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Table of Contents:

GS Paper 2:

1. Disqualification shadow on 7 Nagaland MLAs.

2. Law against mob lynching.

3. TULIP – Urban Learning Internship Program.

4. SWADES: Skill Mapping Exercise for Returning Citizens.

5. Global Vaccine Summit.

6. Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA).

7. Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS).


Facts for Prelims:

1. SaalBhar60

2. Tripoli.

3. World Environment Day.


GS Paper  : 2


Topics Covered: Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Disqualification shadow on 7 Nagaland MLAs

What to study?

For Prelims: Features of 10th schedule of the constitution, dismissal, exceptions and judicial review of the decision.

For Mains: Significance of anti- defection law, concerns associated with its misuse and measures to improve its transparency.

Context: Gauhati High Court has directed Nagaland Assembly Speaker Sharingain Longkumer to conclude the disqualification proceedings against seven lawmakers of the Opposition Naga People’s Front (NPF) and pass appropriate orders within six weeks from June 2.

What’s the issue?

On April 24, 2019, the NPF filed disqualification petitions against its seven suspended MLAs for “wilfully” defying its collective decision to support the Congress candidate in the 2019 Lok Sabha polls.

NPF claimed the seven MLAs had willfully given up their party membership, thereby attracting provisions under the 10th Schedule (anti-defection law) of the Constitution.

These MLAs, however, said as the NPF’s decision to support the Congress candidate was “against the principle of regionalism”, they said they had backed the other candidate. The NPF had not contested the polls.

What is the anti-defection law?

The Tenth Schedule was inserted in the Constitution in 1985 by the 52nd Amendment Act.

  1. It lays down the process by which legislators may be disqualified on grounds of defection by the Presiding Officer of a legislature based on a petition by any other member of the House.
  2. The decision on question as to disqualification on ground of defection is referred to the Chairman or the Speaker of such House, and his decision is final.

The law applies to both Parliament and state assemblies.


If a member of a house belonging to a political party:

  1. Voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party, or
  2. Votes, or does not vote in the legislature, contrary to the directions of his political party. However, if the member has taken prior permission, or is condoned by the party within 15 days from such voting or abstention, the member shall not be disqualified.
  3. If an independent candidate joins a political party after the election.
  4. If a nominated member joins a party six months after he becomes a member of the legislature.

Exceptions under the law:

Legislators may change their party without the risk of disqualification in certain circumstances.

  • The law allows a party to merge with or into another party provided that at least two-thirds of its legislators are in favour of the merger.
  • In such a scenario, neither the members who decide to merge, nor the ones who stay with the original party will face disqualification.

Decision of the Presiding Officer is subject to judicial review:

The law initially stated that the decision of the Presiding Officer is not subject to judicial review. This condition was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1992, thereby allowing appeals against the Presiding Officer’s decision in the High Court and Supreme Court. However, it held that there may not be any judicial intervention until the Presiding Officer gives his order.

Advantages of anti-defection law:

  1. Provides stability to the government by preventing shifts of party allegiance.
  2. Ensures that candidates remain loyal to the party as well the citizens voting for him.
  3. Promotes party discipline.
  4. Facilitates merger of political parties without attracting the provisions of Anti-defection
  5. Expected to reduce corruption at the political level.
  6. Provides for punitive measures against a member who defects from one party to another.

Various Recommendations to overcome the challenges posed by the law:

  1. Dinesh Goswami Committee on electoral reforms: Disqualification should be limited to following cases:

A member voluntarily gives up the membership of his political party

A member abstains from voting, or votes contrary to the party whip in a motion of vote of confidence or motion of no-confidence. Political parties could issue whips only when the government was in danger.

  1. Law Commission (170th Report):

Provisions which exempt splits and mergers from disqualification to be deleted.

Pre-poll electoral fronts should be treated as political parties under anti-defection.

Political parties should limit issuance of whips to instances only when the government is in danger.

  1. Election Commission:

Decisions under the Tenth Schedule should be made by the President/ Governor on the binding advice of the Election Commission.


Prelims Link:

  1. Names of various committees and commissions with regard to Anti Defection law.
  2. Committees vs Commissions.
  3. Decision of presiding officer vs Judicial review.
  4. Merger vs Split of political parties.
  5. Is anti- defection law applicable to the presiding officer?
  6. Relevant Supreme Court cases and verdicts.

Mains Link:

Examine the provisions of Anti- defection law. Has this law largely failed to meet its objective? Discuss.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Law against mob lynching

What to study?

For Prelims: SC guidelines and laws and legislation’s in this regard.

For Mains: Need for and challenges ahead.

Context: A pan-Northeast legal group has sought a law to deal specifically with mob lynching.

This follows the killing of two people in Assam within a week in May.

How are these cases handled?

There is “no separate” definition for such incidents under the existing IPC. Lynching incidents can be dealt with under Section 300 and 302 of IPC.

Section 302 provides that whoever commits murder shall be punished with death or imprisonment for life and shall also be liable to fine. Offence of murder is a cognisable, non- bailable and non-compoundable offence.

What is meant by Lynching?

Any act or series of acts of violence or aiding, abetting (encouraging) such act/acts thereof, whether spontaneous or planned, by a mob on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, language, dietary practices, sexual orientation, political affiliation, ethnicity or any other related grounds.

SC guidelines:

  1. There shall be a “separate offence” for lynching and the trial courts must ordinarily award maximum sentence upon conviction of the accused person to set a stern example in cases of mob violence.
  2. The state governments will have to designate a senior police officer in each district for taking measures to prevent incidents of mob violence and lynching.
  3. The state governments need to identify districts, sub-divisions and villageswhere instances of lynching and mob violence have been reported in the recent past.
  4. The nodal officers shall bring to the notice of the DGP about any inter-district co-ordination issues for devising a strategy to tackle lynching and mob violence related issues.
  5. Every police officer shall ensure to disperse the mob that has a tendency to cause violence in the disguise of vigilantism or otherwise.
  6. Central and the state governments shall broadcast on radio, television and other media platforms about the serious consequences of mob lynching and mob violence.
  7. Despite the measures taken by the State Police, if it comes to the notice of the local police that an incident of lynching or mob violence has taken place, the jurisdictional police station shall immediately lodge an FIR.
  8. The State Governments shall prepare a lynching/mob violence victim compensation scheme in the light of the provisions of Section 357A of CrPC within one month from the date of this judgment.
  9. If a police officer or an officer of the district administration fails to fulfill his duty, it will be considered an act of deliberate negligence.

Need of the hour:

Every time there is a case of honor killing, hate crimes, witch hunting or mob lynching we raise demands for special legislation to deal with these crimes. But, the fact is that these crimes are nothing but murders and the existing provisions under IPC and CrPC are sufficient to deal with such crimes. Coupled with the guidelines laid down in Poonawala’s case, we are sufficiently equipped to deal with mob lynching. However, what we lack is due enforcement of the existing laws and accountability of the enforcement agencies.

 Attempts by various states in this regard:

Manipur government came up first with its Bill against lynching in 2018, incorporating some logical and relevant clauses.

Rajasthan government passed a bill against lynching in August 2019.

West Bengal too came up with a more stringent Bill against lynching.

What the Centre can do?

  1. While adopting the guidelines, the Centre would do well to incorporate sections in the law for penal action against doctors who stand accused of dereliction of duty, for delay in attending to victims of lynching, or submitting false reports without carrying out a proper and thorough medical examination of the victims, either under coercion by the police or due to their own prejudice against the community or religion of the victims.
  2. Under the compensation scheme for the victims, the amount to be paid to the victims should be recovered from the perpetrators of the crime or collective fines be imposed on the villagers where the lynching takes place.
  3. While framing the laws, the Centre could even provide for punitive action against political leaders found guilty of inciting mobs.
  4. Punitive action to be taken against police officers accused of dereliction of duty, as incorporated in the law enacted by Manipur government, could be replicated in the Central law too as it would deter police officials acting in a partisan manner in favour of the lynch mob.


Prelims Link:

  1. States which have passed laws against mob lynching.
  2. What is Poonawala’s case?
  3. What are the provisions available against mob lynching under IPC?

Mains Link:

Mob Lynching has become a recurring phenomenon in India which is surging hate violence targeting religious and caste minorities. Explain the causative factors and suggest ways to address it.

Sources: the Hindu.


Topics Covered: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

TULIP – Urban Learning Internship Program

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: Key features and significance.

Context: TULIPUrban Learning Internship Program for providing opportunities to fresh Graduates in all ULBs & Smart Cities launched.

TULIP has been conceived pursuant to the Budget 2020-21 announcement by the Finance Minister Smt. Nirmala Sitharaman under the theme ‘Aspirational India’.

Key features:

  1. TULIP is a program for providing fresh graduates experiential learning opportunities in the urban sector.
  2. It would help enhance the value-to-market of India’s graduates and help create a potential talent pool in diverse fields like urban planning, transport engineering, environment, municipal finance etc.
  3. It will lead to infusion of fresh ideas and energy with engagement of youth in co-creation of solutions for solving India’s urban challenges.
  4. This launch is also an important stepping stone for fulfilment of MHRD and AICTE’s goal of 1 crore successful internships by the year 2025.

Need for and Significance of the program:

Such a program will help reap the benefits of India’s demographic dividend as it is poised to have the largest working-age population in the world in the coming years.

  • India has a substantial pool of technical graduates for whom exposure to real world project implementation and planning is essential for professional development.
  • General education may not reflect the depth of productive knowledge present in society. Instead of approaching education as ‘doing by learning,’ our societies need to reimagine education as ‘learning by doing.’

Thus TULIP would help fulfil twin goals of providing interns with hands-on learning experience as well as infusing fresh energy and ideas in the functioning of India’s ULBs and Smart Cities.

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: Important aspects of governance, transparency and accountability, e-governance- applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential.

SWADES: Skill Mapping Exercise for Returning Citizens

What to study?

For Prelims and Mains: Key features and significance of SWADES.

Context: The initiative, undertaken as part of the Vande Bharat Mission, aims at empowering the returning citizens with relevant employment opportunities.

Key features:

  1. It is a joint initiative of the Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship, the Ministry of Civil Aviation and the Ministry of External Affairs.
  2. The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC)is supporting the implementation of the project.
  3. It aims to create a database of qualified citizens based on their skill sets and experience to tap into and fulfil demand of Indian and foreign companies.
  4. The collected information will be shared with the companies for suitable placement opportunities in the country.


The returning citizens are required to fill up an online SWADES Skills Card.
The card will facilitate a strategic framework to provide the returning citizens with suitable employment opportunities through discussions with key stakeholders including state governments, industry associations and employers.

Need for and significance:

The spread of COVID-19 across the globe has had a significant economic impact with thousands of workers losing their jobs and hundreds of companies shutting down globally. Many of Indian citizens returning to the country through the Vande Bharat Mission of the Government of India may be facing uncertainty regarding their future employment opportunities.

So, this initiative will help in deployment of returning Indian workforce matching their skill sets.


Prelims Link:

  1. What is NSDC?
  2. What is National Skill Development Mission?
  3. Implementation of SWADES?
  4. What is Vande Bharat Mission?

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests

Global Vaccine Summit

What to study?

For Prelims: About GVS and GAVI.

For Mains: Significance of the alliance.

Context: Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi recently addressed the virtual Global Vaccine Summit hosted by UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson in which over 50 ​countries – business leaders, UN agencies, civil society, government ministers, Heads of State and country leaders participated.

Overall the summit raised almost £7bn to Gavi, the international vaccine alliance. India pledged 15 Million US Dollars.


The virtual summit this week comes against the backdrop of the University of Oxford’s fast-track trials for a potential vaccine to protect against coronavirus. However, it has a wider remit as the UK hopes it would help raise the funds required for Gavi to vaccinate over 300 million children against infectious diseases in the world’s poorest countries over the next five years.

What is GAVI?

Created in 2000, Gavi is an international organisation – a global Vaccine Alliance, bringing together public and private sectors with the shared goal of creating equal access to new and underused vaccines for children living in the world’s poorest countries.

Members: Gavi brings together developing country and donor governments, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the World Bank, the vaccine industry in both industrialised and developing countries, research and technical agencies, civil society, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and other private philanthropists.


Main activities:

  1. GAVI’s strategy supports its mission to save children’s lives and protect people’s health by increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.
  2. It contributes to achieving the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals by focusing on performance, outcomes and results.
  3. Its partners provide funding for vaccines and intellectual resources for care advancement.
  4. They contribute, also, to strengthening the capacity of the health system to deliver immunisation and other health services in a sustainable manner.


Prelims Link:

  1. Members of GAVI?
  2. Largest contributors to GAVI?
  3. Who organised global vaccine summit recently?
  4. How much has India pledged to GAVI?
  5. What is a vaccine?
  6. What are different types of vaccines?

Mains Link:

Discuss the significance of GAVI.

Sources: pib.


Topics Covered: India and its neighbourhood- relations.

Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA)

What to study?

For Prelims: Overview and features of MLSA.

For Mains: Significance and implications of the agreement.

Context: India and Australia have signed a historic agreement, called ‘Mutual Logistics Support Agreement (MLSA)’, to allow access to military bases for logistics support.

This was agreed upon at the first-ever virtual bilateral summit between India Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Australian counterpart Scott Morrison.

What is MLSA?

  • The agreement will facilitate reciprocal access to military logistics facilities, allow more complex joint military exercise and improve interoperability between the security forces of the two nations.
  • It allows reciprocal access to military facilities in terms of logistics support which generally include food, water, petroleum (fuel), spare parts and other components.
  • The agreement will be useful during joint military exercises, peacekeeping operations, Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief operations, scheduled deployments of military platforms, and any other exigent situations that may arise.
  • It will help in improving interoperability between the involved parties.


  • The MLSA assumes greater importance in light of India and Australia’s limited naval capabilities.
  • Normally, a scarcity of resources puts severe limitations on a country’s ability to project power in the distant waters, leaving its far-off assets at the mercy of other actors.
  • Therefore, countries avoid dispersion of their resources and concentrate on their near waters.
  • In the case of India and Australia, such a limitation does not match their ambitions in the region; it also puts them at a disadvantage vis-à-vis a belligerent China.

For this reason, the MLSA holds considerable significance.

Sources: the Hindu.


GS Paper  : 3


Topics Covered: Employment related issues.

Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

What to study?

For Prelims: Key findings.

For Mains: challenges ahead and efforts by government.

What is PLFS?

PLFS is India’s first computer-based survey which gives estimates of key employment and unemployment indicators like the labour force participation rate, worker population ratio, proportion unemployed and unemployment rate in rural households annually and on a quarterly basis for the urban households.

  • The PLFS also gives the distribution of educated and unemployed people, which in turn can be used as a basis for skilling of youth to make them more employable by industry.
  • The survey was launched in 2017 and the first annual report was released (July 2017-June 2018), covering both rural and urban areas, in May 2019.


Labour Force Participation Rate: It is the percentage of people in the labour force (those who are working or seeking or available for work) in the population.

Worker Population Ratio is the percentage of employed people.

Unemployment rate shows the percentage of people unemployed among the labour force.

Unemployed: A person who is unable to get work for even an hour in the last seven days despite seeking employment is considered unemployed.

Key findings:

  1. India’s unemployment rate fell between July 2018 and June 2019 to 5.8% from 6.1% during the same period of 2017-18, even as the labour force participation rate rose to 37.5% from 36.9%.
  2. The worker population ratio also increased, to 35.3% as against 34.7% in the 2017-18.
  3. Urban unemployment rate reduced to 7.7% in 2018-19 from 7.8% and in rural India to 5% from 5.3%.
  4. Female participation rate improved in both urban and rural India during the period under review, going up to 18.6% in 2018-19 from 17.5% the year before.

 Challenges ahead:

To retain the falling trend in unemployment rate in 2019-20, which has witnessed a long nationwide lockdown between March and June to prevent the spread of Covid-19, resulting in job losses across sectors.

According to monthly data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, unemployment rate in India shot up significantly from 7.87% in June 2019 to 23.48% in May 2020. 


Prelims Link:

Please go through data and numbers mentioned in the above article. For eg- unemployment rate in urban areas, rural areas, changes etc.

Mains Link:

Critically analyze the state of unemployment and the political discourse around it in India.

Sources: the Hindu.


Facts for Prelims


A new campaign on air pollution unveiled by Haridwar-based Ridhima Pandey.

It demands that the government put in place measures to ensure that the PM 2.5 levels in cities is 60 micrograms per cubic metre, which is the safe limit for 24 hours as prescribed by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). 


Tripoli is the capital city and the largest city of Libya.

It is located in the northwest of Libya on the edge of the desert, on a point of rocky land projecting into the Mediterranean Sea and forming a bay.

Why in News?

Libya’s UN-backed gov’t announces taking over Tripoli from the militias of Haftar.


World Environment Day:

Observed on June 5, 2020.

Why June 5? To mark the first day of The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment which was held in Stockholm, Sweden from June 5–16 in 1972.

This year’s host is Colombia in partnership with Germany.

Theme: In 2020, the theme is biodiversity–a concern that is both urgent and existential.


Articles to be covered tomorrow:

  1. RBI Current Situation Index.
  2. New visa guidelines.