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SECURE SYNOPSIS: 26 May 2020


NOTE: Please remember that following ‘answers’ are NOT ‘model answers’. They are NOT synopsis too if we go by definition of the term. What we are providing is content that both meets demand of the question and at the same time gives you extra points in the form of background information.


 

Topic:  Population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems and their remedies. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation

1. It is time for the Government to intervene in publicity of local products and strengthen rural-urban linkages and promote much needed non-farm employment, Discuss.(250 words)

Reference:  The Hindu Business Line 

Why this question:

The question is based on the article that highlights the importance of local products to strengthen the rural –urban linkages.

Key demand of the question:

Explain in detail the current crisis facing the non-farm employment sector; discuss how local products can be game changers.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the current situation.

Body:

To start with, explain why the Covid crisis has hit the non-far employees badly. Explain the link of local products to various aspects of rural life and in what way it can lead to strengthening of rural-urban links. What steps should be taken by the government. Talk about GI tags to the rural products, taken hints from the article and give relevant examples.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Prime Minister recently emphasized the need for being more vocal about local products to revive the economy that is hit badly by the ongoing health pandemic. In continuation, Aatmanirbhar Bharat Abhiyan was also announced to urge Indians to be “vocal about local” brands and buy products made domestically in a speech themed around a self-reliant nation.

Body:

Importance of local products:

  • There are about 361 products (foreign plus Indian) recognised for their uniqueness and registered with the Geographical Indications (GI) registry.
  • The registered Indian products include those from the agriculture, horticulture, textiles, food, and manufacturing sectors.
  • Much of these products have, however, just remained ‘local’ and over time could disappear from the production calendar if they are not given a market push.

Need for government to intervene in publicity of local products:

  • In the past 3 decades, India has built formidable strengths in brainpower dominated sectors like IT and ITES, BPOs and several other industries which provide large numbers of jobs to educated youth.
  • The services of these industries provide valuable foreign currency and employment to millions.
  • India has done particularly well in the dairy sector but has not had a huge amount of success in oil and energy. Additional backing to these sectors would have provided better support for these industries to grow.
  • In FMCG, we have done reasonably well but the sector needs more stability in pricing and new innovations. We have seen homegrown brands like Yoga Bar on the shelves of supermarkets in a category which was heavily dominated by imported brands earlier.
  • Production of fruits and exotic vegetables is doing well in India and this sector has a high potential for export.
  • While the industry is doing well in introducing new fruits like kiwi, strawberries and plums, we are not doing well on some fruits which have had traditionally strong industries like apples, pears, walnuts, almonds and other dry fruits.
  • MSMEs are one of the most important sectors of the Indian industry. They play an important role in almost all sectors, especially sectors like auto and auto components, supply chain and several other manufacturing sectors.
  • However, despite these good growth, there are umpteen number of challenges faced by local industries.
  • This includes quality concerns of products, lack of direct support, poor brand image promotion, legal framework governing enforcement of IPR issues, weak export support to the traders, price competitiveness from foreign companies, weak integration to global value chain, poor FDI investment etc.

Measures needed to strengthen the promotion of local products:

  • The government will have to step in to provide massive publicity for Geographical Indication logo which would help the producers to launch their product in a wider market than before.
  • Particularly at this juncture where the focus is on reviving the economy with the ‘Make in India’ initiative, measures to promote authentic regional products would help small producers to reap maximum gains.
  • Increasing the GI awareness among producers and consumers in the country.
  • Publishing the details about GI application and registration in wider news media in local languages would be beyond the scope of GI producers who operate on a small scale.
  • Identifying the authorized producers and users of the GI products.
  • Promotion of collective organisation of the producers.

Conclusion:

‘Vocal for Local’ should protect industry — yet not lead to protectionism. The world is looking at Indian pharma to supply the coronavirus vaccine and several pharma companies are in the race to deliver. India, like the rest of the world, is certainly going through a tough phase, but will still shine due to its vast pool of educated talent, its huge demand centres, the resilience of its entrepreneurs and the unflagging spirit of the Indian people.

 

Topic:  Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora.

2. What do you understand by Open Skies Treaty? Explain What US departure could mean for it?(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

Recently, the United States of America (USA) has announced that it will exit the Open Skies Treaty (OST) due to continuous violation of the treaty by Russia and changes in the security environment. Thus the question.

Key demand of the question:

Explain the open skies treaty in detail and bring out the possible consequences of US departing from it.

Directive:

Explain – Clarify the topic by giving a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the open skies treaty.

Body:

To start with, explain that it is an agreement that allows its 34 signatories countries to monitor arm development by conducting surveillance flights (unarmed) over each other’s territories.t was signed in 1992 and came into effect in 2002. Therefore, the treaty established an aerial surveillance system for its participants. Discuss the possible outcomes of US’s withdrawal and its impact on other countries.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way forward.

Introduction:

Open Skies Treaty (OST) is an agreement that allows its 34 signatories countries to monitor arm development by conducting unarmed surveillance flights over each other’s territories. The treaty was designed to “enhance mutual understanding and confidence by giving all participants, regardless of size, a direct role in gathering information through aerial imaging on military forces and activities of concern to them.” Therefore, Under the treaty, a member state can “spy” on any part of the host nation, with the latter’s consent.

Recently, the United States of America has announced that it will exit the Open Skies Treaty due to continuous violation of the treaty by Russia and changes in the security environment.

Body:

Evolution of Open Skies treaty:

  • It was agreed just after the Cold War to allow signatories to avoid nasty surprises by monitoring rival militaries.
  • It was first proposed in 1955 by former US President Dwight Eisenhower as a means to deescalate tensions during the Cold War.
  • The landmark treaty was eventually signed in 1992 between NATO members and former Warsaw Pact countries following the demise of the Soviet Union.
  • It went into effect in 2002 and currently has 35 signatories along with one non-ratifying member (Kyrgyzstan).
  • Both US and Russia are signatories of the treaty.
  • India is not a member of this treaty.

Importance of Open Skies treaty:

  • The OST aims at building confidence among members through mutual openness, thus reducing the chances of accidental war.
  • Under the treaty, a member state can “spy” on any part of the host nation, with the latter’s consent.
  • A country can undertake aerial imaging over the host state after giving notice 72 hours before, and sharing its exact flight path 24 hours before.
  • The information gathered, such as on troop movements, military exercises and missile deployments, has to be shared with all member states.
  • Only approved imaging equipment is permitted on the surveillance flights, and officials from the host state can also stay on board throughout the planned journey.

Reasons for US Departure from OST:

  • While it was envisaged as a key arms control agreement, many in US had for over a decade accused Russia of non-compliance with OST protocols.
  • Russia was blamed for obstructing surveillance flights on its territory, while misusing its own missions for gathering key tactical data.
  • The U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo accused Russia of violating the Treaty openly and continuously in various ways for years.
  • So the U.S. President Trump’s administration has now chosen to withdraw from the pact.
  • Russia has denied the allegations, and has called U.S.’s exit as very regrettable.

Implications of US Departure from OST:

  • The exit from the Open Skies Treaty is the most recent example of important pacts Washington has stepped away from during the Trump presidency, including the Paris Agreement and the Iran nuclear deal.
  • Pompeo said that the US would reconsider its decision to withdraw if Russia demonstrates a return to full compliance.
  • This approach is reminiscent from last year when Trump had suspended US participation in the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.
  • Then too, the USA had said that it would re-engage with Russia if it sought a new treaty – a possibility that never materialised.
  • Experts believe that the same could happen with the OST, with Russia using USA’s exit as a pretext for leaving the treaty itself.
  • Russia’s departure could adversely impact USA’s European allies that rely on OST data to track Russian troop movements in the Baltic region.
  • Pulling out of the OST, an important multilateral arms control agreement would be yet another gift from the US to Russia.

Conclusion:

Experts are now contemplating the fate of the US-Russia ‘New START’ nuclear arms control agreement, which will expire in February 2021. Trump has already said that his administration would not renew the treaty unless China joins. Many see this as improbable, given the already heightened tensions between USA and China over the pandemic.

 

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

3. Account for the current water crisis in India and suggest what India can learn from other countries. (250 words)

Reference:  thewaterproject.org 

Why this question:

The question is straightforward and aims to assess the current water crisis in the country.

Key demand of the question:

Explain current water crisis in India and suggest what India can learn from other countries.

Directive:

Account – Weigh up to what extent something is true. Persuade the reader of your argument by citing relevant research but also remember to point out any flaws and counter- arguments as well. Conclude by stating clearly how far you are in agreement with the original proposition.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Every year 2 lac Indians due to inadequate access to safe water while 600 million face extreme water stress.

Body:

With the rise in climatic changes, this issue is likely to get complicated in the coming future. The monsoon Rains have become more erratic and droughts becoming common thereby threatening harvest of farmers. It can cripple the livelihoods of an agricultural dominant country where 80% of water is used to irrigate crops like rice and sugarcane. The country’s demand is likely to be twice of its supply, resulting in severe water scarcity of millions of people. Explain in detail the current situation. Give examples for efficient water management. Highlight recent steps taken by India. Suggest what lessons we can take from other countries.

Conclusion:

Conclude with way ahead.

Introduction:

The NITI Aayog report on Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) said that India is facing its ‘worst’ water crisis in history. Taps in Shimla went dry in summer of 2018, posing an unprecedented water crisis in the hill town. According to a forecast by the Asian Development Bank, India will have a water deficit of 50% by 2030. Recent studies also ranked Chennai and Delhi at the top of the 27 most vulnerable Asian cities in terms of low per-day water availability Mumbai and Kolkata follow close.

Body:

India’s water crisis is more serious that its energy crisis:

  • The water crisis in India is more dire than imagined.
  • The annual per capita availability of water continues to decline sharply from about 5,177 cubic metres in 1951 to about 1,720 cubic metres in 2019.
  • The NITI Aayog in its report on Composite Water Management Index (2018) has underlined that currently 600 million people face high to extreme water stress.
  • Twenty-one cities, including Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad will run out of groundwater by 2020, affecting 100 million people.
  • Apart from mega cities, many fast-growing small and medium cities such as Jamshedpur, Kanpur, Dhanbad, Meerut, Faridabad, Visakhapatnam, Madurai and Hyderabad also figure in this list.
  • The demand-supply gap in most of these cities ranges from 30 per cent to as much as 70 per cent.
  • About two lakh die every year due to inadequate access to safe water, about three-fourths of the household do not get drinking water at their premise and about 70 per cent of water is contaminated.
  • The rate of groundwater extraction is so severe that NASA’s findings suggest that India’s water table is declining alarmingly at a rate of about 0.3 metres per year.
  • At this rate of depletion, India will have only 22 per cent of the present daily per capita water available in 2050, possibly forcing the country to import water.
  • About 81 per cent of India’s ultimate irrigation potential, estimated at 140 million hectares, has already been created and thus the scope for further expansion of irrigation infrastructure on a large scale is limited.
  • Climate experts have predicted that there will be fewer rainy days in the future but in those days it would rain more.

Causative factors for water crisis:

  • A combination of population explosion, unplanned growth of the city and its expansion to some traditional catchment areas (a region from which rainfall flows into a river, lake, or reservoir) have led to a reduction in the natural flow of water, and large-scale deforestation.
  • Climate change, leading to much lower precipitation during the winter months. As a result, the natural flow and recharge of water in the region has fallen sharply
  • Failure of State governments to check unplanned development and exploitation of water resources. There is no attempt at the central or state levels to manage water quantity and quality
  • The vegetation pattern has changed, tree cover is shrinking and unscientific dumping of debris in water streams is rampant.
  • The debris blocks the natural course of water bodies.
  • Increasing number of tube wells resulting in depletion of groundwater.
  • Changes in farming patterns lead to consumption of more water for irrigation and also change the soil profile because of the use of fertilizers
  • The states ranked lowest like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Jharkhand – are home to almost half of India’s population along with the majority of its agricultural produce.
  • There is also a lack of interest in maintaining India’s traditional water harvesting structures.

Measures needed:

  • Structural measures:
    • Putting in place an efficient piped supply system (without leakage of pipes) has to be top on the agenda.
    • Ancient India had well-managed wells and canal systems. Indigenous water harvesting systems need to be revived and protected at the local level. Examples: Karez, Bawli, Vav etc
    • Digging of rainwater harvesting pits must be made mandatory for all types of buildings, both in urban and rural areas.
    • Treating the Greywater and reusing it needs to be adopted by countries like Israel (upto 85%). It could be used to recharge depleted aquifers and use on crops.
    • Initiatives such as community water storage and decentralized treatment facilities, including elevated water towers or reservoirs and water ATMs, based on a realistic understanding of the costs involved, can help support the city’s water distribution.
    • Technologies capable of converting non-drinkable water into fresh, consumable water, offering a potential solution to the impending water crisis are needed. Example: Desalination technologies in Coastal areas, Water-sterilization in polluted water areas. 
  • Non-structural measures:
    • The World Bank’s Water Scarce Cities Initiative seeks to promote an integrated approach, aims at managing water resources and service delivery in water-scarce cities as the basis for building climate change resilience.
    • Groundwater extraction patterns need to be better understood through robust data collection
    • Decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States through a National Irrigation Management Fund.
    • Public awareness campaigns, tax incentives for water conservation and the use of technology interfaces can also go a long way in addressing the water problem. Example, measures such as water credits can be introduced with tax benefits as incentives for efficient use and recycling of water.
    • A collaborative approach like the adoption of a public-private partnership model for water projects can help. Example, in Netherlands, water companies are incorporated as private companies, with the local and national governments being majority shareholders.
    • Sustained measures should be taken to prevent pollution of water bodies and contamination of groundwater.
    • Ensuring proper treatment of domestic and industrial waste water is also essential.

Way forward:

  • India’s water problems can be solved with existing knowledge, technology and available funds.
  • NITI Aayog has prescribed only a continuation of past failed policies.
  • India’s water establishment needs to admit that the strategy pursued so far has not worked.
  • Only then can a realistic vision emerge.

Conclusion:

Primarily water is not valued in India. “People think it is free”. In order to meet the future urban water challenges, there needs to be a shift in the way we manage urban water systems. An Integrated Urban Water Management approach must be adopted which involves managing freshwater, wastewater, and storm water, using an urban area as the unit of management.

 

Topic:  Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

4. Discuss the Objectives of Environmental Impact Assessment and bring out  its procedure.(250 words)

Reference:  Environment by Shankar IAS

Why this question:

The question is straightforward from the static portions of GS paper III.

Key demand of the question:

Explain what EIA is, what its objectives are and bring out its procedure in detail.

Directive:

Discuss – This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse.

Body:

To start with, explain the history of EIA in India. The Indian experience with Environmental Impact Assessment began over 20 years back. It started in 1976-77 when the Planning Commission asked the Department of Science and Technology to examine the river-valley projects from an environmental angle. Then move onto discuss the objectives of EIA in detail. Highlight the procedure involved step by step and assert upon its significance.

Conclusion:

Conclude with its importance.

Introduction:

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an important management tool for ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable development. It covers developmental sectors such as industries, thermal power projects, mining schemes etc.  EIA has now been made mandatory under the Environmental (Protection Act, 1986) for 29 categories of developmental activities involving investments of Rs. 50 crores and above.

Body:

Recent amendments to EIA:

  • All projects or activities in respect of bulk drugs and intermediates, manufactured for addressing various ailments, have been re-categorized from the existing Category ‘A’ to ‘B2’ category.
  • Projects falling under Category B2 are exempted from the requirement of collection of Baseline data, EIA Studies and public consultation.
  • The re-categorization of such proposals has been done to facilitate decentralization of appraisal to State Level so as to fast track the process.

The objective of the EIA:

  • To identify, predict and evaluate the economic, environmental and social impact of development activities.
  • To provide information on the environmental consequences for decision making.
  • To promote environmentally sound and sustainable development through the identification of appropriate alternatives and mitigation measures.
  • To identify and quantify emission sources and determine the significance of impacts on sensitive receivers and potential affected uses.
  • To identify and quantify any potential losses or damage to flora, fauna and natural habitats.

Procedure of EIA: EIA involves the steps mentioned below. However, the EIA process is cyclical with interaction between the various steps.

  • Screening:The project plan is screened for scale of investment, location and type of development and if the project needs statutory clearance.
  • Scoping:The project’s potential impacts, zone of impacts, mitigation possibilities and need for monitoring.
  • Collection of baseline data:Baseline data is the environmental status of study area.
  • Impact prediction:Positive and negative, reversible and irreversible and temporary and permanent impacts need to be predicted which presupposes a good understanding of the project by the assessment agency.
  • Mitigation measures and EIA report:The EIA report should include the actions and steps for preventing, minimizing or by passing the impacts or else the level of compensation for probable environmental damage or loss.
  • Public hearing:On completion of the EIA report, public and environmental groups living close to project site may be informed and consulted.
  • Decision making:Impact Assessment Authority along with the experts consult the project-in-charge along with consultant to take the final decision, keeping in mind EIA and EMP (Environment Management Plan).
  • Monitoring and implementation of environmental management plan:The various phases of implementation of the project are monitored.
  • Assessment of Alternatives, Delineation of Mitigation Measures and Environmental Impact Assessment Report:For every project, possible alternatives should be identified, and environmental attributes compared. Alternatives should cover both project location and process technologies.
    • Once alternatives have been reviewed, a mitigation plan should be drawn up for the selected option and is supplemented with an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) to guide the proponent towards environmental improvements.
  • Risk assessment:Inventory analysis and hazard probability and index also form part of EIA procedures.

Way Forward:

  • Independent EIA Authority and Sector wide EIAs needed.
  • Creation of a centralized baseline data bank.
  • Dissemination of all information related to projects from notification to clearance to local communities and general public.
  • All those projects where there is likely to be a significant alternation of ecosystems need to go through the process of environmental clearance, without exception.
  • No industrial developmental activity should be permitted in ecologically sensitive areas.
  • Public hearings should be applicable to all hitherto exempt categories of projects which have environmental impacts.
  • The focus of EIA needs to shift from utilization and exploitation of natural resources to conservation of natural resources.
  • The present executive committees should be replaced by expert’s people from various stakeholder groups, who are reputed in environmental and other relevant fields.
  • The EIA notification needs to build within it an automatic withdrawal of clearance if the conditions of clearance are being violated and introduce more stringent punishment for noncompliance. At present the EIA notification limits itself to the stage when environmental clearance is granted.
  • The composition of the NGT needs to be changed to include more judicial authorities from the field of environment.
  • Citizen should be able to access the authority for redressal of all violation of the EIA notification as well as issues relating to non-compliance.
  • NGOs, civil society groups and local communities need to build their capacities to use the EIA notification towards better decision making on projects.

Conclusion:

An EIA should not be used just as a means for obtaining an environmental clearance; rather, project proponents should use it as a management tool to assess the soundness of a project plan.  The focus of EIA needs to shift from utilization and exploitation of natural resources to conservation of natural resources.

 

Topic:  Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

5. The current Covid situation brings to us the point that Smart Cities Mission must now pivot towards health. Comment.(250 words)

Reference:  Indian Express 

Why this question:

The question is based on the article that highlights the concerns associated with smart cities and lack of due importance to health infrastructure in it.

Key demand of the question:

Explain why Smart cities mission must at least now have pivot towards Health as one of the primary pillars in the mission.

Directive:

Comment– here we have to express our knowledge and understanding of the issue and form an overall opinion thereupon.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly explain the smart cities mission and its objectives.

Body:

To start with, explain first in what way Smart Cities Mission, which was to approach urban planning creatively, perpetuates the traditional neglect of health. Explain the need for the mission to acknowledge the importance of health as the substrate of productivity. Suggest reasons as to why health should be made one of the primary pillars of the mission.

Conclusion:

Conclude with reforms and suggestions for the policy.

Introduction:

A smart city is a designation given to a city that incorporates information and communication technologies (ICT) to develop city infrastructure and enhance the quality and performance of urban services such as energy, transportation and utilities in order to reduce resource consumption, wastage and overall costs. The overarching aim of a smart city is to enhance the quality of living for its citizens through smart technology.

The government launched the Smart Cities Mission in 2015 for a five-year period, selecting 100 cities in four rounds. “Health and education” form one of 10 “core infrastructure elements” of a smart city as envisioned by the Centre. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that the Smart Cities Mission, hasn’t understood the foundational importance of health.

Body:

Smart cities mission and healthcare:

  • Health is mentioned only in one point, which discusses urban identity conferred through local economic activities like making sports goods and hosiery, and providing medical facilities.
  • Health is not acknowledged as the substrate of productivity.
  • Only 1.18 per cent of the 5,861 projects okayed since 2015 are for augmenting infrastructure and capability in health.
  • These 69 projects, located in 55 of the 100 smart cities being developed, will cost an estimated Rs 2112.06 crore — about 1 per cent of the total Mission investment of Rs 205,018 crore.
  • in the importance accorded to health, this is even lower than the shamefully inadequate 1.6 per cent of GDP which the states and the Centre together set aside for health in 2019-20.
  • For comparison, the total health expenditure in the US in 2017 was 17.9 per cent of GDP, of which the state contributed over 8.5 per cent.
  • Of the 30 municipal jurisdictions which account for 79 per cent of cases, 17 are smart cities — and, of them, only seven have invested Mission funds directly in health.
  • Hotspots like Jaipur and Surat have no health projects at all under the Mission.

Need for increasing importance of healthcare in Indian Smart cities mission:

  • One of the purposes of the Smart Cities Mission is to improve quality of life, especially of the poor, in order to make Smart Cities inclusive in nature.
  • At present, private out of pocket expenses (OOPE) on health comprises 64% of total health spending in India.
  • Generally, health related expenditure consists of –medicines, diagnostics and consultation.
  • Compared to a rural household, an urban household spends 5times more on diagnostics, 2.6 times more on medicines and 2.4 times more on doctors’ fees.
  • Therefore, reducing high OOPE incurred by urban residents, especially the slum dwellers, leads to more inclusive cities

Way forward:

  • The strategy of Smart Health is based on the providing cheaper doctor consultation, reasonably priced medicines and affordable diagnostics.
  • Consultation through    IT    Platforms: For    instituting    round-the-clock    doctor consultations, a unique version of telemedicine can be designed by establishing an IT platform to match patients and doctors, bringing convenience to patient doorstep.
  • Delivering affordable quality medicines: Pradhan Mantri Jan Aushadi Yojana (PMJAY)scheme of Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers can be used to provide affordable, quality generic medicines. Many States have their own schemes for giving free medicines also.
  • Delivering affordable Diagnostics: Complementing the free medicine scheme, free diagnostic services can also be made available under a hub-and-spoke model, floated by the Ministry of Health under the Free Diagnostics Service Initiative (FDSI). Under this scheme, a set of essential diagnostic services at each facility level has been identified. Diagnostic tests are allowed to be conducted by private providers (PPP model), empaneled by the Government.
  • In the hub-and-spoke model, samples are collected at peripheral facilities/collection centers (including Mobile   Medical   Units) and   safely   transported   to   a   central laboratory which will act as the Hub, which can be a District Hospital Lab/Medical College/or a public or private laboratory set up for the purpose

Conclusion:

Integrated healthcare solutions can be of great benefit when implemented on a large scale in smart cities. A holistic view of cities’ health data like disease profiles, disease patterns and trends, seasonal disease cycles etc. are available to the Government, through which the authorities can plan their health care initiatives, programs and allocate funding. An integrated health management roadmap is critical in tying the various pieces together into a nationwide health technology and information backbone. This will decrease unit cost, standardize the basics, and set Indian healthcare on a slower but comprehensive transformation journey. A holistic population health solution, leveraging the information backbone with innovative analytics, can also form the basis for optimal deployment of meagre resources for maximum impact.

 

Topic:  Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behaviour; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion

7. Define attitude. What is the process through which attitudes are formed? Elucidate. (250 words)

Reference:  Ethics by Lexicon publications

Why this question:

The question is from the static portions of GS paper IV.

Key demand of the question:

Question is based on the concept of ‘Attitude’ and the processes through which it is formed.

Directive:

Elucidate – Give a detailed account as to how and why it occurred, or what is the particular context. You must be defining key terms where ever appropriate, and substantiate with relevant associated facts.

Structure of the answer:

Introduction:

Briefly define what you understand by attitude.

Body:

An attitude is a psychological tendency that is expressed by evaluating a particular entity with some degree of favour or disfavor. Attitude has three components: cognitive, affective and conative or behavioural. Explain these components in detail and quote examples as and when required to justify better.

Conclusion:

Conclude with importance of it.

Introduction:

Attitudes are evaluations people make about objects, ideas, events, or other people. Attitudes can be positive or negative. Explicit attitudes are conscious beliefs that can guide decisions and behavior. Implicit attitudes are unconscious beliefs that can still influence decisions and behavior. For instance, if someone believes that smoking is unhealthy, she feels disgusted when people smoke around her, and avoids being in situations where people smoke.

Body:

The various ways in which attitudes are formed are:

Classical conditioning:

Classical conditioning is a form of attitude whereby a conditioned stimulus becomes associated with an unrelated unconditioned stimulus, in order to produce a behavioral response known as a conditioned response.

Examples of classical conditioning abound in everyday life. Imagine you have just finished your lunch and you are feeling satisfied. Then you see some sweet dish served on the adjoining table. This signals its taste in your mouth, and triggers the secretion of saliva. You feel like eating it. This is a conditioned response (CR).

Consumers often purchase new products that are associated with a favourably viewed brand name. Their favourable attitude towards the brand name is frequently the result of repeated satisfaction with other products produced by the same company. The brand name is the unconditioned stimulus that, through repetition and positive reinforcement results in a favourable attitude (the unconditioned response). The idea of family branding is based on this form of attitude learning.

Operant/instrumental conditioning:

 This type of conditioning was first investigated by B.F. Skinner. Skinner studied occurrence of voluntary responses when an organism operates on the environment. He called them operants. Operants are those behaviours or responses, which are emitted by animals and human beings voluntarily and are under their control. The term operant is used because the organism operates on the environment. Conditioning of operant behaviour is called operant conditioning.

Sometimes, attitudes follow the purchase & consumption of a product. A consumer may purchase a brand name product without having a prior attitude toward it because it is the only product of its kind available. Further consumers also make trial purchases of new brands from product categories in which they have little personal involvement. If they find the purchased brand to be satisfactory they are likely to develop a favourable attitude towards it.

Observational learning:

Earlier this form of attitude was called imitation. Bandura and his colleagues in a series of experimental studies investigated observational learning in detail. In this kind of learning, human beings learn social behaviours, therefore, it is sometimes called social learning. In many situations individuals do not know how to behave. They observe others and emulate their behaviour. This form of learning is called modeling.

Examples of observational learning abound in our social life. Fashion designers employ tall, pretty, and gracious young girls and tall, smart, and well-built young boys for popularising clothes of different designs and fabrics. People observe them on televised fashion shows and advertisements in magazines and newspapers. They imitate these models. Observing superiors and likeable persons and then emulating their behaviour in a novel social situation is a common experience.

Conclusion:

Neither the attitude nor the behavioral intent instrument, alone or together is effective in predicting the person’s actual behaviour if, it has not been designed carefully. Attitude is important because attitudes reflect past experience and shape future behaviour.