of Bihar on 20th June 2020.

Body

  • Target Beneficiaries: The scheme will empower and provide livelihood opportunities to the returnee migrant workers and rural citizens who have returned to their home states due to the Covid-19 induced lockdown.
  • Duration and Corpus of the scheme: This campaign will work in mission mode for 125 days with an outlay of 50,000 crore.
  • Total Coverage: A total of 116 districts across six states, namely Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand and Odisha (where maximum migrant workers have returned) have been chosen for the campaign.
    • These districts are estimated to cover about 2/3 of such migrant workers.
    • The chosen districts include 27 Aspirational Districts.
    • Aspirational Districts are those districts in India which are affected by poor socio-economic indicators. These are aspirational in the context, that improvement in these districts can lead to the overall improvement in human development in India.
  • Implementation: It will involve intensified and focused implementation of 25 different types of works to provide employment to the migrant workers on one hand and create infrastructure in the rural regions of the country on the other hand.
    • The workers will help build gram panchayat bhawans and anganwadi centres, national highway works, railway works and water conservation projects, among others across six states.
  • Participants: 12 different Ministries/Departments, namely, Rural Development, Panchayati Raj, Road Transport and Highways, Mines, Drinking Water and Sanitation, Environment, Railways, etc. will be coordinating for the implementation of the scheme.
  • Connectivity: The villages will join this programme through the Common Service Centres (CSCs) and Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) maintaining the norms of social distancing in the wake of the pandemic.

Implications

  • Livelihood for migrant labourers: As per the data, more than 1 crore migrants have returned to their native place as on date and are unemployed.
    • Their desperate escape from cities within weeks of the lockdown also put forth a major issue that is alarming.
    • These people neither had savings, nor access to welfare schemes or proper healthcare in the cities which led them to rush back to the villages.
    • Thus the programme Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana will provide employment and wages to the poor migrant workers, who may not be able return back to the cities.
  • Employment: Going by the present situation, where we see no sign of the pandemic slowing down, or demand picking up in near future, ensuring employment opportunities for migrant labourers back in their villages seems to be the only plausible response to sustain their livelihoods.
  • Stimulus by government: The economic revival seems possible only through massive public investments by the government at this juncture.
    • As critics of the government have pointed the fiscal stimulus to be skewed towards addressing the supply side of the chain, neglecting the demand side, a massive public investment by the government could also be a signal to put money in the hands of poor and taking a step towards reviving demand.
    • This will take care of the demand side of the chain, eventually creating productive capital assets.
  • Towards Atmanirbharta: First, this program is targeted towards giving a headstart to the governments ambitious Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan.
    • Twenty-five core works of the government which are instrumental in realizing the “Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan” comprising projects like Jal Jeevan Yojana, Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana, rural housing, railway works, community sanitation, fibre optics, Ganga cleansing, poultry farming etc. will employ returnee migrants in jobs of their expertise through skill mapping.
  • Towards Gram Swaraj: The initiative will serve as the foundation to strengthening the rural economy by providing livelihood generation opportunities and public infrastructure in the villages eventually leading to “self-reliant villages”.
    • This could take India one step closer to the Mahatma Gandhi’s grand vision of “Gram Swaraj” which even our Prime Minister has continuously emphasized upon.

Conclusion

The intent behind the Garib Kalyan Rojgar Yojana seems noble and a much needed one. The success of the program depends upon whether its benefits reach the migrant labours in time and is able to revive rural demand by the second quarter.

 

Topic: Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India). Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

5. ‘India’s location makes it vulnerable to narcotic drug trafficking’. Discuss the increasing trend in drug trafficking and counter measures taken by India. (250 words)

Reference: NDTV 

Why the question:

The question aims to discuss the increasing trend in drug trafficking and counter measures taken by India and in what way India’s location makes it more vulnerable.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain in detail the issue of narcotic drug trafficking in the country, increasing trend in drug trafficking and counter measures taken by India.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

India has been a traditional consumer of opium and cannabis derivatives, the trends and patterns of drug trafficking demonstrate that there is a gradual shift from traditional/natural drugs towards synthetic drugs that are being trafficked and consumed in the country.

Body:

Start by explaining the geographical location aspect of India. Closer to the Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle, India has been vulnerable to the trafficking of narcotics and drugs such as heroin, hashish, and synthetic drugs produced in these areas.

Increased production of opium in Afghanistan, greater domestic demand in India, and connivance of state government officials and border guarding forces together contributed towards this increase in heroin trafficking, especially in the Punjab sector. Then explain the trends in drug and narcotics trafficking; explain how it’s a threat to national security.

Discuss efforts of the government in this direction.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction

India’s strategic location places it amid two largest sources of illicit drugs in South Asia- Golden Crescent (Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran) on the northwest and the infamous Golden Triangle (Myanmar, Thailand, and Laos) on the northeast.

The growing instances of drug trafficking in India were highlighted in the 2018 annual report by the United Nations-backed International Narcotics Control Board (INCB).

Body

Problems of Drug trafficking in India

  • Drug Corridor near Golden triangle: First, this corridor is an easy source of income for insurgents who collaborate with criminal gangs to smuggle drugs across the border.
    • Traffickers are better accustomed to the terrain of this region; hence, they easily escape the radar of security forces. Also, the terra nullius (no man’s land) between Moreh in Manipur and Namphalong market of Myanmar has been a haven for drug traffickers.
    • In the latest report by Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB) on seizures during the month of January 2019, around 2.790 kg tablets of WY/Yaba, 50,000 tablets of Amphetamine, 1,44,000 tablets of Amphetamine and 660 gram of Heroin, 6.160 kg tablet of WY were seized at different times.
    • Origin of these drugs was traced to Myanmar
  • Challenges in the Northeast
    • Indo-Myanmar border encounters non-conventional security challenges as it provides a secure channel for the movement of insurgents, narcotics trafficking, gunrunning, smuggling of wildlife etc.
  • Proxy-wars: In the context of the proxy war in J&K, Pakistan’s ISI has been using the narcotics trade to
    • Generate funds to sustain militancy.
    • Erode the vitality of the populace in the border belt.
    • Win over the local youth, as informers.
    • Increase the level of criminal activity.
  • Narco-terrorism: Terrorism and militancy in India, especially in Jammu and Kashmir, waged by Islamist extremist groups based in and supported by Pakistan. This is mainly funded by trading narcotics illegally.
  • Drug Abuse on rise: The easy availability of drugs in Indian market is increasing drug abuse cases, particularly amongst the youth.
    • According to a report by Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, around 2.1% of Indians use opioids like opium, heroin, and non-medical sedatives.
    • Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram have the highest prevalence of this opioid use.
    • Drug-peddling is taking place over the Dark Web eluding the scrutiny of enforcement officers.
  • Endangering lives: The illicit drug cultivation causes environmental damage in the form of river pollution.
    • Toxic chemical wastes generated are stealthily dumped into rivers flowing in the region.
  • Militancy: The nexus between Pakistan ISI and Pakistan Army with the drug mafia is a well-documented and established fact.
    • This brought in a lot of easy money to the Pakistan’s ISI.
    • With time, this money had been increasingly diverted towards fomenting, sustaining and exalting militancy in the peaceful paradise state of J&K in India.
  • Funds Naxalism: The region is near the Naxal affected areas who exploit the corridor for expanding their revenues and arms smuggling.
    • Due to lack of infrastructural development, they illicitly grow opium and cannabis providing them ready money.

Measures taken by the government

Government of India has devised a well laid out strategy to ensure inter agency coordination and revamp the prosecution mechanism to end the menace of drug trafficking.

  • There is zero tolerance policy followed by Government of India against narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances trade.
  • Strong Legislation: Accordingly, the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS) was enacted in 1985.
    • Under this act, cultivation, manufacturing, transportation, export and import of all narcotics drugs and psychotropic substances is prohibited except for medicinal and scientific purposes and as authorised by the government.
    • The Act provides for rigorous punishment for any person violating this act and if a person is caught peddling drugs for the second time, death penalty could be awarded to the offender.
    • In addition, the government of India has also enacted the Prevention of Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act in 1988, which allows detention of persons suspected to be involved in illicit trafficking of drugs.
  • The Government has taken several policy and other initiatives to deal with drug trafficking problem.
  • It constituted Narco-Coordination Centre (NCORD) in November, 2016 and revived the scheme of “Financial Assistance to States for Narcotics Control”.
  • In 2017, the government approved new Reward Guidelines with increased quantum of reward for interdiction or seizure of different illicit drugs.
  • Global Cooperation: For effective coordination with foreign countries, India has signed 37 Bilateral Agreements/Memoranda of Understanding.
  • Narcotics Control Bureau has been provided funds for developing a new software i.e. Seizure Information Management System (SIMS) which will create a complete online database of drug offences and offenders.
  • The government has constituted a fund called “National Fund for Control of Drug Abuse” to meet the expenditure incurred in connection with combating illicit traffic in Narcotic Drugs; rehabilitating addicts, and educating public against drug abuse, etc.
  • The government is also conducting National Drug Abuse Survey to measure trends of drug abuse in India through Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment with the help of National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre of AIIMS.
  • Pro-active border patrol: For instances, in 2009, the BSF seized 23 kg of heroin along with 12 pistols and several rounds of ammunition in Punjab. In the same year, consignments of 58 kg of heroin, 10 kg of hashish as well as pistols and RDX were seized by the BSF along Rajasthan border.
  • Cooperation with neighbours: India is a signatory to the SAARC Convention on Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic substances, 1993.
    • India is also a party to the Pentalateral Cooperation on Drug Control, which focuses on the prevention of illicit trade of precursor and other chemicals used for the manufacture of heroin.

Conclusion

Prevention of drug trafficking has to be accorded greater priority. At present it forms part of the larger mandate of the border guarding forces to ‘prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity’. Special measures need to be formulated to check trafficking of drugs through the borders. Various domestic laws enacted for the control of drug trafficking should be implemented stringently and severe punishments should be accorded to drug stockists.

 

Topic: Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

6. In a globalized interdependent world, global governance is increasingly becoming crucial for achieving sustainable economic development goals, do you agree? Discuss with suitable examples. (250 words)

Reference: Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude by G Subba Rao and P N Chowdhary

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of global governance and its importance in achieving sustainable economic development goals.

Key Demand of the question:

One must answer in what way Global governance is crucial to harmonize economic policies and sustainability.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Define what global governance is; Global Governance is the collective management of common transnational or global problems- those were created or exacerbated by globalization, and which cannot be managed at the level of nation-states.

Body:

Explain that as the world becomes more interdependent, global governance including global economic governance and the governance of the global commons, is increasingly relevant for achieving sustainable development goals like dealing with climate change, economic inequality and ensuring peace and justice.

Discuss nuances of why it plays a key role in achieving SDGs and quote examples wherever possible.

Conclusion:

Conclude that therefore, increased coherence, coordination and collective decision-making at the global level, grounded in international human rights standards and guided by the human rights commitments of the international community, are necessary

Introduction

Global Governance is the collective management of common transnational or global problems- those were created or exacerbated by globalization, and which cannot be managed at the level of nation-states. Global solidarity is not only a moral imperative, it is in everyone’s interests.

Body

Sustainable economic growth is economic development that attempts to satisfy the needs of humans but in a manner that sustains natural resources and the environment for future generations.

For instance, the 2030 Agenda has been in many ways a game changer. Its universal application requires all countries to report on their progress in achieving the SDGs, not only programme countries or development assistance recipients. It has also driven long-overdue UN development system reform and given impetus to the need to address root causes in the pursuit of sustainable development and sustainable peace.

Global governance and Sustainable economic development

  • A successful development agenda requires inclusive partnerships — at the global, regional, national and local levels — built upon principles and values, and upon a shared vision and shared goals placing people and the planet at the centre.
  • Many countries require Official Development Assistance to encourage growth and trade.
    • Yet, aid levels are falling and donor countries have not lived up to their pledge to ramp up development finance.
    • For instance, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global economy is projected to contract sharply, by 3 per cent, in 2020, experiencing its worst recession since the Great Depression.
    • This clearly means that nations in sub-Saharan Africa would need handholding with respect to hunger and access to healthcare.
  • Goal 17 of SDG’s itself proclaims the need for development of partnerships with nations to combat the challenges faced in 21st
    • g.: A potential vaccine candidate for Covid-19 must be made available to all and India has stepped up, while nations are looking towards India for the drugs.
    • This will also help revive economies reeling under the pandemic stress
  • The Global Partnership promotes open dialogue among different stakeholders on an equal footing thereby promoting the paradigm shift from aid to development effectiveness, in line with the 2030 Agenda and Financing for Development processes.
  • It aims to foster peer learning to enable behavioural change and further strengthen trust, accountability and participation of all actors in development co-operation, for sustainable results on the ground.
    • g.: The NDC’s must be achieved by all nations collectively to ensure that Earth is sustainable.
  • To protect global commons, there needs to be funds and resources made available. For instance, thawing of permafrost in Arctic will impact all nations with rising sea levels and submergence of Low-lying island nations.

Conclusion

It is important to promote concerted effort by all partners to capture lessons learned in implementation of effective development co-operation and to actively engage in available knowledge-sharing platforms to exchange lessons and innovative solutions to development challenges.

 

Topic : Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

7. ‘The great virtue of bureaucracy is that it is an institutional method for applying general rules to specific cases’. Explain what you understand by the quote and discuss its contemporary relevance (250 words)

Reference: books.google.co.in 

Why the question:

The question is based on a quotation that talks about the aspects of bureaucracy.

Key Demand of the question:

Student must explain in detail the significance and inherent meaning of the quote applied to today’s system of bureaucracy.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

The quote given by Max Weber explains the ultimate utility of Bureaucracy in governing the society that has grown in scale and complexity.

Body:

Explain that Bureaucracy particularly government bureaucracy have developed as indispensable part of modern states to carry out their functions and responsibilities.

 The laws of any state provides only general rules about what or what not can be done along with how or how not it shouldn’t be done e.g. Passport act explains the categories, eligibility and refusal of passport to an applicant however when it comes to providing passport to an individual citizens, whole organization build around bureaucratic line is required e.g. providing security to all is a general rule but it cannot be provided fully unless it is not applied specifically through police.

Discuss why it is so relevant even in today’s times.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction

The quote given by Max Weber explains the ultimate utility of Bureaucracy in governing the society that has grown in scale and complexity. Moreover, Weber considered bureaucracy to be the most rational and efficient form of organization yet devised by man. Weber contends that bureaucracy embodies a concept of justice familiar to Western systems of jurisprudence. In the case of bureaucracy, the “equal application of the law” is simply translated into the equal (and impersonal) application of the rule.

Body

To understand Weber’s quote one must look at the role of bureaucracy.

Bureaucracies have four key characteristics that make their resemblance to beehives all the more apparent.

  • A clear hierarchy – Bureaucracies have a firm chain of command. Every worker has his or her own place in the chain, and everyone’s work is overseen by someone on the next level up. Power flows down from the top of the hierarchy and diminishes as it approaches the bottom. Just think of the beehive. The queen bee stands at the top, and each worker bee or drone has its own place in the hive’s chain of command.
  • Specialization – Everyone in a bureaucracy has a specific job to do and often becomes an expert at it. Bees have specific jobs, too, collecting pollen, making honey, or populating the hive.
  • A division of labor – In a bureaucracy, nearly every task is broken down into its component parts, and different people work on different parts of the task. Together they get the job done, just like bees in a hive who divide their labor for maximum efficiency.
  • A set of formal rules – These so-called standard operating procedures are the clear, written instructions for each specialized job at every level of the hierarchy. Workers who follow them can be sure that they are on the same page as their colleagues and are doing their jobs properly. According to beekeepers, bees, too, have a sophisticated system of communication that keeps their hives running smoothly.

Contemporary relevance

  • The bureaucracy implements the laws and policies made by elected officials.
    • These laws and policies need to be put into practice in specific situations and applied in all the contingencies of daily life.
    • For example, a city council would that all dog owners must have their pets licensed and microchipped, but the city council members don’t have the time to make sure that their decision is carried out.
    • City workers, members of the city’s bureaucracy, are the ones who answer questions and complaints about the law, help dog owners fill out the proper forms, refer owners to veterinarians who can insert the microchips etc.
  • To run the day to day administration in accordance with the policies, laws, rules, regulations and decisions of the government is also the key responsibility of the Bureaucracy.
    • The political executive simply exercises guiding, controlling and supervising functions.
  • The bureaucracy provides necessary administrative functions, like conducting examinations, issuing permits and licenses, and collecting fees. Essentially, it handles the paperwork of everyday government operations.
    • g.: Anyone who has a driver’s license has come face-to-face with bureaucratic administration through the required written and behind-the-wheel exams, learning permits etc at RTO.
  • Advisory Function: One of the important functions of the Bureaucracy is to advise the political executive.
    • The ministers receive all the information and advice regarding the functioning of their respective departments from the civil servants.
    • As amateurs, the ministers have little knowledge about the functions of their departments.
    • They, therefore, depend upon the advice of bureaucracy.
    • As qualified, experienced and expert civil servants working in all government departments, they provide expert and professional advice and information to the ministers.
  • Collection of Taxes and Disbursement of Financial Benefits: The civil servants play a vitally important role in financial administration.
    • They advise the political executive in respect of all financial planning, tax-structure, tax-administration and the like.
    • They collect taxes and settle disputes involving recovery of taxes.
    • They play a vital role in preparing the budget and taxation proposals.
    • They carry out the function of granting of legally sanctioned financial benefits, tax reliefs, subsidies and other concessions to the people.
    • g.: Implementation of GST was a success due to efforts of bureaucracy to identify and remove all hurdles.

Conclusion

Weber clearly believes bureaucracy to be the most rational and efficient organizational form devised by man. Bureaucracy is rational in that it involves control based on knowledge, has clearly defined spheres of competence, operates according to intellectually analysable rules, and has calculability in its operations. Bureaucracy is efficient because of its precision, speed, consistency, availability of records, continuity, potential for secrecy, unity, rigorous coordination, and minimization of interpersonal friction, personnel costs, and material costs.

Extra Information

Weber gave features of ideal-type bureaucracy.

The features of the “ideal-type” of bureaucracy as organization are as follows:

  • Administration is carried out on a continuous basis, not simply at the pleasure of the leader.
  • Tasks in the bureaucratic organization are divided into functionally distinct areas, each with the requisite authority and sanction.
  • Offices are arranged in the form of a hierarchy.
  • The resources of the bureaucratic organization are distinct from those of the members as private individuals (that is, administrators do not own the means of administration).
  • The officeholder cannot appropriate the office (that is, the office cannot be sold by the official or passed on by heredity).
  • Administration is based on written documents.
  • Control in the bureaucratic organization is based on impersonally applied rational rules. Thus, it is not simply the existence of rules but the quality and mode of application of those rules that distinguishes the bureaucratic organization.

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