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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 23 June 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

1. Identify the basic elements of a Hindu temple in India. How are north Indian temples different from south? Discuss. (250 words)

Reference: Indian art and Culture by Nitin Singhania

Why the question:

The question is based on the art and architecture of Hindu temples in the country and the difference between the North and south variants of the same.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the basic features of the Hindu temples in India and differentiate the two variants of it across the North and south.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Start by explaining the basic forms of Hindu temple in the country.

Body:

Draw a diagram and explain the key features of a temple especially built by the Hindus. One way to bring out specific features is to provide a contrast with the temples built by others such as Jains, Sikhs etc. North – South is a very broad distinction. India has three types of temple architectures (broadly speaking). Nagara (between Himalayas and Vindyas), Dravida (South of Deccan) and Vesara (Deccan region). Differentiate the North and South styles. Give examples across the country.

Conclusion:

Conclude with significance.

Introduction:

Temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions during ancient India. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. Ancient Indian temples are classified in three broad types. This classification is based on different architectural styles, employed in the construction of the temples. Three main style of temple architecture are the Nagara or the Northern style, the Dravida or the Southern style and the Vesara or Mixed style. But at the same time, there are also some regional styles of Bengal, Kerala and the Himalayan areas.

Body:

In India, every region and period produced its own distinct style of temples with its regional variations. However, the basic form of the Hindu temple comprises the following:

  • Sanctum (garbhagriha literally ‘womb-house’): A small cubicle with a single entrance and grew into a larger chamber in time. The garbhagriha is made to house the main icon which is itself the focus of much ritual attention;
  • the entrance to the temple which may be a portico or colonnaded hall that incorporates space for a large number of worshippers and is known as a Mandapa;
  • freestanding temples tend to have a mountain-like spire, which can take the shape of a curving Shikhar in North India and a pyramidal tower, called a Vimana, in South India;
  • The Vahan, e., the mount or vehicle of the temple’s main deity along with a standard pillar or dhvaj is placed axially before the sanctum.

Differences between the North Indian (Nagara style) and South Indian (Dravida style) of temple architecture:

Style_of_architecture

BasisDravidian style of architectureNagara style of architecture
LocationAccording to the Silpasastras, those temples which are situated between the Krishna River and Kanyakumari are Dravida style.According to the Silpasastras, north Indian temples are Nagara style.
Central TowerIt has pyramidical shaped central tower (called Vimana in Dravida style). In this style, there is only one single Shikhara or Vimana.It is characterized by a beehive shaped curvilinear tower (called a Shikhara, in northern terminology) made up of layer upon layer of architectural elements and a cruciform ground plan. In this style, there is a multiple Shikharas.
GopuramGopuram is the most prominent. It is stylized and big in size.In Nagara style, the Shikhara remains the most prominent element of the temple and the gateway is usually modest or even absent.
BoundaryIn this style, temples have elaborated boundary.In this style, boundary has less emphasised.
EntranceIn this style, Dwarpalas are there on the entrance.In this style, Ganga and Yamuna rivers are depicted in personified form at the entrance of Garbhagriha or sanctum sanctorum.
TowerDravidian temple architecture usually has a Raja Gopuram (biggest tower) at the main gate and a small tower for the sanctum sanctorum (exception being Tanjore Big temple). South Indian temple gopurams are extremely intricate filled with statues.This is quite the reverse in North Indian temples, where the height of the structure is progressive starting from a lower height gate leading to a tall tower where the sanctum is present. Also North Indian temple towers are mostly presented in a minimalist fashion with less or no statues in them.
PedestalIn this style, pedestals are more or less at ground level.In this style, pedestals are higher than ground.
Prakarams or corridorsSouth Indian temples have various layers of long corridors surrounding the main temple structure.Prakarams aren’t an usual part of North Indian temples.
DeitiesIn South Indian temples, the deities are decorated with precious ornaments and stones. Even the smallest temple will be having a Utsava murthy made of PANCHA LOKA(5 type of metals) and all the big temples have elephants for temple procession and a chariot to carry the Utsava murthy.The deities present in these North Indian temples are mainly made up of Marble stones. The dieties are not decorated with jewels or precious stones as people are allowed near god. There are no Utsava murtis in these temples. Chariots are not there except Puri Jagannath temple.
Sculptures on the outsideIn this style, temples have deities outside.In this style, temples have deities inside.
Water bodiesSouthern temples have large ponds within the temple premises.North India has a lot of rivers, so it doesn’t need any ponds (except in places like Gujarat, which has beautiful ponds).
PurposeTemples in South have not only been religious centres, but were also used for administrative activities, controlling vast areas of land and were also centres of education.Most of the temples in Nagara style had only religious purpose.

Conclusion:

The temple architecture was mainly influenced by geographical, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities of Indian sub-continent. Every region and period produced its own distinct style of images with its regional variations in iconography.  The temple is covered with elaborate sculpture and ornament that form a fundamental part of its conception.

 

Topic: Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

2. Discuss Significance of Yoga to human health and explain in what way it aids the humanity physically, psychologically and emotionally? (250 words)

Reference: pib.gov.in

Why the question:

Prime Minister addressed the nation on the occasion of International Day of Yoga via video conference.

Key Demand of the question:

The question demands the benefits of Yoga to health and humanity in general.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Body:

Discuss in detail the benefits of Yoga – Benefits of Yoga:  Boost the immunity, Increase the strength of our body and strengthen our metabolism. Boost our confidence and morale so that we can overcome crises and win , Force for unity and deepens the bonds of humanity. Yoga is giving us not only the physical strength, but also mental balance and emotional stability to Confidently negotiate the challenges before us.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance and quote examples to suggest in what way it aids the humanity physically, psychologically and emotionally.

Introduction:

Yoga is an ancient physical, mental and spiritual practice that originated in India. The word ‘yoga’ derives from Sanskrit and means to join or to unite, symbolizing the union of body and consciousness. Today it is practiced in various forms around the world and continues to grow in popularity. Recognizing its universal appeal, on 11 December 2014, the United Nations proclaimed 21 June as International Yoga Day. June 21, which is the Summer Solstice, is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere and has special significance in many parts of the world. International Yoga Day aims to raise awareness worldwide of the many benefits of practicing yoga. The theme for 2020 is “Yoga at Home and Yoga with Family”.

Body:

yoga

Significance of Yoga to human health:

The benefits of yoga provide both instant gratification and lasting transformation. Yoga is very necessary and beneficial for all human beings if it is practiced by all on daily basis in the early morning. The benefits of Yoga include:

  • Increased muscle strength and tone
  • Increased flexibility
  • Improved respiration, energy and vitality
  • Maintaining a balanced metabolism
  • Weight reduction
  • Cardio and circulatory health
  • Improved athletic performance
  • Better immunity to ward off diseases

Yoga aids the humanity physically, psychologically and emotionally:

Physically:

  • Yoga is also commonly understood as a therapy or exercise system for health and fitness. While physical and mental health are natural consequences of yoga, the goal of yoga is more far-reaching.
  • Yoga is about harmonizing oneself with the universe. It is the technology of aligning individual geometry with the cosmic, to achieve the highest level of perception and harmony.
  • Yoga does not adhere to any particular religion, belief system or community; it has always been approached as a technology for inner wellbeing.
  • Anyone who practices yoga with involvement can reap its benefits, irrespective of one’s faith, ethnicity or culture.

Psychologically:

  • Yoga asana’s and spirituality transcends religious, regional and virtually all forms of barriers.
  • It helps to seek humanity in diversity – responsible consumerism (SDG 12) with social well-being.
  • The concept of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” is inherently linked with sustainable life style which is a major component of Yoga.

Emotionally:

  • Yoga can yield emotional health benefits because it’s an exercise that works both the body and the mind.
  • Yoga practice comprises not just movement, but dynamic movements tied to breath.
  • Focusing on body postures can shift attention away from negative thinking.
  • Yoga’s deep breathing and meditation practices help foster an inner shift from to-do lists, kids and spouse’s needs, financial concerns, and relationship struggles to something a little bit bigger than the issues you face.
  • Yoga helps relieve stress and declutters the mind, helping you to become more focused.
  • Research shows yoga can benefit people with depression and schizophrenia, according to a review published in the journal Frontiers in Psychiatry.

Conclusion:

Yoga, an ancient practice and meditation, has become increasingly popular in today’s busy society. For many people, yoga provides a retreat from their chaotic and busy lives. Yoga is more than a physical activity. In the words of one of its most famous practitioners, the late B. K. S. Iyengar, “Yoga cultivates the ways of maintaining a balanced attitude in day-to-day life and endows skill in the performance of one’s actions.”

Extra information: History of Yoga:

  • Though Yoga was being practiced in the pre-Vedic period, the great Sage Maharshi Patanjali systematized and codified the then existing practices of Yoga, its meaning and its related knowledge through his Yoga Sutras.
  • Sage Patanjali’s treatise on raja yoga, the Yoga Sutras, says Yoga comprises of yama, niyama, asana, pranayam, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana and samadhi.
  • The phallic symbols and seals of idols of mother Goddess of Indus Valley Civilization are suggestive of Tantra Yoga.
  • Presence of Yoga is available in folk traditions, Indus valley civilization, Vedic and Upanishadic heritage, Buddhist and Jain traditions, Darshanas, epics of Mahabharat and Ramayana, theistic traditions of Shaivas, Vaishnavas, and Tantric traditions.
  • Sun was given highest importance during the Vedic period. The practice of ‘Surya namaskara’ may have been invented later due to this influence.

 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. India is on the brink of a Covid-induced waste crisis, Discuss the concerns associated with biomedical waste crisis facing the country. (250 words)

Reference: Hindustan Times 

Why the question:

The article presents to us the dismal affair of biomedical waste management in the country. And point out the fact that sanitation workers are contracting Covid-19.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the biomedical waste management system that exists in the country; bring out how the Covid-19 is inducing the crisis further.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Introduction of answer can be either definition based or statistics based.

Body:

Discuss the reasons for the current biomedical waste management crisis. Present the case of COVID-19 waste mismanagement, lack of realization of rules meant for the waste management. Present an example say any metro city or Delhi. Where sanitation workers are suffering and reporting more positive cases. Explain what needs to be done.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

The Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules of India defines Biomedical waste (BMW) as “Any waste which is generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of human beings or animals or in research activities pertaining thereto or in the production or testing of biologicals”. Recently, the National Green Tribunal (NGT) has directed all States and Union Territories to take adequate steps to mitigate risks in disposal of bio-medical waste in view of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Body:

waste

Dangers posed by untreated Biomedical waste:

  • The personal protective equipment, the mask, the gloves, the face shield, the shoe cover, and the sanitizer bottle have two things in common: they protect people – and prevent them from transmitting – from the Sars-CoV-2 virus; they are also made up (mostly) of plastic.
  • In the past three months, a lot of them have ended up in already overflowing landfills, posing a health risk to waste pickers, sanitation workers and garbage collectors tasked with handling them.
  • In Delhi, over 40 sanitation workers have tested positive for the virus, and 15 have lost their lives.
  • In Mumbai, 10 workers and two security guards at the city’s two landfills, in Deonar and Kanjurmarg, have been infected with Covid-19, and recovered.

Concerns associated with treatment of Biomedical waste:

  • The country has 200 biomedical waste treatment facilities; of these two are in Delhi and one is in Mumbai. And, according to CPCB data, these facilities are already running at 60% capacity – that’s a 15% jump since March.
  • Before the Covid-19 outbreak, a government or a private hospital would typically produce 500 grams of biomedical waste (like syringes, urine bags, gauze etc) per bed, daily.
  • Now, that number has gone up to between 2.5kg to 4kg per bed, daily, according to SMS Water Grace BMW Private Limited, one of the two CBWTFs in Delhi, which collects waste from labs, quarantine centres, and hospitals.
  • A large Covid-19 facility can anywhere between 1800 to 2200 kg of biomedical waste per day.
  • Delhi generates 27 tonnes of non-Covid biomedical waste and up to 11 tonnes of Covid-19 related waste every day, according to the CPCB; Mumbai has been generating 9 tonnes of Covid-19 waste and 6 tonnes of non-Covid biomedical waste every day, BMC estimates.
  • Much of this is plastic — N-95 masks are made up of polyisoprene (natural rubber) and polypropylene (thermoplastic); face shields are all plastic.
  • Part of the problem is that a lot of organic biomedical waste is making its way to incinerators due to the CPCB guidelines, when it should ideally be going to the waste-to-energy plant
  • The capacity of incinerators is a problem, especially when the projection says that we will see a spike in the first week of July and the active cases could go up.
  • But that said, it still doesn’t make sense to invest in these machines because we do not know if this infection is episodic or will it be recurring.

Measures needed:

  • To ensure safe disposal of biomedical waste generated during treatment, diagnosis and quarantine of patients with the novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), the Central Pollution Control Board of India has come out with special guidelines.
  • The guidelines provide a series of steps for safe disposal of waste generated in hospital isolation wards for COVID-19 patients, testing centres and laboratories, quarantine facilities and homes of suspected patients.
  • The communities need to dispose their used napkins, tissues, empty sanitizer bottles in a separate bag, to ensure the safety of municipal workers and ragpickers.
  • It will also ensure that the cycle of garbage collection and plastic recycling don’t get affected. T
  • he government should also provide safety kits to municipal workers urgently and educate them on how to handle household waste during the outbreak, to help in halting the chain of transmission.
  • In case of home-care for suspected patients, biomedical waste should be collected separately in yellow bags (yellow coloured, non-chlorinated plastic bags) and handed over to authorised waste collectors engaged by local bodies.
  • Urban local bodies should engage the common bio-medical waste treatment facilities (CBWTFs) to pick up such waste either directly from such quarantined houses or from identified collection points

Way forward:

  • Managing healthcare waste requires effective knowledge not only among those who produce the healthcare waste but also among those who handles it.
  • So, to achieve this, HCFs and regulatory authorities have to take stringent measures in order to ensure safe disposal of BMW in the country.
  • training and awareness programme for healthcare personnel needs to be conducted;
  • legal actions against defaulting HCFs and ill-operated CBWTFs is obligatory;
  • self-regulatory mechanism for monitoring and implementation for waste management should be encouraged and
  • well timed sufficient allocation of funds through central funding from National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) should be ensured.

 

Topic:  Government Policies and Interventions for Development in various sectors and Issues arising out of their Design and Implementation.

5. Write a short note on Kumahar Sashaktikaran Yojana while highlighting the role of role of Khadi and village Industries Commission? (250 words)

Reference: Financial Express .

Why the question:

KVIC distributed electric potter wheels to 80 families under Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana, Thus the context of the question.

Key Demand of the question:

Discuss the Kumahar Sashaktikaran Yojana while highlighting the role of role of Khadi and village Industries Commission.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana: It is an initiative of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) for empowerment of potter’s community.

Body:

Discuss the objectives of the Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana. Explain the benefits of the scheme. Training for advanced pottery products, providing new technology pottery equipment like the electric Chaak, Market linkages and visibility through KVIC exhibitions.

Then discuss the role of Khadi and village Industries Commission, present its key roles and responsibilities. Discuss its objectives. Plan, promote, facilitate, organize and assist in the establishment and development of khadi and village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance.

Introduction:

Kumbhar Sashaktikaran Program is an initiative of the Khadi and Village Industries Commission(KVIC) for empowerment of potters’ community in the remotest of locations in the country. The main objective of Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana is to bring back the potters’ community to the mainstream. The program reaches out to the potters in: U.P., M.P., Maharashtra, J&K, Haryana, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Assam, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Telangana and Bihar. The products of the potters range from Kulhar to decorative pieces like flower vase, sculptures and interesting traditional utensils like spherical bottles with narrow mouth, Lotas with long spouts, and other spherical utensils used for cooking as well as decorative pieces.

Body:

The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) recently launched its flagship “Kumhar Sashaktikaran Yojana” in Pokhran – a small town in the Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan where India conducted its first nuclear test – to restore the lost glory of the pottery site. The KVIC distributed 80 electric potter wheels to 80 potter families in Pokhran which has a rich heritage in terracotta products.

Benefits provided:

  • Training for advanced pottery products
  • Latest, new technology pottery equipments like the electric wheels (Chaak)
  • the KVIC also provides equipment like blunger and pug mills for mixing clay for making pottery products.
  • Market linkages and visibility through KVIC exhibitions

Outcomes:

  • Due to the supply of electric wheels (chaaks), the potters have reaped the following benefits.
    • More production with less hours of work.
    • Less noise and better health benefits
    • Less power consumption with smooth transition to higher speeds
    • The machines have eliminated drudgery from the process of pottery making and resulted in higher income of potters by 7 to 8 times.

The Khadi and Village Industries Commission (KVIC) is a statutory body established by an Act of Parliament (Khadi and Village Industries Commission Act of 1956). In April 1957, it took over the work of former All India Khadi and Village Industries Board.

Functions:

  • It is an apex organization under the Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, with regard to khadi and village industries within India.
  • It seeks to – “plan, promote, facilitate, organise and assist in the establishment and development of khadi and village industries in the rural areas in coordination with other agencies engaged in rural development wherever necessary.”
  • It helps in building up reserves of raw materials for supply to producers.
  • The commission focuses on creation of common service facilities for processing of raw materials, such as semi finished goods.
  • To improve the quality of Khadi products and to ensure their better acceptability for marketing, KVIC is implementing schemes like Market Promotion and Development Assistance (MPDA) Scheme, Khadi Reform and Development Programme (KRDP).

The Commission has three main objectives which guide its functioning. These are:

  • The Social Objective – Providing employment in rural areas.
  • The Economic Objective – Providing salable articles.
  • The Wider Objective – Creating self-reliance amongst people and building up a strong rural community spirit.

Conclusion:

The Kumbhar Sashaktikaran Program is aligned with the Prime Minister’s call for “Aatmanirbhar Bharat” and strengthening of potters aimed at creating self-employment while also reviving the dying art of pottery. By providing potters with modern equipment and training, the scheme tries to reconnect them with the society and revive their art.

 

Topic : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

6. Human-wildlife conflict is increasingly becoming an existential crisis, both for animals and man. Discuss the major reasons for increase in man-animal conflict in India in recent years. What have been major steps undertaken by the government for mitigation of conflict? (250 words)

Reference: The Print

Why the question:

The question is amidst the rising incidents of human-wildlife conflicts being witnessed across the country.

Key Demand of the question:

Explain the major reasons for increase in man-animal conflict in India in recent years. Also discuss the major steps undertaken by the government for mitigation of conflict.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Give some statistics about human-wildlife conflict in India.

Body:

Enumerate and explain (in brief because of word limit constraint) reasons for increasing human-wildlife conflict. Then mention the steps taken by the government for conflict mitigation. The question has 2 parts- reasons and solutions. Both of these demand equal weightage in your discussion.

Conclusion:

Conclude with efforts of the government that have been successful.

Introduction:

Man-animal conflict is an existential crisis not only for the animals, but for human beings as well with data showing that about one person has been killed every day for the past three years by roaming tigers or rampaging elephants. India is a unique country with respect to wildlife conservation. Despite a billion people we still have most of our large wildlife species. Compared to relatively lower human density countries in south-east Asia, India today has the largest population of the tiger, Asian elephant, leopard, sloth bear, gaur and many others.

Body:

Major causes of man animal conflict:

  • Unsustainable development:
    • Tiger reserves, national parks and sanctuaries exist only as islets in a vast sea of human, cattle and unsustainable land use.
    • People are increasingly encroaching into the country’s traditional wild spaces and animal sanctuaries, where people compete with wildlife for food and other resources.
    • These conflicts have increased as elephants increasingly find their usual corridors blocked by highways, railway tracks and factories
    • Urbanisation and growth agendas alter landscape dynamics, which has a cascading effect on the ecological dynamics of wildlife. This results in ecological dislocation of sorts, wherein endangered wild animals like tigers either cause distress or land themselves in trouble
  • Failure of government measures:
    • ‘Human-Wildlife conflict mitigation’ said most of the measures are dysfunctional, haphazardly implemented and therefore not effective
    • Elephants are used to travelling long distances, most of which fall outside the protected areas.
    • Wildlife experts claim that territorial animals do not have enough space within reserves and their prey do not have enough fodder to thrive on. This is forcing the wild animals to move out and venture close to human habitation in search of food.
  • Primary reason for the increasing human-animal conflicts is the presence of a large number of animals and birds outside the notified protected areas. Wildlife experts estimate that 29 per cent of the tigers in India are outside the protected areas.
  • Road kill of wild animals is the new enemy to India’s wildlife
  • There is no proper land use planning and management, cumulative impact assessments or wildlife management
  • There is no buffer zone between wildlife and human settlements
  • Monkeys along with grey langurs have adapted to urban habitats over the years.
  • Continued destruction and divergence of forest lands.

Impacts of Man-wildlife conflicts:

  • Crop Damage.
  • Animal Deaths.
  • Loss of Human Life.
  • Injuries to People.
  • Injuries to Wildlife.
  • Livestock Depredation.

Government Initiatives to reduce the man-tiger conflicts are:

  • Awareness programmes to sensitize the people about the Do’s and Don’ts to minimize conflicts
  • Training programmes for forest staff and police to address the problems of human wildlife conflicts
  • Approach by wildlife protection act, 1972 is that the model of conservation enshrined in is premised on creating human-free zones for the protection of rare species based on the erroneous notion that local people are the prime drivers of wildlife decline. This approach has been successful in protecting certain species, not all species.
  • Providing technical and financial support for development of necessary infrastructure and support facilities for immobilization of problematic animals.
  • Providing LPG to villagers: LPG should be provided to those villagers who frequently go to the forest areas specially wildlife habitats to fetch fuel wood for their chullahs so that they may stop penetrating into forest and stop inviting Man- Animal Conflicts.
  • State governments:
    • Assistance to state government for construction of boundary walls and solar fences around the sensitive areas to prevent the wild animal attacks
    • Supplementing the state government resources for payment of ex gratia to the people for injuries and loss of life in case of wild animal attacks
    • Encouraging state government for creation of a network of protected areas and wildlife corridors for conservation of wildlife.
    • Eco development activities in villages around protected areas to elicit cooperation of local community in management of the protected areas.
    • Supporting involvement of the research and academic institutions and leading voluntary organisations having expertise in managing human wildlife conflict situations.
    • To control poaching: Poaching of wild animals should be stopped so that the no of wild animals can stabilize at its carrying capacity which would reach equilibrium in the ecosystem and this equilibrium between the numbers of prey animals and predators in the forest ecosystem would be maintained.
  • Technology:
    • Information technology like radio collars, GPS, satellite uplink facilities are used by research institutions to monitor the movement of wild animals
    • Centrally sponsored schemes of project tiger, project elephant and integrated development of wildlife habitats
    • Solar Fencing around agriculture fields: Agriculture fields situated near wildlife habitat/forest areas can be protected by stone fencing or solar fencing. Solar fencing has been tried with quite good effect in Wardha District of Maharashtra.

Way Forward:

  • Forest corridors linking protected areas must be maintained where they exist.
  • Existing habitats have to be surveyed and improved to provide food for the elephants
  • Local communities need to be educated to have reduced stress levels in elephants during conflict mitigation, no fire, no firecracker and no mob crowds.
  • There is a need for a monitoring mechanism which will record and disperse information on such conflicts
  • Experts suggest the other way to reduce the man-animal conflict is to increase the population of wild ungulates, namely hares and the wild boars, both of which are prolific breeders, as a prey for wild carnivores. Separate big enclosures can be made in the jungles to breed them. The excess stock can be released in the jungles at regular intervals for the wild carnivores to prey upon.
  • The draft National Forest Policy will be an overarching policy for forest management. Also there is a proposal for National Community Forest Management (CFM) Mission which will be launched soon.
  • In order to be truly effective, prevention of human-wildlife conflict has to involve the full scope of society: international organizations, governments, NGOs, communities, consumers and individuals. Solutions are possible, but often they also need to have financial backing for their support and development.

 

Topic : Case study/Previous year question

7. An apparel manufacturing company having a large number of women employees was losing sales due to various factors. The company hired a reputed marketing executive, Who increased the volume of sales within a short span of time? However, some Unconfirmed reports came up regarding his indulgence in sexual harassment at the Workplace. After sometime a woman employee launched a formal complaint to the management against the marketing executive about sexually harassing her. Faced with the Companies’ indifference, in not taking cognizance of her grievances, she lodged an FIR With the police. Realizing the sensitivity and gravity of the situation, the company called the woman employee to negotiate. In that she was offered a hefty sum of money to withdraw the Complaint and the FIR and also give in writing that the marketing executive is not Involved in the case. Identify the ethical issues involved in this case. What options are available to the woman employee? (250 words)

Reference: UPSC CSE Mains 2019 GS paper IV.

Why the question:

The question is based on the theme of professional competence and professional values.

Key Demand of the question:

The question is in the form of a case study and requires close evaluation of the themes involved, examination of challenges and concerns and solutions to the same.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

List the facts of the case in detail – alleged sexual harassment at workplace by the marketing executive, Marketing executive important resource for the company, management’s indifference etc.

Body:

Identify first the stakeholders involved. List the ethical issues applied to the case, suggest what measures and options are available to resolve and fix the concerns. Suggest the possible options available to all the stakeholders. And conclude with best suitable solution.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of ethics in such situation.

Introduction:

The fact that apparel manufacturing company has a large number of women employees shows that the company has good values of gender parity. However, the situation of alleged sexual harassment at the workplace which, if proved true, will portray the company in poor light, thereby affecting its credibility and profitability in the long run. The Company fearing its reputation has offered to wipe the matter under carpet by offering money.

Body:

The ethical issues involved in the case are:

  • Integrity of woman employee v/s her ethical egoism.
  • Company’s profitability v/s its poor work culture.
  • Sexual harassment of women at company.
  • Marketing executive’s abuse of power
  • Lack of pro-activeness on the part of management to take suo-moto cognizance of sexual misconduct
  • Lack of responsibility of internal complaints committee
  • Attempt to offer monetary allurement in return of modesty and dignity of woman
  • Loss of integrity of the management

The options available to woman are:

Actions staying within the company:

  • Accept the money offered by the company and withdrawing the complaint and give in writing that absolves the executive from all wrongs.
  • Take back the FIR, not accepting the money and form a group with the other women who have faced similar situation and raise an awareness movement among other women employees of work.

Actions from outside the company: 

  • Reject the offer of company and go ahead with the FIR along with resigning from job and find alternative job.
  • Accept the money and withdraw the FIR but not giving in writing.
  • Raise #MeToo against the executive which can create awareness among other female employees with help of NGOs.

In my opinion, the female employee must reject the monetary offer from the company and go ahead with the FIR as it upholds her moral integrity as well as help save many other women employees from such heinous incidents. Her actions will set a precedent also for future such cases. This will also bring in some discipline in the company by strict implementation of the available legislations like SHE Act, 2013 and creation of internal complaints committee.

Conclusion:

Although with the above action, she should make sure that she resigns on her own will and not get fired by company. The latter action of getting fired could silence other women due to fear of losing job. Thus, there needs to be a delicate balance of maintaining her self-dignity and at the same time, she should take up her social responsibility of not letting a perpetrator go scot-free.


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